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Special Issue "Advances in Colorants 2014"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Harold Freeman

College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, NC 27695, USA
E-Mail
Interests: color and dye chemistry and sciences; energy; environment and sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Until the dawning of the 21st century, advances in new colorants centered on their use in the textiles arena. While there is continuing activity in this important sector, it is now evident that organic dyes and pigments enjoy widespread use for a variety of interesting and promising non-textile, high-tech applications. The use of colorants in food, drug, and cosmetic products, in digital printing and photography, and in biological/histological stains is now matched, if not superseded, by their utility in areas such as cancer phototherapy, solar energy capture and storage, optical imaging, and color laser marking for document security. The associated ¡°functional dyes¡± demonstrate the long-standing viability of the field of color chemistry and point to the need for an organized update on the present topic. It was envisioned that the coverage would involve recent developments in the molecular design, synthesis, characterization (structural and ecological), and application of organic dyes and pigments covering the visible and near-infrared regions. In addition, the resurgence of natural dyes as part of the environmental stewardship message makes this topic worthwhile to cover.While this issue will not be exhaustive in scope, it will be of interest to academic and industrial researchers, making it an indispensable product for both environments.

Prof. Dr. Harold Freeman
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Adsorption of C.I. Natural Red 4 onto Spongin Skeleton of Marine Demosponge
Materials 2015, 8(1), 96-116; doi:10.3390/ma8010096
Received: 31 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
C.I. Natural Red 4 dye, also known as carmine or cochineal, was adsorbed onto the surface of spongin-based fibrous skeleton of Hippospongia communis marine demosponge for the first time. The influence of the initial concentration of dye, the contact time, and the pH
[...] Read more.
C.I. Natural Red 4 dye, also known as carmine or cochineal, was adsorbed onto the surface of spongin-based fibrous skeleton of Hippospongia communis marine demosponge for the first time. The influence of the initial concentration of dye, the contact time, and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process was investigated. The results presented here confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for developing a novel dye/biopolymer hybrid material. The kinetics of the adsorption of carmine onto a marine sponge were also determined. The experimental data correspond directly to a pseudo-second-order model for adsorption kinetics (r2 = 0.979–0.999). The hybrid product was subjected to various types of analysis (FT-IR, Raman, 13C CP/MAS NMR, XPS) to investigate the nature of the interactions between the spongin (adsorbent) and the dye (the adsorbate). The dominant interactions between the dye and spongin were found to be hydrogen bonds and electrostatic effects. Combining the dye with a spongin support resulted with a novel hybrid material that is potentially attractive for bioactive applications and drug delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization
Materials 2014, 7(11), 7349-7365; doi:10.3390/ma7117349
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5
[...] Read more.
In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Critical Comparison of Methods for the Analysis of Indigo in Dyeing Liquors and Effluents
Materials 2014, 7(9), 6184-6193; doi:10.3390/ma7096184
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indigo is one of the most important dyes in the textile industry. The control of the indigo concentration in dyeing liquors and effluents is an important tool to ensure the reproducibility of the dyed fabrics and also to establish the efficiency of the
[...] Read more.
Indigo is one of the most important dyes in the textile industry. The control of the indigo concentration in dyeing liquors and effluents is an important tool to ensure the reproducibility of the dyed fabrics and also to establish the efficiency of the wastewater treatment. In this work, three analytical methods were studied and validated with the aim to select a reliable, fast and automated method for the indigo dye determination. The first method is based on the extraction of the dye, with chloroform, in its oxidized form. The organic solution is measured by Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry at 604 nm. The second method determines the concentration of indigo in its leuco form in aqueous medium by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 407 nm. Finally, in the last method, the concentration of indigo is determined by redox titration with potassium hexacyanoferrate (K3(Fe(CN)6)). The results indicated that the three methods that we studied met the established acceptance criteria regarding accuracy and precision. However, the third method was considered the most adequate for application on an industrial scale due to its wider work range, which provides a significant advantage over the others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)
Open AccessArticle Green Perylene Bisimide Dyes: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5488-5506; doi:10.3390/ma7085488
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three asymmetric amino-substituted perylene bisimide dyes with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18), 1-(N,N-dialkylamino)perylene bisimides (1a1c), were synthesized under mild condition in high yields and were characterized by 1
[...] Read more.
Three asymmetric amino-substituted perylene bisimide dyes with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18), 1-(N,N-dialkylamino)perylene bisimides (1a1c), were synthesized under mild condition in high yields and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometer), UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV). These molecules show intense green color in both solution and solid state and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents, such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a1c in solid state and in solution were found to be virtually the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent aggregation. They exhibit a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths show strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the compounds have been estimated using the Lippert-Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1-aminoperylene bisimide (2). Furthermore, all of the compounds exhibit two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on these dyes are reported in order to rationalize their molecular structures and electronic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Wood Colorization through Pressure Treating: The Potential of Extracted Colorants from Spalting Fungi as a Replacement for Woodworkers’ Aniline Dyes
Materials 2014, 7(8), 5427-5437; doi:10.3390/ma7085427
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extracellular colorants produced by Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, three commonly utilized spalting fungi, were tested against a standard woodworker’s aniline dye to determine if the fungal colorants could be utilized in an effort to find a
[...] Read more.
The extracellular colorants produced by Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, three commonly utilized spalting fungi, were tested against a standard woodworker’s aniline dye to determine if the fungal colorants could be utilized in an effort to find a naturally occurring replacement for the synthetic dye. Fungal colorants were delivered in two methods within a pressure treater—the first through solubilization of extracted colorants in dichloromethane, and the second via liquid culture consisting of water, malt, and the actively growing fungus. Visual external evaluation of the wood test blocks showed complete surface coloration of all wood species with all colorants, with the exception of the green colorant (xylindein) from C. aeruginosa in liquid culture, which did not produce a visible surface color change. The highest changes in external color came from noble fir, lodgepole pine, port orford cedar and sugar maple with aniline dye, cottonwood with the yellow colorant in liquid culture, lodgepole pine with the red colorant in liquid culture, red alder and Oregon maple with the green colorant in dichloromethane, and sugar maple and port orford cedar with the yellow colorant in dichloromethane. The aniline dye was superior to the fungal colorants in terms of internal coloration, although none of the tested compounds were able to completely visually color the inside of the test blocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Colorants 2014)

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