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Special Issue "Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Xiaodong Huang

ARC Future Fellow, Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001, Australia
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: novel design of cellular materials; optimisation for microstructures of cellular materials; exotic properties of cellular metamaterials; numerical and experimental characterisation of cellular materials
Guest Editor
Dr. Jianhu Shen

Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, 394 Swanston Street, Melbourne CBD, Victoria, VIC3000, Australia
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Novel materials with high stiffness, superior thermal and sound insluation, crashworthiness and light weight, cellular materials have many applications ranging from automotive and aerospace engineering to tissue scaffolding. The recent developments in advanced manufacturing techniques, e.g., 3D printers, significantly extends the size and geometry limits in the fabrication of microstructures of cellular materials, and stimulates a new wave of research interest in the design and optimisation of cellular materials. Although there are a few state-of-art reports currently available, the most recent development of this subject has yet to be timely and comprehensively updated. The present Special Issue of Materials aims to bring together research and review papers pertaining to the recent developments in the design, optimisation, and applications of cellular materials. The themes include, but not limited to:

  • Novel design of cellular materials;
  • Optimisation for microstructures of cellular materials;
  • Exotic properties of cellular metamaterials;
  • Numerical and experimental characterisation of cellular materials.

A Special Issue including 5–10 outstanding articles will be published in early 2016. Contributing to this Special Issue will be by invitation only. The articles will be peer reviewed by at least two experts in this area. While this issue will not be exhaustive in scope, publication of this Special Issue is expected to benefit researchers and engineers in the applications of cellular materials, and attract further attention and interest in the innovative development of this important and promising area.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Xiaodong Huang
Dr. Jianhu Shen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

• cellular materials and structures
• microstructure
• cellular metamaterials
• topology optimisaiton

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Apatite Cement Containing Atelocollagen on Attachment to and Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells
Materials 2016, 9(4), 283; doi:10.3390/ma9040283
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
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Abstract
To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC) for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate)). In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) on
[...] Read more.
To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC) for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate)). In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) on the surface of conventional AC (c-AC), AC(ate) and a plastic cell dish. The number of osteoblastic cells showing initial attachment to AC(ate) was greater than those attached to c-AC and similar to the number attached to the plastic cell wells. We also found that osteoblastic cells were well spread and increased their number on AC(ate) in comparison with c-AC and the wells without specimens, while the amount of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIPC) produced in osteoblastic cells after three days on AC(ate) was greater as compared to the others. There was no significant difference in regard to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by osteoblastic cells among the three surface types after three and six days. However, after 12 days, ALP activity and the produced osteocalcin were greater with AC(ate). In conclusion, AC(ate) may be a useful material with high osteoconductivity for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Open AccessArticle ZnO Nanostructure Templates as a Cost-Efficient Mass-Producible Route for the Development of Cellular Networks
Materials 2016, 9(4), 256; doi:10.3390/ma9040256
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (15479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of artificial surfaces which can regulate or trigger specific functions of living cells, and which are capable of inducing in vivo-like cell behaviors under in vitro conditions has been a long-sought goal over the past twenty years. In this work,
[...] Read more.
The development of artificial surfaces which can regulate or trigger specific functions of living cells, and which are capable of inducing in vivo-like cell behaviors under in vitro conditions has been a long-sought goal over the past twenty years. In this work, an alternative, facile and cost-efficient method for mass-producible cellular templates is presented. The proposed methodology consists of a cost-efficient, two-step, all-wet technique capable of producing ZnO-based nanostructures on predefined patterns on a variety of substrates. ZnO—apart from the fact that it is a biocompatible material—was chosen because of its multifunctional nature which has rendered it a versatile material employed in a wide range of applications. Si, Si3N4, emulated microelectrode arrays and conventional glass cover slips were patterned at the micrometer scale and the patterns were filled with ZnO nanostructures. Using HeLa cells, we demonstrated that the fabricated nanotopographical features could promote guided cellular adhesion on the pre-defined micron-scale patterns only through nanomechanical cues without the need for further surface activation or modification. The basic steps of the micro/nanofabrication are presented and the results from the cell adhesion experiments are discussed, showing the potential of the suggested methodology for creating low-cost templates for engineered cellular networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Open AccessArticle Topological Design of Cellular Phononic Band Gap Crystals
Materials 2016, 9(3), 186; doi:10.3390/ma9030186
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (4051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper systematically investigated the topological design of cellular phononic crystals with a maximized gap size between two adjacent bands. Considering that the obtained structures may sustain a certain amount of static loadings, it is desirable to ensure the optimized designs to have
[...] Read more.
This paper systematically investigated the topological design of cellular phononic crystals with a maximized gap size between two adjacent bands. Considering that the obtained structures may sustain a certain amount of static loadings, it is desirable to ensure the optimized designs to have a relatively high stiffness. To tackle this issue, we conducted a multiple objective optimization to maximize band gap size and bulk or shear modulus simultaneously with a prescribed volume fraction of solid material so that the resulting structures can be lightweight, as well. In particular, we first conducted the finite element analysis of the phononic band gap crystals and then adapted a very efficient optimization procedure to resolve this problem based on bi-directional evolutionary structure optimization (BESO) algorithm in conjunction with the homogenization method. A number of optimization results for maximizing band gaps with bulk and shear modulus constraints are presented for out-of-plane and in-plane modes. Numerical results showed that the optimized structures are similar to those obtained for composite case, except that additional slim connections are added in the cellular case to support the propagation of shear wave modes and meanwhile to satisfy the prescribed bulk or shear modulus constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Honeycombs Subjected to Dynamic Indentation and Compression Loads
Materials 2016, 9(3), 162; doi:10.3390/ma9030162
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE) models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve,
[...] Read more.
The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE) models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression) have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Tuning the Performance of Metallic Auxetic Metamaterials by Using Buckling and Plasticity
Materials 2016, 9(1), 54; doi:10.3390/ma9010054
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (7539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallic auxetic metamaterials are of great potential to be used in many applications because of their superior mechanical performance to elastomer-based auxetic materials. Due to the limited knowledge on this new type of materials under large plastic deformation, the implementation of such materials
[...] Read more.
Metallic auxetic metamaterials are of great potential to be used in many applications because of their superior mechanical performance to elastomer-based auxetic materials. Due to the limited knowledge on this new type of materials under large plastic deformation, the implementation of such materials in practical applications remains elusive. In contrast to the elastomer-based metamaterials, metallic ones possess new features as a result of the nonlinear deformation of their metallic microstructures under large deformation. The loss of auxetic behavior in metallic metamaterials led us to carry out a numerical and experimental study to investigate the mechanism of the observed phenomenon. A general approach was proposed to tune the performance of auxetic metallic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation using buckling behavior and the plasticity of base material. Both experiments and finite element simulations were used to verify the effectiveness of the developed approach. By employing this approach, a 2D auxetic metamaterial was derived from a regular square lattice. Then, by altering the initial geometry of microstructure with the desired buckling pattern, the metallic metamaterials exhibit auxetic behavior with tuneable mechanical properties. A systematic parametric study using the validated finite element models was conducted to reveal the novel features of metallic auxetic metamaterials undergoing large plastic deformation. The results of this study provide a useful guideline for the design of 2D metallic auxetic metamaterials for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Phononic Band Gaps in 2D Quadratic and 3D Cubic Cellular Structures
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8327-8337; doi:10.3390/ma8125463
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The static and dynamic mechanical behaviour of cellular materials can be designed by the architecture of the underlying unit cell. In this paper, the phononic band structure of 2D and 3D cellular structures is investigated. It is shown how the geometry of the
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The static and dynamic mechanical behaviour of cellular materials can be designed by the architecture of the underlying unit cell. In this paper, the phononic band structure of 2D and 3D cellular structures is investigated. It is shown how the geometry of the unit cell influences the band structure and eventually leads to full band gaps. The mechanism leading to full band gaps is elucidated. Based on this knowledge, a 3D cellular structure with a broad full band gap is identified. Furthermore, the dependence of the width of the gap on the geometry parameters of the unit cell is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Chitosan-Coated Collagen Membranes Promote Chondrocyte Adhesion, Growth, and Interleukin-6 Secretion
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7673-7689; doi:10.3390/ma8115413
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Designing scaffolds made from natural polymers may be highly attractive for tissue engineering strategies. We sought to produce and characterize chitosan-coated collagen membranes and to assess their efficacy in promoting chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and cytokine secretion. Porous collagen membranes were placed in chitosan
[...] Read more.
Designing scaffolds made from natural polymers may be highly attractive for tissue engineering strategies. We sought to produce and characterize chitosan-coated collagen membranes and to assess their efficacy in promoting chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and cytokine secretion. Porous collagen membranes were placed in chitosan solutions then crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses showed elevated absorption at 1655 cm-1 of the carbon–nitrogen (N=C) bonds formed by the reaction between the (NH2) of the chitosan and the (C=O) of the glutaraldehyde. A significant peak in the amide II region revealed a significant deacetylation of the chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the chitosan-coated membranes exhibited surface variations, with pore size ranging from 20 to 50 µm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a decreased C–C groups and an increased C–N/C–O groups due to the reaction between the carbon from the collagen and the NH2 from the chitosan. Increased rigidity of these membranes was also observed when comparing the chitosan-coated and uncoated membranes at dried conditions. However, under wet conditions, the chitosan coated collagen membranes showed lower rigidity as compared to dried conditions. Of great interest, the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan-coated collagen membranes promoted chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. Overall results confirm the feasibility of using designed chitosan-coated collagen membranes in future applications, such as cartilage repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Materials: Design and Optimisation)
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