Special Issue "Carbon Fibers"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Phillips

Department of Physics, Spanagel Hall, Room 203, 833 Dyer Road, Monterey, CA 93943-5216, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: heterogeneous catalysts; carbon materials; plasma generated materials; dielectrics metal particle synthesis; material-radical interactions; energy storage; microcalorimetry; mossbauer spectroscopy; quantum mechanics; plasma physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a “revolution” in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, we invite original papers relating to just one area of carbon research: fibers. Papers on carbon fibers classified as phenomenological, application-focused, fundamental, or some combination of the aforementioned are all invited. Phenomenological topics of interest include the impact of operating parameters (e.g., gas phase, catalyst, temperature, etc.) on growth rate, fiber size, strength, conductivity, thermal properties, and corrosion resistance. Papers that include information regarding any application of carbon are welcome (e.g., applications in next-generation integrated circuits, capacitors, high strength materials, composite materials, sensors, etc.). Fundamental issues of interest to the editor and others include the mechanism of growth, the role of catalysts, surface chemistry and the means to modify it, and ad/bsorption processes. I look forward to submissions from many old friends and to making new friends.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Phillips
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • carbon fiber
  • properties
  • applications
  • growth mechanism
  • catalysis
  • surface chemistry

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Scaling up the Fabrication of Mechanically-Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foams
Fibers 2016, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/fib4010009
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 31 January 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
PDF Full-text (4429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost,
[...] Read more.
This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost, were developed. First, a simple physical method was invented to scale-up the constrained formation of fibrous nanostructures process (CoFFiN) to fabricate relatively large foams. Specifically, a gas deflector system capable of maintaining conditions supportive of carbon nanofiber foam growth throughout a relatively large mold was developed. ANSYS CFX models were used to simulate the gas flow paths with and without deflectors; the data generated proved to be a very useful tool for the deflector design. Second, a simple method for selectively leaching the Pd catalyst material trapped in the foam during growth was successfully tested. Multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and mechanical testing, were employed to characterize the foams generated in this study. All results confirmed that the larger foam samples preserve the basic characteristics: their interwoven nanofiber microstructure forms a low-density tridimensional solid with viscoelastic behavior. Fiber growth mechanisms are also discussed. Larger samples of mechanically-robust carbon nanofiber foams will enable the use of these materials as strain sensors, shock absorbers, selective absorbents for environmental remediation and electrodes for energy storage devices, among other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants
Fibers 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/fib4010001
Received: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 8 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for
[...] Read more.
Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8) and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4), respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Properties of PAN Fibers Solution Spun into a Chilled Coagulation Bath at High Solvent Compositions
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 560-574; doi:10.3390/fib3040560
Received: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow), while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape,
[...] Read more.
In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow), while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape, density, orientation, and tensile properties at varying points in the spinning process. Novel here are the abnormally high coagulation bath solvent compositions investigated, which surpass those often reported in the literature. In addition, the coagulation bath was maintained at a slightly chilled temperature, contrary to reported methods to produce round fibers. Further, by altering the composition of the bath in a step-wise fashion during a single spinning run, variations in all other process parameters were minimized. We found that with increasing solvent composition in the coagulation bath, the fibers not only became round in cross section, but also became smaller in diameter, which persisted down the spin line. With this decrease in diameter, all else equal, came an accompanying increase in apparent fiber density via a reduction in microvoid content. In addition, molecular orientation and tensile properties also increased. Therefore, it was found that inadequate understanding of the coagulation bath effects, and spinning at low coagulation bath solvent compositions, can hinder the ability of the fiber to reach optimum properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Using Mechanical Alloying to Create Bimetallic Catalysts for Vapor-Phase Carbon Nanofiber Synthesis
Fibers 2015, 3(4), 394-410; doi:10.3390/fib3040394
Received: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16,
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h. The catalyst powders were then used to produce carbon nanofibers in ethylene and hydrogen (4:1) at temperatures of 500, 550, and 600 °C. The microstructures of the catalysts were characterized as a function of milling time as well as at deposition temperature. The corresponding carbon deposition rates were assessed and are correlated to the microstructural features of each catalyst. The milling process directly determines the performance of each catalyst toward carbon deposition, and both catalysts performed comparably to those made by traditional co-precipitation methods. Considerations in miscible and immiscible nanostructured alloy systems are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Polyethylene-Based Carbon Fibers by the Use of Sulphonation for Stabilization
Fibers 2015, 3(3), 373-379; doi:10.3390/fib3030373
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyethylene has great potential as an alternative material for carbon fiber production. Polyethylene can be processed in the economic melt spinning process. These precursors are prepared for the subsequent process step of carbonization by using chemical stabilization (sulphonation). The strategy is to adjust
[...] Read more.
Polyethylene has great potential as an alternative material for carbon fiber production. Polyethylene can be processed in the economic melt spinning process. These precursors are prepared for the subsequent process step of carbonization by using chemical stabilization (sulphonation). The strategy is to adjust these precursor properties by the melt spinning process, thus resulting in a precursor, which can be stabilized sufficiently by sulphonation. The objective is to find the correlation between precursor properties and the results of the sulphonation. In this paper, the chemical stabilization is described and the results of the chemical stabilization are discussed. The novelty in this paper is that the results of the sulphonation are brought in correlation with the precursor properties. It can be shown that the filament diameter and the polymer structure (e.g., the crystallinity) of the precursor have an influence on the sulphonation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Fibers from UV-Assisted Stabilization of Lignin-Based Precursors
Fibers 2015, 3(2), 184-196; doi:10.3390/fib3020184
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Production of high strength carbon fibers from bio-derived precursors is of topical interest. Recently, we reported on dry-spinning of a partially acetylated softwood kraft lignin to produce carbon fibers with superior properties, but the thermo-oxidative stabilization step required a long time due to
[...] Read more.
Production of high strength carbon fibers from bio-derived precursors is of topical interest. Recently, we reported on dry-spinning of a partially acetylated softwood kraft lignin to produce carbon fibers with superior properties, but the thermo-oxidative stabilization step required a long time due to a slow heating rate needed to prevent the fibers from being heated too rapidly and sticking to each other. Here we report a rapid strategy of dual UV-thermoxidative stabilization (crosslinking) of dry-spun lignin fibers that significantly reduces the stabilization time. The fibers undergo reaction close to the surface such that they can be subsequently thermally stabilized at a rapid heating rate without fibers fusing together, which reduces the total stabilization time significantly from 40 to 4 h. Consequently, the glass transition temperature of UV irradiated fibers was about 15 °C higher than that of fibers without UV treatment. Stabilized fibers were successfully carbonized at 1000 °C and resulting carbon fibers displayed a tensile strength of 900 ± 100 MPa, which is amongst the highest reported for carbon fibers derived from softwood lignin-based precursors. These results establish that UV irradiation is a rapid step that can effectively shorten the total stabilization time for production of lignin-derived carbon fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Improvement by Nanofibers of Load Transfer in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites
Fibers 2015, 3(2), 134-150; doi:10.3390/fib3020134
Received: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the load transfer improvement caused by nanofibers (NF) in carbon fiber reinforced composites. Load transfer is defined as the ability to transfer the mechanical loading between two adjacent fibers through the surrounding matrix. NF action is explored with a
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the load transfer improvement caused by nanofibers (NF) in carbon fiber reinforced composites. Load transfer is defined as the ability to transfer the mechanical loading between two adjacent fibers through the surrounding matrix. NF action is explored with a finite element model representing two carbon fibers separated by a layer of a NF reinforced matrix. It appears that the role of the NF network is to strengthen the matrix by increasing matrix shear rigidity, and thus to improve the load transfer between the carbon fibers. NF network morphology, defined by NF orientation, NF spatial distribution or NF diameter, governs the NF network efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Improving Fatigue Performance of GFRP Composite Using Carbon Nanotubes
Fibers 2015, 3(1), 13-29; doi:10.3390/fib3010013
Received: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 15 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) have become a preferable material for reinforcing or strengthening reinforced concrete structures due to their corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, and relatively low cost compared with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). However, the limited fatigue life
[...] Read more.
Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) have become a preferable material for reinforcing or strengthening reinforced concrete structures due to their corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, and relatively low cost compared with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). However, the limited fatigue life of GFRP hinders their use in infrastructure applications. For instance, the low fatigue life of GFRP caused design codes to impose stringent stress limits on GFRP that rendered their use non-economic under significant cyclic loads in bridges. In this paper, we demonstrate that the fatigue life of GFRP can be significantly improved by an order of magnitude by incorporating Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) during GFRP fabrication. GFRP coupons were fabricated and tested under static tension and cyclic tension with mean fatigue stress equal to 40% of the GFRP tensile strength. Microstructural investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used for further investigation of the effect of MWCNTs on the GFRP composite. The experimental results show the 0.5 wt% and the 1.0 wt% MWCNTs were able to improve the fatigue life of GFRP by 1143% and 986%, respectively, compared with neat GFRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Back to Top