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Special Issue "Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Piero Baglioni

Consorzio per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cleaning and deacidification methods; conservation of cultural heritage; nanomaterials and nano tools for conservators; restauration and preservation of art; techniques for consolidation of artifacts
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María J. Mosquera

Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34956016331
Interests: nanostructured materials; surfactant-synthesized materials; sol-gel route; hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings; photoactive coatings with self-cleaning properties; consolidant materials; application on building materials

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The international congress TechoHeritage 2017 was held in Cadiz, Spain, 21–24 May, 2017, and was an interdisciplinary and international forum for the discussion of all aspects of cultural heritage conservation. A high-quality scientific program, with special emphasis in conservation materials based on nanotechnology and other innovative process, was developed. A Special Issue, with selected papers from TechnoHeritage 2017, will be published in Materials. Topics of interest for submission include, but are not limited to:

  • Products and techniques for cleaning
  • Products and techniques for consolidating
  • Hydrophobic, superhydrophobic and omniphobic products
  • Anticorrosion products and electrochemical process
  • Self-cleaning and anti-graffiti agents
  • Depolluting products
  • Biocides
  • Multipurpose products

Prof. Dr. Piero Baglioni
Prof. Dr. María J. Mosquera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cultural Heritage Conservation
  • Nanomaterials
  • Cleaning
  • Consolidants
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Anticorrosion
  • Self-cleaning
  • Anti-graffiti
  • Biocides
  • Depolluting

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Triton X-100-Based Microemulsion for the Removal of Hydrophobic Materials from Works of Art: SAXS Characterization and Application
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071144
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
The removal of hydrophobic materials from a porous support, such as wax stains on wall paintings, is particularly challenging. In this context, traditional methods display several drawbacks. The limitations of these methods can be overcome by amphiphile-based aqueous nanostructured fluids, such as micellar
[...] Read more.
The removal of hydrophobic materials from a porous support, such as wax stains on wall paintings, is particularly challenging. In this context, traditional methods display several drawbacks. The limitations of these methods can be overcome by amphiphile-based aqueous nanostructured fluids, such as micellar solutions and microemulsions. In this study, a microemulsion for the removal of wax spots from artistic surfaces was formulated. The nanostructured fluid includes a non-ionic surfactant, i.e., Triton X-100, and two apolar solvents, namely p-xylene and n-nonane. The solvents were selected on the basis of solubility tests of three waxes in several organic solvents. The nanostructured fluid was characterized by means of small-angle X-rays scattering (SAXS) and the information about micelle structure was used to understand the interaction between the microemulsion and the selected waxes. The microemulsion was then tested during the restoration of the frescoes in the Major Chapel of the Santa Croce Basilica in Florence, Italy. After some preliminary tests on fresco mockups reproduced in the laboratory, the nanostructured fluid was successfully used to clean some wax deposits from the real paintings, hardly removable with traditional physico-mechanical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Long-Term Effectiveness, under a Mountain Environment, of a Novel Conservation Nanomaterial Applied on Limestone from a Roman Archaeological Site
Materials 2018, 11(5), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050694
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
PDF Full-text (6160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel alkoxysilane-based product was applied on limestone samples from a Roman archaeological site. The study consisted of an initial phase to evaluate site environmental conditions in order to choose the most suitable product type to be applied. The decay that was produced
[...] Read more.
A novel alkoxysilane-based product was applied on limestone samples from a Roman archaeological site. The study consisted of an initial phase to evaluate site environmental conditions in order to choose the most suitable product type to be applied. The decay that was produced in the site is mainly caused by natural action, with water being the main vehicle for the decay agents. Thus, the effectiveness of an innovative product with hydrophobic/consolidant properties and two commercial products (consolidant and hydrophobic agent) were evaluated on limestone from Acinipo site, under laboratory conditions. Next, the long-term effectiveness of the three products under study was evaluated by the exposure of limestone samples in the archaeological site for a period of three years. Since the recognized incompatibility between alkoxysilanes and pure carbonate stones, the interaction between the products and the limestones was widely investigated. The results that were obtained allow for it to be concluded that the innovative product presents adequate compatibility and adherence to the limestone under study, producing a long-term effective, homogeneous, and continuous coating with a depth of penetration of up to 10 mm. However, the commercial products produced discontinuous aggregates on the limestone surface, did not penetrate into its porous structure and it did not produce long-lasting effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Conservation of Monuments by a Three-Layered Compatible Treatment of TEOS-Nano-Calcium Oxalate Consolidant and TEOS-PDMS-TiO2 Hydrophobic/Photoactive Hybrid Nanomaterials
Materials 2018, 11(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050684
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
PDF Full-text (24761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the conservation of monuments, research on innovative nanocomposites with strengthening, hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties have attracted the interest of the scientific community and promising results have been obtained as a result. In this study, stemming from the need for the compatibility of
[...] Read more.
In the conservation of monuments, research on innovative nanocomposites with strengthening, hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties have attracted the interest of the scientific community and promising results have been obtained as a result. In this study, stemming from the need for the compatibility of treatments in terms of nanocomposite/substrate, a three-layered compatible treatment providing strengthening, hydrophobic, and self-cleaning properties is proposed. This conservation approach was implemented treating lithotypes and mortars of different porosity and petrographic characteristics with a three-layered treatment comprising: (a) a consolidant, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-nano-Calcium Oxalate; (b) a hydrophobic layer of TEOS-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); and (c) a self-cleaning layer of TiO2 nanoparticles from titanium tetra-isopropoxide with oxalic acid as hole-scavenger. After the three-layered treatment, the surface hydrophobicity was improved due to PDMS and nano-TiO2 in the interface substrate/atmosphere, as proven by the homogeneity and the Si–O–Ti hetero-linkages of the blend protective/self-cleaning layers observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The aesthetic, microstructural, mechanical and permeabile compatibility of the majority of treated substrates ranged within acceptability limits. The improved photocatalytic activity, as proven by the total discoloration of methylene blue in the majority of cases, was attributed to the anchorage of TiO2, through the Si–O–Ti bonds to SiO2, in the interface with the atmosphere, thus enhancing photoactivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Waterborne Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Coatings for the Protection of Marble and Sandstone
Materials 2018, 11(4), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040585
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silica nanoparticles were dispersed in an aqueous emulsion of alkoxy silanes and organic fluoropolymer. The dispersion was sprayed onto white marble and sandstone. The deposited composite coatings exhibited (i) superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity, as evidenced by the high (>150°) static contact angles of water
[...] Read more.
Silica nanoparticles were dispersed in an aqueous emulsion of alkoxy silanes and organic fluoropolymer. The dispersion was sprayed onto white marble and sandstone. The deposited composite coatings exhibited (i) superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity, as evidenced by the high (>150°) static contact angles of water and oil drops as well as (ii) water and oil repellency according to the low (<7°) corresponding tilt contact angles. Apart from marble and sandstone, the coatings with extreme wetting properties were deposited onto concrete, silk, and paper, thus demonstrating the versatility of the method. The siloxane/fluoropolymer product was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Moreover, SEM and FT-IR were used to reveal the surface structures of the composite coatings and their transition from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity which occurred after severe thermal treatment. The composite coatings slightly reduced the breathability of marble and sandstone and had practically no optical effect on the colour of the two stones. Moreover, the coatings offered good protection against water penetration by capillarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Photocatalytic Nanocomposites for the Protection of European Architectural Heritage
Materials 2018, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010065
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 3 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the field of stone protection, the introduction of inorganic nanoparticles, such as TiO2, ZnO, and Ag in polymeric blends can enhance the protective action of pristine treatments, as well as confer additional properties (photocatalytic, antifouling, and antibacterial). In the framework
[...] Read more.
In the field of stone protection, the introduction of inorganic nanoparticles, such as TiO2, ZnO, and Ag in polymeric blends can enhance the protective action of pristine treatments, as well as confer additional properties (photocatalytic, antifouling, and antibacterial). In the framework of the “Nano-Cathedral” European project, nanostructured photocatalytic protective treatments were formulated by using different TiO2 nanoparticles, solvents, and silane/siloxane systems in the blends. The results about the characterization and application of two promising nano-TiO2 based products applied on Apuan marble and Ajarte limestone are here reported, aiming at investigating the complex system “treatment/stone-substrate”. The nanocomposites show better performances when compared to a commercial reference siloxane based protective treatment, resulting in different performances once applied on different carbonatic substrates, with very low and high open porosity, confirming the necessity of correlating precisely the characteristics of the stone material to those of the protective formulations. In particular, the TiO2 photocatalytic behavior is strictly linked to the amount of available nanoparticles and to the active surface area. The alkyl silane oligomers of the water-based formulation have a good penetration into the microstructure of Ajarte limestone, whereas the solvent-based and small size monomeric formulation shows better results for Apuan marble, granting a good coverage of the pores. The encouraging results obtained so far in lab will be confirmed by monitoring tests aiming at assessing the effectiveness of the treatments applied in pilot sites of historical Gothic Cathedrals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from TechnoHeritage 2017)
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