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Special Issue "Spark-Plasma Sintering and Related Field-Assisted Powder Consolidation Technologies"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Eugene A. Olevsky

Powder Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1323, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: spark plasma sintering; advanced ceramic and ceramic composite processing; functionally graded materials; thick and thin film technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electromagnetic field-assisted sintering techniques have increasingly attracted attention of scientists and technologists. Spark-plasma sintering (SPS) and other field-assisted powder consolidation approaches provide remarkable capabilities to the processing of materials into configurations previously unattainable. Of particular significance is the possibility of using very fast heating rates, which, coupled with the field-assisted mass transport, stand behind the purported ability to achieve high densities during consolidation and to maintain the nanostructure of consolidated materials via these techniques. Potentially, SPS and related technologies have many significant advantages over the conventional powder processing methods, including the lower process temperature, the shorter holding time, dramatically improved properties of sintered products, low manufacturing costs, and environmental friendliness.

In this Special Issue, modern trends of field-assisted sintering, including the processing fundamentals and optimization of final product properties, are highlighted and discussed.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Eugene A. Olevsky
Guest Editor

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Keywords

    • sintering

    • field-assisted

    • current-assisted

    • spark-plasma

    • powder consolidation

    • cermics

    • metal powder

    • desification

    Published Papers (15 papers)

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    Research

    Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Mechanism of Microwave Flash Sintering of Ceramics
    Materials 2016, 9(8), 684; doi:10.3390/ma9080684
    Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
    Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (8300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash) sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3) are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O
    [...] Read more.
    The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash) sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3) are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O3; MgAl2O4; and Yb(LaO)2O3—were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98–0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5–5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates) along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering. Flash sintering occurs when the processing conditions—including the temperature of the sample; the properties of thermal insulation; and the intensity of microwave radiation—facilitate the development of thermal runaway due to an Arrhenius-type dependency of the material’s effective conductivity on temperature. The proper control over the thermal runaway effect is provided by fast regulation of the microwave power. The elevated concentration of defects and impurities in the boundary regions of the grains leads to localized preferential absorption of microwave radiation and results in grain boundary softening/pre-melting. The rapid densification of the granular medium with a reduced viscosity of the grain boundary phase occurs via rotation and sliding of the grains which accommodate their shape due to fast diffusion mass transport through the (quasi-)liquid phase. The same mechanism based on a thermal runaway under volumetric heating can be relevant for the effect of flash sintering of various oxide ceramics under a dc/ac voltage applied to the sample. Full article
    Figures

    Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Electrical Properties of AZO/Graphene Nanosheets Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
    Materials 2016, 9(8), 638; doi:10.3390/ma9080638
    Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    In this study we report on the sintering behavior, microstructure and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO ceramics containing 0–0.2 wt. % graphene sheets (AZO-GNSs) and processed using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Our results show that the addition of <0.25 wt. % GNSs enhances
    [...] Read more.
    In this study we report on the sintering behavior, microstructure and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO ceramics containing 0–0.2 wt. % graphene sheets (AZO-GNSs) and processed using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Our results show that the addition of <0.25 wt. % GNSs enhances both the relative density and the electrical resistivity of AZO ceramics. In terms of the microstructure, the GNSs are distributed at grain boundaries. In addition, the GNSs are also present between ZnO and secondary phases (e.g., ZnAl2O4) and likely contribute to the measured enhancement of Hall mobility (up to 105.1 cm2·V−1·s−1) in these AZO ceramics. The minimum resistivity of the AZO-GNS composite ceramics is 3.1 × 10−4 Ω·cm which compares favorably to the value of AZO ceramics which typically have a resistivity of 1.7 × 10−3 Ω·cm. Full article
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    Open AccessArticle Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties
    Materials 2016, 9(7), 577; doi:10.3390/ma9070577
    Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are
    [...] Read more.
    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrC specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. The constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly. Full article
    Open AccessArticle Characterizations of Rapid Sintered Nanosilver Joint for Attaching Power Chips
    Materials 2016, 9(7), 564; doi:10.3390/ma9070564
    Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 11 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
    Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Sintering of nanosilver paste has been extensively studied as a lead-free die-attach solution for bonding semiconductor power chips, such as the power insulated gated bipolar transistor (IGBT). However, for the traditional method of bonding IGBT chips, an external pressure of a few MPa
    [...] Read more.
    Sintering of nanosilver paste has been extensively studied as a lead-free die-attach solution for bonding semiconductor power chips, such as the power insulated gated bipolar transistor (IGBT). However, for the traditional method of bonding IGBT chips, an external pressure of a few MPa is reported necessary for the sintering time of ~1 h. In order to shorten the processing duration time, we developed a rapid way to sinter nanosilver paste for bonding IGBT chips in less than 5 min using pulsed current. In this way, we firstly dried as-printed paste at about 100 °C to get rid of many volatile solvents because they may result in defects or voids during the out-gassing from the paste. Then, the pre-dried paste was further heated by pulse current ranging from 1.2 kA to 2.4 kA for several seconds. The whole procedure was less than 3 min and did not require any gas protection. We could obtain robust sintered joint with shear strength of 30–35 MPa for bonding 1200-V, 25-A IGBT and superior thermal properties. Static and dynamic electrical performance of the as-bonded IGBT assemblies was also characterized to verify the feasibility of this rapid sintering method. The results indicate that the electrical performance is comparable or even partially better than that of commercial IGBT modules. The microstructure evolution of the rapid sintered joints was also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This work may benefit the wide usage of nanosilver paste for rapid bonding IGBT chips in the future. Full article
    Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al2O3-(3Y)-TZP Composites and (3Y)-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Apparatus
    Materials 2016, 9(7), 558; doi:10.3390/ma9070558
    Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult
    [...] Read more.
    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully applied a two-step approach involving separate SPS consolidation of pure (3Y)-TZP and composites containing 20 vol % TRIP-steel, 40 vol % Al2O3 and 40 vol % (3Y)-TZP ceramic phase, and subsequent diffusion joining of both sintered components in an SPS apparatus. The microstructure and properties of the sintered and bonded specimens were characterized. No defects at the interface between the TZP and the composite after joining in the 1050–1150 °C temperature range were observed. Only limited grain growth occurred during joining, while crystallite size, hardness, shear strength and the fraction of the monoclinic phase in the TZP ceramic virtually did not change. The slight increase of the TZP layer’s fracture toughness with the joining temperature was attributed to the effect of grain size on transformation toughening. Full article
    Open AccessArticle The Manufacturing of High Porosity Iron with an Ultra-Fine Microstructure via Free Pressureless Spark Plasma Sintering
    Materials 2016, 9(6), 495; doi:10.3390/ma9060495
    Received: 14 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
    Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    High porosity (>40 vol %) iron specimens with micro- and nanoscale isotropic pores were fabricated by carrying out free pressureless spark plasma sintering (FPSPS) of submicron hollow Fe–N powders at 750 °C. Ultra-fine porous microstructures are obtained by imposing high heating rates during
    [...] Read more.
    High porosity (>40 vol %) iron specimens with micro- and nanoscale isotropic pores were fabricated by carrying out free pressureless spark plasma sintering (FPSPS) of submicron hollow Fe–N powders at 750 °C. Ultra-fine porous microstructures are obtained by imposing high heating rates during the preparation process. This specially designed approach not only avoids the extra procedures of adding and removing space holders during the formation of porous structures, but also triggers the continued phase transitions of the Fe–N system at relatively lower processing temperatures. The compressive strength and energy absorption characteristics of the FPSPS processed specimens are examined here to be correspondingly improved as a result of the refined microstructure. Full article
    Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Creep of Polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Studied by an SPS Apparatus
    Materials 2016, 9(6), 493; doi:10.3390/ma9060493
    Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
    Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was used for the first time as an analytical testing tool for studying creep in ceramics at elevated temperatures. Compression creep experiments on a fine-grained (250 nm) polycrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel were successfully performed in the 1100–1200
    [...] Read more.
    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was used for the first time as an analytical testing tool for studying creep in ceramics at elevated temperatures. Compression creep experiments on a fine-grained (250 nm) polycrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel were successfully performed in the 1100–1200 °C temperature range, under an applied stress of 120–200 MPa. It was found that the stress exponent and activation energy depended on temperature and applied stress, respectively. The deformed samples were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results indicate that the creep mechanism was related to grain boundary sliding, accommodated by dislocation slip and climb. The experimental results, extrapolated to higher temperatures and lower stresses, were in good agreement with data reported in the literature. Full article
    Open AccessArticle Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering
    Materials 2016, 9(6), 489; doi:10.3390/ma9060489
    Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
    Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (12614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting
    [...] Read more.
    In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa) is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C) could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4) in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers. Full article
    Open AccessArticle Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders
    Materials 2016, 9(6), 482; doi:10.3390/ma9060482
    Received: 15 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
    Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Hot work tool steel (AISI H13) and high speed steel (AISI M3:2) powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various
    [...] Read more.
    Hot work tool steel (AISI H13) and high speed steel (AISI M3:2) powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM). Near full density samples (>99.5%) showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13) was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles. Full article
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    Open AccessArticle The Effect of Lithium Doping on the Sintering and Grain Growth of SPS-Processed, Non-Stoichiometric Magnesium Aluminate Spinel
    Materials 2016, 9(6), 481; doi:10.3390/ma9060481
    Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    The effects of lithium doping on the sintering and grain growth of non-stoichiometric nano-sized magnesium aluminate spinel were studied using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. Li-doped nano-MgO·nAl2O3 spinel (n = 1.06 and 1.21) powders containing 0,
    [...] Read more.
    The effects of lithium doping on the sintering and grain growth of non-stoichiometric nano-sized magnesium aluminate spinel were studied using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. Li-doped nano-MgO·nAl2O3 spinel (n = 1.06 and 1.21) powders containing 0, 0.20, 0.50 or 1.00 at. % Li were synthesized by the solution combustion method and dense specimens were processed using a SPS apparatus at 1200 °C and under an applied pressure of 150 MPa. The SPS-processed samples showed mutual dependency on the lithium concentration and the alumina-to-magnesia ratio. For example, the density and hardness values of near-stoichiometry samples (n = 1.06) showed an incline up to 0.51 at. % Li, while in the alumina rich samples (n = 1.21), these values remained constant up to 0.53 at. % Li. Studying grain growth revealed that in the Li-MgO·nAl2O3 system, grain growth is limited by Zener pining. The activation energies of undoped, 0.2 and 0.53 at. % Li-MgO·1.21Al2O3 samples were 288 ± 40, 670 ± 45 and 543 ± 40 kJ·mol−1, respectively. Full article
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    Open AccessArticle Formation of Aluminum Particles with Shell Morphology during Pressureless Spark Plasma Sintering of Fe–Al Mixtures: Current-Related or Kirkendall Effect?
    Materials 2016, 9(5), 375; doi:10.3390/ma9050375
    Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
    Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (16198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    A need to deeper understand the influence of electric current on the structure and properties of metallic materials consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) stimulates research on inter-particle interactions, bonding and necking processes in low-pressure or pressureless conditions as favoring technique-specific local effects
    [...] Read more.
    A need to deeper understand the influence of electric current on the structure and properties of metallic materials consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) stimulates research on inter-particle interactions, bonding and necking processes in low-pressure or pressureless conditions as favoring technique-specific local effects when electric current passes through the underdeveloped inter-particle contacts. Until now, inter-particle interactions during pressureless SPS have been studied mainly for particles of the same material. In this work, we focused on the interactions between particles of dissimilar materials in mixtures of micrometer-sized Fe and Al powders forming porous compacts during pressureless SPS at 500–650 °C. Due to the chemical interaction between Al and Fe, necks of conventional shape did not form between the dissimilar particles. At the early interaction stages, the Al particles acquired shell morphology. It was shown that this morphology change was not related to the influence of electric current but was due to the Kirkendall effect in the Fe–Al system and particle rearrangement in a porous compact. No experimental evidence of melting or melt ejection during pressureless SPS of the Fe–Al mixtures or Fe and Al powders sintered separately was observed. Porous FeAl-based compacts could be obtained from Fe-40at.%Al mixtures by pressureless SPS at 650 °C. Full article
    Open AccessArticle The Effects of Spark-Plasma Sintering (SPS) on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of BaTiO3/3Y-TZP Composites
    Materials 2016, 9(5), 320; doi:10.3390/ma9050320
    Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 24 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Composite ceramics BaTiO3/3Y-TZP containing 0 mol %, 3 mol %, 5 mol %, 7 mol %, and 10 mol % BaTiO3 have been prepared by conventional sintering and spark-plasma sintering (SPS), respectively. Analysis of the XRD patterns and Raman spectra
    [...] Read more.
    Composite ceramics BaTiO3/3Y-TZP containing 0 mol %, 3 mol %, 5 mol %, 7 mol %, and 10 mol % BaTiO3 have been prepared by conventional sintering and spark-plasma sintering (SPS), respectively. Analysis of the XRD patterns and Raman spectra reveal that the phase composition of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and BaTiO3 has been obtained. Our results indicate that SPS can be effective for the decrease in grain size and porosity compared with conventional sintering, which results in a lower concentration of m-ZrO2 and residual stress. Therefore, the fracture toughness is enhanced by the BaTiO3 phase through the SPS technique, while the behavior was impaired by the piezoelectric second phase through conventional sintering. Full article
    Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Liquid Film Capillary Mechanism for Densification of Ceramic Powders during Flash Sintering
    Materials 2016, 9(4), 280; doi:10.3390/ma9040280
    Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
    Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Recently, local melting of the particle surfaces confirmed the formation of spark and plasma during spark plasma sintering, which explains the rapid densification mechanism via liquid. A model for rapid densification of flash sintered ceramics by liquid film capillary was presented, where liquid
    [...] Read more.
    Recently, local melting of the particle surfaces confirmed the formation of spark and plasma during spark plasma sintering, which explains the rapid densification mechanism via liquid. A model for rapid densification of flash sintered ceramics by liquid film capillary was presented, where liquid film forms by local melting at the particle contacts, due to Joule heating followed by thermal runaway. Local densification is by particle rearrangement led by spreading of the liquid, due to local attractive capillary forces. Electrowetting may assist this process. The asymmetric nature of the powder compact represents an invasive percolating system. Full article
    Open AccessArticle Discussion on Local Spark Sintering of a Ceramic-Metal System in an SR-CT Experiment during Microwave Processing
    Materials 2016, 9(3), 132; doi:10.3390/ma9030132
    Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
    PDF Full-text (2025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    In this paper, local spark sintering of a ceramic-metal system (SiO2-Sn) during microwave processing was examinedby means of synchrotron-radiation-computed tomography technology. From the reconstructed 3-D and cross-section images of the specimen, adensification process was observed below the melting point of Sn,
    [...] Read more.
    In this paper, local spark sintering of a ceramic-metal system (SiO2-Sn) during microwave processing was examinedby means of synchrotron-radiation-computed tomography technology. From the reconstructed 3-D and cross-section images of the specimen, adensification process was observed below the melting point of Sn, and then the specimen came into a rapid densification stage. These results may be due to the local spark sintering induced by the high-frequency alternating microwave electric fields. As the metallic particles Sn were introduced, the microstructure of “ceramic-metal” will lead to a non-uniform distribution and micro-focusing effect from electric fields in some regions (e.g., the neck). This will result in high-intensity electric fields and then induce rapid spark sintering within the micro-region. However, in the subsequent stage, the densification rate declined even when the specimen was not dense enough. The explanation for this is that as the liquid Sn permeated the gaps between SiO2, the specimen became dense and the micro-focusing effect of electric fields decreased. This may result in the decrease or disappearance of spark sintering. These results will contribute to the understanding of microwave sintering mechanisms and the improvement of microwave processing methods. Full article
    Open AccessArticle Microstructure Investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS Steel Components Obtained by High Voltage Electric Discharge Compaction Technique
    Materials 2015, 8(11), 7342-7353; doi:10.3390/ma8115381
    Received: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained.
    [...] Read more.
    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. The choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality. Full article
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