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Special Issue "Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Tracy John Mincer

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: marine microorganisms; microbial geochemistry; chemical communication; marine microbial natural products
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David C. Rowley

College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: marine natural products chemistry; antibiotics drug discovery; marine microbial chemical ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All life forms elicit, and respond to, chemical cues — be it organisms coordinating with their environment, host or kin, competing for space, and so on. The finding that some of these chemical cues also have applications as chemotherapeutics to treat infectious disease is arguably one of the great achievements in modern medicine. However, the effectiveness of current antibiotics is eroding and microbial infections are increasingly becoming a more serious threat to human health.

Fortunately, there is immense promise in the merging of new tools and multiple disciplines to explore the untapped diversity of the marine environment for the next generation of antimicrobial agents. In this Special Issue, we focus on the rich sources of marine diversity and the merging of recently developed tools and technologies to bring new therapeutic molecules online for human betterment.

For this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, we urge you to consider publishing your original research in the areas listed below:

  • New targets and assays for accelerating chemical inhibitor discovery
  • New chemotherapeutics discovered through exploration of previously unexplored microbial and other feedstocks
  • New ways of battling microbial infection through the understanding of microbial interactions

Tracy John Mincer
David C. Rowley
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial agents
  • natural products
  • microbial allelopathy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Biodiversity of Actinobacteria from the South Pacific and the Assessment of Streptomyces Chemical Diversity with Metabolic Profiling
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 286; doi:10.3390/md15090286
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Recently, bioprospecting in underexplored habitats has gained enhanced focus, since new taxa of marine actinobacteria can be found, and thus possible new metabolites. Actinobacteria are in the foreground due to their versatile production of secondary metabolites that present various biological activities, such as
[...] Read more.
Recently, bioprospecting in underexplored habitats has gained enhanced focus, since new taxa of marine actinobacteria can be found, and thus possible new metabolites. Actinobacteria are in the foreground due to their versatile production of secondary metabolites that present various biological activities, such as antibacterials, antitumorals and antifungals. Chilean marine ecosystems remain largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. Various culture conditions to enrich the growth of this phylum were used and 232 bacterial strains were isolated. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences led to identifying genetic affiliations of 32 genera, belonging to 20 families. This study shows a remarkable culturable diversity of actinobacteria, associated to marine environments along Chile. Furthermore, 30 streptomycete strains were studied to establish their antibacterial activities against five model strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, demonstrating abilities to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive bacteria. To gain insight into their metabolic profiles, crude extracts were submitted to liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis to assess the selection of streptomycete strains with potentials of producing novel bioactive metabolites. The combined approach allowed for the identification of three streptomycete strains to pursue further investigations. Our Chilean marine actinobacterial culture collection represents an important resource for the bioprospection of novel marine actinomycetes and its metabolites, evidencing their potential as producers of natural bioproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Open AccessArticle Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Chitosan-Caffeic Acid Conjugate against Antibiotic-Resistant Acne-Related Bacteria
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 167; doi:10.3390/md15060167
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris is often associated with acne-related bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus
[...] Read more.
The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris is often associated with acne-related bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these bacteria exhibit a resistance against commercial antibiotics that have been used in the treatment of acne vulgaris (tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin). In the current study, we tested in vitro antibacterial effect of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates on acne-related bacteria. Three chitosan-phytochemical conjugates used in this study exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than that of chitosan (unmodified control). Chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (CCA) showed the highest antibacterial effect on acne-related bacteria along with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 8 to 256 μg/mL). Additionally, the MIC values of antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant P. acnes and P. aeruginosa strains were dramatically reduced in combination with CCA, suggesting that CCA would restore the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. The analysis of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices clearly revealed a synergistic antibacterial effect of CCA with antibiotics. Thus, the median sum of FIC (∑FIC) values against the antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains ranged from 0.375 to 0.533 in the combination mode of CCA and antibiotics. The results of the present study suggested a potential possibility of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates in the control of infections related to acne vulgaris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Open AccessArticle Borrelidins C–E: New Antibacterial Macrolides from a Saltern-Derived Halophilic Nocardiopsis sp.
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 166; doi:10.3390/md15060166
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Chemical investigation of a halophilic actinomycete strain belonging to the genus Nocardiopsis inhabiting a hypersaline saltern led to the discovery of new 18-membered macrolides with nitrile functionality, borrelidins C–E (13), along with a previously reported borrelidin (4).
[...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of a halophilic actinomycete strain belonging to the genus Nocardiopsis inhabiting a hypersaline saltern led to the discovery of new 18-membered macrolides with nitrile functionality, borrelidins C–E (13), along with a previously reported borrelidin (4). The planar structures of borrelidins C–E, which are new members of the rare borrelidin class of antibiotics, were elucidated by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopic analyses. The configurations of borrelidines C–E were determined by the interpretation of ROESY NMR spectra, J-based configuration analysis, a modified Mosher’s method, and CD spectroscopic analysis. Borrelidins C and D displayed inhibitory activity, particularly against the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica, and moderate cytotoxicity against the SNU638 and K562 carcinoma cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Open AccessCommunication Chalcomycins from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp. and Their Antimicrobial Activities
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 153; doi:10.3390/md15060153
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Dihydrochalcomycin (1) and chalcomycin, (2), two known chalcomycins, and chalcomycin E (3), a new compound, were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. HK-2006-1. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans,
[...] Read more.
Dihydrochalcomycin (1) and chalcomycin, (2), two known chalcomycins, and chalcomycin E (3), a new compound, were isolated from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. HK-2006-1. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger of 1–3 were evaluated. Compounds 1–2 exhibited activities against S. aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively. The fact that 1–2 showed stronger activity against S. aureus 209P than 3 indicated that the epoxy unit was important for antimicrobial activity. This structure–activity tendency of chalcomycins against S. aureus is different from that of aldgamycins reported in our previous research, which provide a valuable example for the phenomenon that 16-membered macrolides with different sugars do not have parallel structure–activity relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities of Bacteria Isolated from the Marine Sponges Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera Collected from Algoa Bay, South Africa
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(2), 47; doi:10.3390/md15020047
Received: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to the rise in multi‐drug resistant pathogens and other diseases, there is renewed interest in marine sponge endosymbionts as a rich source of natural products (NPs). The South African marine environment is rich in marine biota that remains largely unexplored and may
[...] Read more.
Due to the rise in multi‐drug resistant pathogens and other diseases, there is renewed interest in marine sponge endosymbionts as a rich source of natural products (NPs). The South African marine environment is rich in marine biota that remains largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of novel NPs. We first investigated the bacterial diversity associated with five South African marine sponges, whose microbial populations had not previously been investigated, and select the two sponges (Isodictya compressa and Higginsia bidentifera) with highest species richness to culture bacteria. By employing 33 different growth conditions 415 sponge‐associated bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty‐five isolates showed antibacterial activity, twelve of which exhibited activity against the multi‐drug resistant Escherichia coli 1699, implying that some of the bioactive compounds could be novel. Genome sequencing of two of these isolates confirmed that they harbour uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways that may encode novel chemical structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Antibacterial Derivatives of Marine Algae: An Overview of Pharmacological Mechanisms and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(4), 81; doi:10.3390/md14040081
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms)
[...] Read more.
The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and inhibitors of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are reviewed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(3), 52; doi:10.3390/md14030052
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control
[...] Read more.
Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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