Special Issue "Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies"

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ille C. Gebeshuber

Institute of Applied Physics (IAP), Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/134, 1040 Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Phone: + 43 (0)1 58801 13483
Fax: +43 (0)1 58801 13499
Interests: tribology; nanotribology; green technology; positive technologies; systems approaches; complex systems
Guest Editor
Dr. George van Aken

NIZO food research, Kernhemseweg 2, 6718 ZB Ede, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31 318 659568
Interests: oral and gastrointestinal processing of food; friction and adhesion in the oral cavity and on the skin in relation to perception; food, oral and skin care formulations; tribology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biolubrication plays a crucial role in assisting the sliding contacts in many organs in the human body. Notable examples are the joints, the skin surface, the eye, the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, the lungs and the red blood cells. In all cases, reduced lubrication leads to increases in friction and adhesion between the surfaces in contact, which may lead to the surfaces becoming stuck and wearing, ultimately leading to irritation, pain and trauma. Over the past few decades, major advantage has been achieved in the accumulation of knowledge on the subject.

Joint lubrication has been shown to involve a complex and probably adaptive set of lubrication mechanisms involving the smoothness of the cartilage lining of the bone surfaces, synovial fluid, which is a lubricating hydrogel of collagen fibrils, Hyaluronic Acid, glycoproteins (lubricin) and water and a weeping mechanism by which joint pressure releases synovial fluid into the interspacing liquid film separating the cartilage surfaces.

The lubrication of epidermal surfaces such as skin, eye, mouth, longue and gastrointestinal tract follows different mechanisms. The relatively dry surface of the skin and hair is protected and lubricated by a thin coating of sebum. In addition, moisture plays a critical role. On the one hand moisture reduces the sliding resistance by providing suppleness, elasticity, plasticity, flexibility and softness to the deeper layers of the skin, but on the other it increases the adhesive properties, friction and microbial proliferation of the outer surface. Loss of skin surface lubricity can lead to unpleasant sensations of the contact with clothes, fabrics and solid surfaces, and can lead to an uncomfortable sensation of stickiness, irritation, trauma and wounds such as decubitus. The naturally moist mucosal surfaces of the eyes, mouth, longue, gastrointestinal tract and vulva are kept in lubricated state by specific biolubricants, i.e., glycoproteins (mucins), (phospho-)lipids and water. Disfunctioning lubricating mucosal surface can lead to various discomforting and clinical situations such as the eye ball sticking to the eye lid or to contact lenses, xerostomia (a syndrome due to a educed salivary flow or quality, involving dry mouth syndrome and difficulty in swallowing and speaking), pleuric rub caused by various lung diseases, difficulty in sexual penetration, bowel irritation and trauma that can ultimately lead to cancer development. A special aspect of the bio-lubrication of the mouth is in the way it affects sensory and texture perception. The effect is strongly related to the perception of smoothness, creaminess and the opposite of roughness and astringency, which probably have the biological function to test the quality of the food material for the way it affects the lubrication of the mucosal lining of the alimentary tract, giving feedback to food preference and eating behavior (speed, subsequent food selection during a meal).

A final topic that will be addressed is the lubrication of red blood cells in capillaries and of the larger arteries and the way this relates to cardiovascular degeneration and disease.

In relation to the various symptoms of imparted lubrication, various studies are focused on specific lubricants and moisturizers that can correct the malfunctioning of the various organs. To measure and interpret the function of these products, both fundamental studies in the physics of tribology and the biophysics and biochemistry of the involved compounds are conducted and will be reviewed. These will include the in vitro and in vivo measuring tools, and the fundamentals of lubrication theories and polymer biophysics.

Prof. Dr. Ille C. Gebeshuber
Dr. George van Aken
Guest Editor
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Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biolubrication
  • cartilage
  • eye
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • hair
  • joint lubrication
  • lungs
  • mouth
  • red blood cells
  • skin

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Editorial: Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
Biolubrication plays a crucial role in assisting the sliding contacts in many organs in the human body.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Kinetic Friction of Sport Fabrics on Snow
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After falls, skiers or snowboarders often slide on the slope and may collide with obstacles. Thus, the skier’s friction on snow is an important factor to reduce incidence and severity of impact injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure snow friction
[...] Read more.
After falls, skiers or snowboarders often slide on the slope and may collide with obstacles. Thus, the skier’s friction on snow is an important factor to reduce incidence and severity of impact injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure snow friction of different fabrics of ski garments with respect to roughness, speed, and contact pressure. Three types of fabrics were investigated: a commercially available ski overall, a smooth downhill racing suit, and a dimpled downhill racing suit. Friction was measured for fabrics taped on a short ski using a linear tribometer. The fabrics’ roughness was determined by focus variation microscopy. Friction coefficients were between 0.19 and 0.48. Roughness, friction coefficient, and friction force were highest for the dimpled race suit. The friction force of the fabrics was higher for the higher contact pressure than for the lower one at all speeds. It was concluded that the main friction mechanism for the fabrics was dry friction. Only the fabric with the roughest surface showed friction coefficients, which were high enough to sufficiently decelerate a sliding skier on beginner and intermediate slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Open AccessArticle Friction of Human Skin against Different Fabrics for Medical Use
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of the tribology of human skin is essential to improve and optimize surfaces and materials in contact with the skin. Besides that, friction between the human skin and textiles is a critical factor in the formation of skin injuries, which are caused
[...] Read more.
Knowledge of the tribology of human skin is essential to improve and optimize surfaces and materials in contact with the skin. Besides that, friction between the human skin and textiles is a critical factor in the formation of skin injuries, which are caused if the loads and shear forces are high enough and/or over long periods of time. This factor is of particular importance in bedridden patients, since they are not moving about or are confined to wheelchairs. Decubitus ulcers are one of the most frequently-reported iatrogenic injuries in developed countries. The risk of developing decubitus ulcers can be predicted by using the “Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk” that was developed in 1987 and contains six areas of risk (cognitive-perceptual, immobility, inactivity, moisture, nutrition, friction/shear), although there are limitations to the use of such tools. The coefficient of friction of textiles against skin is mainly influenced by: the nature of the textile, skin moisture content and ambient humidity. This study will investigate how skin friction (different anatomical regions) varies, rubbing against different types of contacting materials (i.e., fabrics for medical use) under different contact conditions and their relationship in the formation and prevention of decubitus ulcers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of Retrieved Glenoid Liners
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Revision of orthopedic surgeries is often expensive and involves higher risk from complications. Since most total joint replacement devices use a polyethylene bearing, which serves as a weak link, the assessment of damage to the liner due to in vivo exposure is very
[...] Read more.
Revision of orthopedic surgeries is often expensive and involves higher risk from complications. Since most total joint replacement devices use a polyethylene bearing, which serves as a weak link, the assessment of damage to the liner due to in vivo exposure is very important. The failures often are due to excessive polyethylene wear. The glenoid liners are complex and hemispherical in shape and present challenges while assessing the damage. Therefore, the study on the analysis of glenoid liners retrieved from revision surgery may lend insight into common wear patterns and improve future product designs. The purpose of this pilot study is to further develop the methods of segmenting a liner into four quadrants to quantify the damage in the liner. Different damage modes are identified and statistically analyzed. Multiple analysts were recruited to conduct the damage assessments. In this paper, four analysts evaluated nine glenoid liners, retrieved from revision surgery, two of whom had an engineering background and two of whom had a non-engineering background. Associated human factor mechanisms are reported in this paper. The wear patterns were quantified using the Hood/Gunther, Wasielewski, Brandt, and Lombardi methods. The quantitative assessments made by several observers were analyzed. A new, composite damage parameter was developed and applied to assess damage. Inter-observer reliability was assessed using a paired t-test. Data reported by four analysts showed a high standard deviation; however, only two analysts performed the tests in a significantly similar way and they had engineering backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Tailoring of Contact Area for Frictional and Antibacterial Properties
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 27 January 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation
[...] Read more.
Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation of such surface patterns on technical surfaces in order to mimic these biological surfaces and effects. Friction optimization and antibacterial effects by DLIP are exemplarily described. Topographic surface patterns on the micro- and nano-scale demonstrated a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction and bacterial adhesion. It was shown that in both cases, the control of the contact area between surfaces or between surface and bacteria is of utmost importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing
Lubricants 2015, 3(4), 664-686; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3040664
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wear tests of joint prostheses are usually performed using bovine calf serum. The results from different laboratories are hardly ever comparable as, for example, the protein concentration and the protein composition of the serum-based test liquids vary. In addition, the viscosity of these
[...] Read more.
Wear tests of joint prostheses are usually performed using bovine calf serum. The results from different laboratories are hardly ever comparable as, for example, the protein concentration and the protein composition of the serum-based test liquids vary. In addition, the viscosity of these test liquids is similar to that of water and does not match the more viscous synovial fluid. The present work was aimed at developing a synthetic synovial fluid as an alternative to the existing test liquids. Improved consistency and reproducibility of results at a similar price were required. Hyaluronic acid (HA), the lyophilized proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), the phospholipid lecithin (PL) and salts were applied in a stepwise approach to replace the actually used test liquid based on newborn calf serum. The in vitro results obtained with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins sliding against CoCrMo discs revealed that the developed synthetic synovial fluid fulfils the set requirements: increase of viscosity, reasonable cost, improved consistency and wear particles which resemble the ones found in vivo. The developed synthetic synovial fluid with 3 g/L HA, 19 g/L BSA, 11 g/L IgG, 0.1 g/L PL and Ringer solution is a more realistic alternative to the used serum-based test liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Pleural Lubrication
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During breathing, the pleural surfaces slide against each other continuously without damage. Pleural liquid and lubricating molecules should provide the lubrication of the sliding surfaces, thus protecting the mesothelium from shear-induced abrasion. D’Angelo et al. (Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2004) measured the coefficient
[...] Read more.
During breathing, the pleural surfaces slide against each other continuously without damage. Pleural liquid and lubricating molecules should provide the lubrication of the sliding surfaces, thus protecting the mesothelium from shear-induced abrasion. D’Angelo et al. (Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2004) measured the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of rabbit parietal pleura sliding against visceral pleura in vitro at physiological velocities and under physiological loads; it was ~0.02 and did not change with sliding velocity, consistent with boundary lubrication. μ in boundary lubrication can be influenced by surface molecules like hyaluronan, sialomucin or surface active phospholipidis. Hyaluronan or sialomucin is able to restore good boundary lubrication in damaged mesothelium. Nevertheless, hyaluronidase and neuraminidase treatment of the mesothelium does not increase μ, though neuraminidase cleaves sialic acid from the mesothelium. Short pronase or phospholipase treatment, so as to affect only the mesothelial glycocalyx, increases μ, and this increase is removed by hyaluronan or sialomucin. On the other hand, addition of phospholipids after phospholipase treatment produces a small effect relative to that of hyaluronan or sialomucin, and this effect is similar with unsaturated or saturated phospholipids. In damaged mesothelium, the lubrication regimen becomes mixed, but addition of hyaluronan or sialomucin restores boundary lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
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