Special Issue "Air–Sea Gas Exchange Process and Impact Factors"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Robert C. Upstill-Goddard (Website)

School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Ridley Building, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Fax: +44 191 222 7891
Interests: air–sea gas exchange; marine biogas cycling; the sea surface microlayer; seawater surfactants; gaseous tracers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air–sea gas exchange is a critical global process that provides the fundamental link between reactive trace gas production and consumption in the oceans and global atmospheric processes. The oceans are the largest single net sink for tropospheric CO2 and are a net source or sink for many other climate-active gases. Understanding and accurately predicting the evolution of these marine sources and sinks is critical to future climate change scenarios.

Despite recent progress in understanding air–sea gas exchange, there is still substantial uncertainty; many fundamental controlling processes remain inadequately parameterized. The physical and biogeochemical controls of air–sea gas exchange are many and identifying the relative importance of each is not always straightforward. Relevant issues include the relative roles of wind, sea state, currents, breaking waves, bubbles, rain, surfactants, turbulence due to current-seabed interaction, and sea surface microbiology.

This Special Issue is launched to provide a compilation of current state of the art and future perspectives in air–sea gas exchange. Its remit will include:

  • physical and biogeochemical forcing of air–sea gas exchange at local, regional and global scales
  • The application of new gas transfer parameterizations
  • Local, regional and global scale air–sea gas flux estimates
  • New instrumentation and measurement approaches
  • Laboratory, field, and modelling approaches to the above issues

Prof. Dr. Robert C. Upstill-Goddard
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • gas exchange
  • air–sea gas fluxes
  • gas transfer velocity
  • wind and bottom driven turbulence
  • sea state and surface roughness
  • wave geometry and breaking
  • micro-scale wave breaking
  • bubbles and ebullition
  • sea surface microlayer
  • bacterioneuston
  • instrumentation and measurement
  • modelling

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: Association with Biochemical and Physical Factors during Spring
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 891-905; doi:10.3390/jmse3030891
Received: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
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Abstract
Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W) and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W) during spring 2011. Additional [...] Read more.
Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W) and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W) during spring 2011. Additional biogeochemical and physical variables measured to identify factors controlling the surface pCO2 were analyzed in discrete samples collected at 16 sites along the transect at the surface and to a depth of 200 m. Sea surface pCO2 varied between 309 and 662 μatm, and showed differences between the western and eastern subtropical gyre. The subtropical gyre acted as a net CO2 sink, with a mean flux of −5.5 ± 2.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The eastern part of the transect, close to the North Atlantic Iberian upwelling off the Galician coast, was a CO2 source with an average flux of 33.5 ± 9.0 mmol m−2 day−1. Our results highlight the importance of making more surface pCO2 observations in the area located east of the Azores Islands since air-sea CO2 fluxes there are poorly studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air–Sea Gas Exchange Process and Impact Factors)
Open AccessArticle Bubble Clouds in Coastal Waters and Their Role in Air-Water Gas Exchange of CO2
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 866-890; doi:10.3390/jmse3030866
Received: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
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Abstract
Bubbles generated by breaking waves can drive significant gas exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, but the role of bubble-mediated gas transfer in estuaries is unknown. Here, backscatter data from 41 acoustic Doppler current profiler stations was analyzed to assess subsurface bubble [...] Read more.
Bubbles generated by breaking waves can drive significant gas exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, but the role of bubble-mediated gas transfer in estuaries is unknown. Here, backscatter data from 41 acoustic Doppler current profiler stations was analyzed to assess subsurface bubble distributions in nine estuaries along the U.S. East and Gulf Coast. Wind speed, wind direction, and current velocity were the dominant controls on bubble entrainment, but the relative importance of these physical drivers depended on local geomorphology. Bubble entrainment in high-current or shallow, long-fetch estuaries began at wind speeds <5 m s1. In deep or fetch-limited estuaries, bubble entrainment was less frequent and generally began at higher wind speeds. Data observed during several storms suggests that episodic bubble-driven gas exchange may be an important component of annual CO2 fluxes in large, shallow estuaries but would be less significant in other coastal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air–Sea Gas Exchange Process and Impact Factors)
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