Next Article in Journal
Morphing of Building Footprints Using a Turning Angle Function
Next Article in Special Issue
Addressing Public Law Restrictions within a 3D Cadastral Context
Previous Article in Journal
Application of a GIS-Based Slope Unit Method for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping along the Longzi River, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(6), 171; doi:10.3390/ijgi6060171

LandXML Encoding of Mixed 2D and 3D Survey Plans with Multi-Level Topology

1
Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
2
Singapore Land Authority, 55 Newton Road, #12-01, Revenue House, Singapore 307987, Singapore
This paper is extended from the version presented at the 5th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Athens, Greece, 18–20 October 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Efi Dimopoulou and Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [9825 KB, uploaded 13 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cadastral spatial units around the world range from simple 2D parcels to complex 3D collections of spaces, defined at levels of sophistication from textural descriptions to complete, rigorous mathematical descriptions based on measurements and coordinates. The most common spatial unit in a cadastral database is the 2D land parcel—the basic unit subject to cadastral Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities (RRR). Built on this is a varying complexity of 3D subdivisions and secondary interests. Spatial units may also be subdivided into smaller units, with the remainder being kept as common property for the owners/tenants of the individual units. This has led to the adoption of hierarchical multi-level schemes. In this paper, we explore the encoding of spatial units in a way that highlights their 2D extent and topology, while fully defining their extent in the third dimension. Obviously, topological encoding itself is not new. However, having mixed a 2D and 3D topological structure is rather challenging. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of mixed 2D and 3D topology, it is currently not used in LandXML, one of the main and best documented formats when representing survey data. This paper presents a multi-level topological encoding for the purposes of survey plan representation in LandXML that is simple and efficient in space requirements, including the question of curved surfaces, (partly) unbounded spatial units, and grouping and division of 2D and 3D spatial units. No “off the shelf” software is available for validating newly lodged surveys and we present our prototype for this. It is further suggested that the conceptual model behind this encoding approach can be extend to the database schema itself. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D cadastres; survey plans; LandXML; InfraGML; multi-level topology; geographic information systems; rights; restrictions; responsibilities; spatial data infrastructure; real property 3D cadastres; survey plans; LandXML; InfraGML; multi-level topology; geographic information systems; rights; restrictions; responsibilities; spatial data infrastructure; real property
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, R.J.; van Oosterom, P.; Soon, K.H. LandXML Encoding of Mixed 2D and 3D Survey Plans with Multi-Level Topology. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 171.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top