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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(12), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi6120384

Supporting Indoor Navigation Using Access Rights to Spaces Based on Combined Use of IndoorGML and LADM Models

1
Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
2
Faculty of Environment, Geography and Applied Economics, Department of Geography, Harokopio University of Athens, Eleftheriou Venizelou 70, 17671 Kallithéa, Greece
3
Netherlands Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Hofstraat 110, 7311 KZ Apeldoorn, The Netherlands
4
Pusan National University, Kumjeong-Gu, Pusan 46241, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)

Abstract

The aim of this research is to investigate the combined use of IndoorGML and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) to define the accessibility of the indoor spaces based on the ownership and/or the functional right for use. The users of the indoor spaces create a relationship with the space depending on the type of the building and the function of the spaces. The indoor spaces of each building have different usage functions and associated users. By defining the user types of the indoor spaces, LADM makes it possible to establish a relationship between the indoor spaces and the users. LADM assigns rights, restrictions, and responsibilities to each indoor space, which indicates the accessible spaces for each type of user. The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the building will be impacted by assigning such functional rights, and will provide additional knowledge to path computation for an individual or a group of users. As a result, the navigation process will be more appropriate and simpler because the navigation path will avoid all of the non-accessible spaces based on the rights of the party. The combined use of IndoorGML and LADM covers a broad range of information classes: (indoor 3D) cell spaces, connectivity, spatial units/boundaries, (access/use) rights and restrictions, parties/persons/actors, and groups of them. The new specialized classes for individual students, individual staff members, groups of students, groups of staff members are able to represent cohorts of education programmes and the organizational structure (organogram: faculty, department, group). The model is capable to represent the access times to lecture rooms (based on education/teaching schedules), use rights of meeting rooms, opening hours of offices, etc. The two original standard models remain independent in our approach, we do not propose yet another model, but applications can fully benefit of the potential of the combined use, which is an important contribution of this paper. The main purpose of the combined use model is to support the indoor navigation, but could also support different applications, such as the maintenance and facility management work, by computing the cleaning cost based on the space floor area. The main contributions of this paper are: a solution for the combined use of IndoorGML-LADM model, a conceptual enhancement of LADM by the refinement of the LA_Party package with specialization for staff and student (groups), and the assessment of the model by converting sample data (from two complex university buildings) into the model, and conducting actual access-rights aware navigation, based on the populated model. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial unit; private rights; common rights; indoor; navigation; party spatial unit; private rights; common rights; indoor; navigation; party
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Alattas, A.; Zlatanova, S.; Van Oosterom, P.; Chatzinikolaou, E.; Lemmen, C.; Li, K.-J. Supporting Indoor Navigation Using Access Rights to Spaces Based on Combined Use of IndoorGML and LADM Models. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 384.

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