Special Issue "Brewing & Distilling"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frank Vriesekoop

Department of Food Science, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: yeast; brewing; distilling; food safety; metabolism; simultaneous saccharification & fermentation; solid state fermentation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both beer and distilled beverages are characterised by the presence of alcohol, which is always derived by means of fermentation. In order to produce the vast variety of quality beers and distilled beverages, a very large array of fermentative organisms is utilised, either as pure cultures or mixed cultures. On the one hand the fermentation can be managed through careful selection of suitable strains, while on the other hand the fermentation can be managed through providing the most suitable conditions under which the fermentation can be carried out.

This Special Issue of Fermentation aims to disseminate recent innovative research regarding all aspects of fermentation as it applies to the brewing and distilling industries, as well as authoritative reviews that compile information from previously published material. Topics include (and are not limited to): Yeast and bacterial physiology as it applies to brewing and distilling; starter culture management; mixed culture fermentations; spoilage; spontaneous fermentations; yeast genetics; strain improvements; process intensification; fermentation vessels (e.g., wood vs. stainless steel); fermentation technology; fermentation management; hygiene and sanitation; etc.

Prof. Dr. Frank Vriesekoop
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • yeast and bacterial physiology
  • starter culture management
  • mixed culture fermentations
  • spoilage
  • spontaneous fermentations
  • yeast genetics
  • strain improvements
  • process intensification
  • fermentation vessels
  • fermentation technology
  • fermentation management

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Identification of Microflora in a Biological Brewer’s Wort Acidification Process Run Continuously for 20 Years
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030051
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Biological acidification is a common and beneficial way for breweries to adjust the pH value of their mash or wort to improve enzymatic activity during mashing, raise yeast activity during fermentation, and increase the flavor stability of the finished beer. The reactors are
[...] Read more.
Biological acidification is a common and beneficial way for breweries to adjust the pH value of their mash or wort to improve enzymatic activity during mashing, raise yeast activity during fermentation, and increase the flavor stability of the finished beer. The reactors are mostly run for many years without re-inoculating a fresh culture, creating the possibility of changes in the culture, genetic drifts, or the survival of different strains. In this study, a biological acidification culture that had been continuously run for 20 years was analyzed by GTG5 PCR and IGS2-314 rDNA PCR fingerprinting, as well as 16S and 26S rDNA sequencing, and real-time PCR was applied to differentiate the bacterial and yeast strains and species. The applied real-time PCR primers for Lactobacillus amylolyticus and Lactobacillus amylovorus have not been published yet. It was shown that only strains of the species L. amylolyticus were present, with low contamination of yeast strains from the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As the original starter culture was Lactobacillus amylolyticus, the acidification plant ran for 20 years, and no Lactobacillus sp. cross-contamination could be analyzed using culture-dependent methods after 20 years. The microflora composition is a decisive factor for the final beer flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Micro-Malting for the Quality Evaluation of Rye (Secale cereale) Genotypes
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030050
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Malting of rye and the use of rye malts presents several challenges to maltsters and brewers, like the lack of a hull, dense packing in steep, and high wort viscosity. While empirical evidence shows that rye genotypes differ in malting and brewing performance
[...] Read more.
Malting of rye and the use of rye malts presents several challenges to maltsters and brewers, like the lack of a hull, dense packing in steep, and high wort viscosity. While empirical evidence shows that rye genotypes differ in malting and brewing performance and flavor, there is little published information on the malting of rye or the malt quality attributes of rye genotypes. The objective was to evaluate laboratory micro-malting conditions that could be used in quality screening. Parameters included germination time, moisture and kernel size. Wort arabinoxylan and phenolic acid contents were determined in addition to standard malt quality parameters. In general, high extract and lower viscosity were achieved by malting for at least 4 days at 45%–48% moisture under the temperature of 16 °C. However, as some commercial maltsters indicated the difficulty of handling of germinating rye at the highest moisture levels, we recommend 5 days of germination at 45% moisture for the future evaluation of rye cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Yeast Flocculation—Sedimentation and Flotation
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020028
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Unlike most fermentation alcohol beverage production processes, brewers recycle their yeast. This is achieved by employing a yeast culture’s: flocculation, adhesion, sedimentation, flotation, and cropping characteristics. As a consequence of yeast recycling, the quality of the cropped yeast culture’s characteristics is critical. However,
[...] Read more.
Unlike most fermentation alcohol beverage production processes, brewers recycle their yeast. This is achieved by employing a yeast culture’s: flocculation, adhesion, sedimentation, flotation, and cropping characteristics. As a consequence of yeast recycling, the quality of the cropped yeast culture’s characteristics is critical. However, the other major function of brewer’s yeast is to metabolise wort into ethanol, carbon dioxide, glycerol, and other fermentation products, many of which contribute to beer’s overall flavour characteristics. This review will only focus on brewer’s yeast flocculation characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
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Open AccessReview Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020023
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs.
[...] Read more.
The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Impact of Simple Phenolic Compounds on Beer Aroma and Flavor
Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010020
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Beer is a complex beverage containing a myriad of flavor- and aroma-active compounds. Brewers strive to achieve an appropriate balance of desired characters, while avoiding off-aromas and flavors. Phenolic compounds are always present in finished beer, as they are extracted from grains and
[...] Read more.
Beer is a complex beverage containing a myriad of flavor- and aroma-active compounds. Brewers strive to achieve an appropriate balance of desired characters, while avoiding off-aromas and flavors. Phenolic compounds are always present in finished beer, as they are extracted from grains and hops during the mashing and brewing process. Some of these compounds have little impact on finished beer, while others may contribute either desirable or undesirable aromas, flavors, and mouthfeel characteristics. They may also contribute to beer stability. The role of simple phenolic compounds on the attributes of wort and beer are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing & Distilling)
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