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Special Issue "Simulation of Polygeneration Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Francesco Calise

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 0817682301
Fax: +39 0812390364
Interests: fuel cells; solar energy; polygeneration systems; solar cooling; organic Rankine cycle; geothermal energy; solar thermal; solar heating and cooling; photovoltaic/thermal collectors; building dynamic simulations; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; cogeneration; energy efficiency; desalination
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Massimo Dentice d’Accadia

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 0817682304
Fax: +39 0812390364
Interests: fuel cells; solar energy; polygeneration systems; solar cooling; Organic Rankine Cycle; geothermal energy; solar thermal; solar heating and cooling; photovoltaic/thermal collectors; building dynamic simulations; HVAC systems; cogeneration; energy efficiency; desalination

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims at collecting recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems. In particular, the papers must focus on the possible integration of different technologies in a single polygeneration system. This system can convert one or multiple types of energy sources in energy services (electricity, heat and cool) and useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerine, ammonia, etc.). The systems may include both renewable (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal) technologies and advanced systems fed by fossil fuels, such as fuel cells and cogeneration. Special attention must be paid to the control strategies and the management of the systems. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are welcomed.

Papers in the relevant area of polygeneration systems, including, but not limited to, the following topics, are invited:

  • Advanced Cogeneration and trigeneration technologies
  • Polygeneration systems based on fuel cells
  • Polygeneration systems fed by biomass
  • Polygeneration systems on photovoltaic/thermal systems
  • System dynamic simulation
  • Integration of polygeneration systems in buildings
  • Control strategies and system management
  • Economical assessment and funding policies
  • Distributed generation
  • Hydrogen-based technologies
  • Polygeneration systems including desalination
  • Building dynamic simulation
  • District heating and cooling systems

Prof. Dr. Francesco Calise
Prof. Dr. Massimo Dentice d’Accadia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Renewable energy
  • Polygeneration
  • Distributed generation
  • Dynamic simulations

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Simulation of Polygeneration Systems
Energies 2016, 9(11), 925; doi:10.3390/en9110925
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling)
[...] Read more.
This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling) and other useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerin, ammonia, etc.). Renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal), as well as fossil fuels, feeding advanced energy systems such as fuel cells and cogeneration systems, are considered. Special attention is paid to control strategies and to the management of the systems in general. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Analysis of a Hybrid Solar-Assisted Trigeneration System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 705; doi:10.3390/en9090705
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hybrid solar-assisted trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is composed of a 20 m2 solar field of evacuated tube collectors, a natural gas fired micro combined heat and power system delivering 12.5 kW of thermal power, an absorption
[...] Read more.
A hybrid solar-assisted trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is composed of a 20 m2 solar field of evacuated tube collectors, a natural gas fired micro combined heat and power system delivering 12.5 kW of thermal power, an absorption heat pump (AHP) with a nominal cooling power of 17.6 kW, two storage tanks (hot and cold) and an electric auxiliary heater (AH). The plant satisfies the energy demand of an office building located in Naples (Southern Italy). The electric energy of the cogenerator is used to meet the load and auxiliaries electric demand; the interactions with the grid are considered in cases of excess or over requests. This hybrid solution is interesting for buildings located in cities or historical centers with limited usable roof surface to install a conventional solar heating and cooling (SHC) system able to achieve high solar fraction (SF). The results of dynamic simulation show that a tilt angle of 30° maximizes the SF of the system on annual basis achieving about 53.5%. The influence on the performance of proposed system of the hot water storage tank (HST) characteristics (volume, insulation) is also studied. It is highlighted that the SF improves when better insulated and bigger HSTs are considered. A maximum SF of about 58.2% is obtained with a 2000 L storage, whereas the lower thermal losses take place with a better insulated 1000 L tank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of a Photovoltaic-Assisted 1 MWe Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power System
Energies 2016, 9(8), 663; doi:10.3390/en9080663
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
In this study a small-scale, completely autonomous combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) subsystem, to investigate the possibility of reducing fuel consumption. The CCHP system generates electrical energy with the use of a simple gas turbine
[...] Read more.
In this study a small-scale, completely autonomous combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) subsystem, to investigate the possibility of reducing fuel consumption. The CCHP system generates electrical energy with the use of a simple gas turbine cycle, with a rated nominal power output of 1 MWe. The nominal power output of the PV subsystem is examined in a parametric study, ranging from 0 to 600 kWe, to investigate which configuration results in a minimum lifecycle cost (LCC) for a system lifetime of 20 years of service. The load profile considered is applied for a complex of households in Nicosia, Cyprus. The solar data for the PV subsystem are taken on an hourly basis for a whole year. The results suggest that apart from economic benefits, the proposed system also results in high efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions. The parametric study shows that the optimum PV capacity is 300 kWe. The minimum lifecycle cost for the PV-assisted CCHP system is found to be 3.509 million €, as compared to 3.577 million € for a system without a PV subsystem. The total cost for the PV subsystem is 547,445 €, while the total cost for operating the system (fuel) is 731,814 € (compared to 952,201 € for a CCHP system without PVs). Overall, the proposed system generates a total electrical energy output of 52,433 MWh (during its whole lifetime), which translates to a unit cost of electricity of 0.067 €/kWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Simulation of a Holographic PVT Concentrating System for Building Integration Applications
Energies 2016, 9(8), 577; doi:10.3390/en9080577
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds
[...] Read more.
A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds already have, to increase system performance. A dynamic energy simulation has been conducted in two different locations—Sde Boker (Israel) and Avignon (France)—both with adequate annual irradiances for solar applications, but with different weather and energy demand characteristics. The simulation engine utilized has been TRNSYS, coupled with MATLAB (where the ray-tracing algorithm to simulate the holographic optical performance has been implemented). The concentrator achieves annual mean optical efficiencies of 30.3% for Sde Boker and 43.0% for the case of Avignon. Regarding the energy production, in both locations the thermal energy produced meets almost 100% of the domestic hot water demand as this has been considered a priority in the system control. On the other hand, the space heating demands are covered by a percentage ranging from 15% (Avignon) to 20% (Sde Boker). Finally, the electricity produced in both places covers 7.4% of the electrical demand profile for Sde Boker and 9.1% for Avignon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Cooling Load Sharing Strategies for Different Types of Absorption Chillers in Trigeneration Plants
Energies 2016, 9(8), 573; doi:10.3390/en9080573
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trigeneration plants can use different types of chillers in the same plant, typically single effect and double effect absorption chillers, vapour compression chillers and also cooling storage systems. The highly variable cooling demand of the buildings connected to a district heating and cooling
[...] Read more.
Trigeneration plants can use different types of chillers in the same plant, typically single effect and double effect absorption chillers, vapour compression chillers and also cooling storage systems. The highly variable cooling demand of the buildings connected to a district heating and cooling (DHC) network has to be distributed among these chillers to achieve lower operating costs and higher energy efficiencies. This problem is difficult to solve due to the different partial load behaviour of each chiller and the different chiller combinations that can cover a certain cooling demand using an appropriate sizing of the cooling storage. The objective of this paper is to optimize the daily plant operation of an existing trigeneration plant based on cogeneration engines and to study the optimal cooling load sharing between different types of absorption chillers using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model. Real data from a trigeneration plant connected to a DHC close to Barcelona (Spain) is used for the development of this model. The cooling load distribution among the different units is heavily influenced by the price of the electricity sold to the grid which rules the duration of the operation time of the engines. The main parameter to compare load distribution configurations is the primary energy saving indicator. Cooling load distribution among the different chillers changes also with the load of the whole plant because the chiller performance changes with load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Code-to-Code Validation and Application of a Dynamic Simulation Tool for the Building Energy Performance Analysis
Energies 2016, 9(4), 301; doi:10.3390/en9040301
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper details about the results of a code-to-code validation procedure of an in-house developed building simulation model, called DETECt, are reported. The tool was developed for research purposes in order to carry out dynamic building energy performance and parametric analyses by
[...] Read more.
In this paper details about the results of a code-to-code validation procedure of an in-house developed building simulation model, called DETECt, are reported. The tool was developed for research purposes in order to carry out dynamic building energy performance and parametric analyses by taking into account new building envelope integrated technologies, novel construction materials and innovative energy saving strategies. The reliability and accuracy of DETECt was appropriately tested by means of the standard BESTEST validation procedure. In the paper, details of this validation process are accurately described. A good agreement between the obtained results and all the reference data of the BESTEST qualification cases is achieved. In particular, the obtained results vs. standard BESTEST output are always within the provided ranges of confidence. In addition, several test cases output obtained by DETECt (e.g., dynamic profiles of indoor air and building surfaces temperature and heat fluxes and spatial trends of temperature across walls) are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
Open AccessArticle Development of an ICE-Based Micro-CHP System Based on a Stirling Engine; Methodology for a Comparative Study of its Performance and Sensitivity Analysis in Recreational Sailing Boats in Different European Climates
Energies 2016, 9(4), 239; doi:10.3390/en9040239
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro combined heating and power (micro-CHP) systems are becoming more than important, and even essential, if we pretend to take full advantage of available energy. The efficiency of this kind of systems reaches 90% and important savings in energy transport processes can occur.
[...] Read more.
Micro combined heating and power (micro-CHP) systems are becoming more than important, and even essential, if we pretend to take full advantage of available energy. The efficiency of this kind of systems reaches 90% and important savings in energy transport processes can occur. In this research, an internal combustion engine (ICE)-based micro-CHP system was developed and tested under specific constraints. The system uses a two cylinder Otto engine as prime mover, coupled to an electrical alternator, and it uses exhaust gases and engine cooling circuit heat. The micro-CHP system was developed to match the electrical power of a typical Stirling engine (SE)-based micro-CHP unit, in order to later compare both systems’ performance under similar circumstances. Different operating modes were tested under different engine speeds, in order to find the optimum operating point. A stand-alone portable application of this system was performed using recreational sailing boats as mobile homes. Specific considerations had to be taken, related to boundary conditions with sea water, and a transient simulation was performed, considering the boat under three different European climates. Results were compared for the different locations and the performance of the equipment shown. A comparative study with the SE-based micro-CHP system performance was done, and a sensitivity analysis of the influence of the battery size was carried out under the same conditions. The SE and ICE-based proposed micro-CHP system have similar behavior, except for the differences found due to the electric/thermal power ratios in both systems. Battery bank size sensitivity analysis reflects a limit in performance improvement. This limit is caused by the uniform distribution of electrical demand profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
Open AccessArticle Crisscross Optimization Algorithm and Monte Carlo Simulation for Solving Optimal Distributed Generation Allocation Problem
Energies 2015, 8(12), 13641-13659; doi:10.3390/en81212389
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Distributed generation (DG) systems are integral parts in future distribution networks. In this paper, a novel approach integrating crisscross optimization algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation (CSO-MCS) is implemented to solve the optimal DG allocation (ODGA) problem. The feature of applying CSO to address
[...] Read more.
Distributed generation (DG) systems are integral parts in future distribution networks. In this paper, a novel approach integrating crisscross optimization algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation (CSO-MCS) is implemented to solve the optimal DG allocation (ODGA) problem. The feature of applying CSO to address the ODGA problem lies in three interacting operators, namely horizontal crossover, vertical crossover and competitive operator. The horizontal crossover can search new solutions in a hypercube space with a larger probability while in the periphery of each hypercube with a decreasing probability. The vertical crossover can effectively facilitate those stagnant dimensions of a population to escape from premature convergence. The competitive operator allows the crisscross search to always maintain in a historical best position to quicken the converge rate. It is the combination of the double search strategies and competitive mechanism that enables CSO significant advantage in convergence speed and accuracy. Moreover, to deal with system uncertainties such as the output power of wind turbine and photovoltaic generators, an MCS-based method is adopted to solve the probabilistic power flow. The effectiveness of the CSO-MCS method is validated on the typical 33-bus and 69-bus test system, and results substantiate the suitability of CSO-MCS for multi-objective ODGA problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation of Polygeneration Systems)
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