Energies 2013, 6(11), 5869-5886; doi:10.3390/en6115869
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Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds

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Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commodities—biofuels and animal feeds—using sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, the algal biomass must be high in digestible protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that can substitute for fish meal and fish oils. Biofuels will require a high content of vegetable oils (preferably triglycerides), hydrocarbons or fermentable carbohydrates. Many different cultivation systems, algal species, harvesting methods, and biomass processing technologies are being developed worldwide. However, only raceway-type open pond systems are suitable for the production of low-cost commodities.
Keywords: microalgae; biofuels; animal feeds; photosynthesis; productivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benemann, J. Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds. Energies 2013, 6, 5869-5886.

AMA Style

Benemann J. Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds. Energies. 2013; 6(11):5869-5886.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benemann, John. 2013. "Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds." Energies 6, no. 11: 5869-5886.

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