Special Issue "Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ipek Kurtboke

Senior Lecturer in Environmental Microbiology, School of Science, Education and Engineering, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 7 5430 2819
Fax: +61 (07) 5430 2881
Interests: microbial diversity; microbial systematics; ecophysiology of microorganisms; functional diversity of microorganisms; microbial ecosystems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The diverse range of marine bioactive compounds, especially those from marine-symbiotic bacteria, has been utilized for variety of industrial and environmental applications. However, to maximize the stream of bioactive compounds from these symbiotic bacteria, sound understanding on the taxonomical and functional diversity of these symbionts has to be increased. Correlating such understanding with the rationale of symbiont-aided host bioactive metabolite production can then improve prospects of generating drug leads from sponge sources. The composition of host-associated microflora is naturally influenced by environmental factors present at the geographical location; however, thus far, in-depth information on the environmental conditions and stress factors surrounding the host, which define this specific interaction, has been limited. To provide reliable information on the true symbiotic associations, many factors, such as the current directions, continental overflows, presence or absence of pollutants, as well as the characteristics of the sediments or reefs at the sponge sampling sites, have to be known. All these factors can define the response of host sponges to such surrounding factors and their selective acquisition of the microflora during the filter feeding activity. In the absence of such knowledge determination of the existence of the true symbiotic associations between the host and the microorganisms render difficult. This Special Issue, entitled “Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria”, is designed to generate such information, to improve the understanding on the existence of true symbiotic relationships between the host and symbiotic bacteria, which, in turn, will aid towards utilization of such bacteria for biodiscovery and biotechnology.

Dr. Ipek Kurtboke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Marine microbial diversity
  • Eco-functional diversity of marine symbiotic bacteria
  • Marine-symbiotic microbial metabolic diversity
  • Marine microbial ecosystems
  • Marine microbial systematics
  • Marine ecosystem mining for bioactive symbiotic bacteria
  • Marine environment and symbiosis
  • Marine pollution and symbiosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Taxonomic and Metabolite Diversity of Actinomycetes Associated with Three Australian Ascidians
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 53; doi:10.3390/d9040053
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Actinomycetes are known to be the most prolific producers of biologically active metabolites. Here, we investigated the host species-specificity and the related secondary metabolites of actinomycetes that are associated with three different Australian ascidians, namely Symplegma rubra, Aplidium solidum, and Polyclinum
[...] Read more.
Actinomycetes are known to be the most prolific producers of biologically active metabolites. Here, we investigated the host species-specificity and the related secondary metabolites of actinomycetes that are associated with three different Australian ascidians, namely Symplegma rubra, Aplidium solidum, and Polyclinum vasculosum. Results indicated that while isolates from the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora were highly diverse in the ascidian samples, only two culturable actinomycete Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) overlapped between all of the ascidians, pointing to some degree of host species-specificity of the isolates and selective acquisition of microbial associates by the host from the surrounding environment. LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts obtained from the ascidians and their actinomycete associates revealed many overlapping ions between hosts and actinomycetes, indicating that these compounds were likely to be synthesised by the microbial associates. Laboratory cultures of the actinomycetes displayed even more diverse metabolomes than those of their ascidian hosts; thus, making ascidian-associated actinomycetes an excellent target for natural product drug discovery and biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Open AccessArticle Diversity and Bioactivity of Marine Bacteria Associated with the Sponges Candidaspongia flabellata and Rhopaloeides odorabile from the Great Barrier Reef in Australia
Diversity 2017, 9(3), 39; doi:10.3390/d9030039
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Sponges and their associated microbial communities have sparked much interest in recent decades due on the abundant production of chemically diverse metabolites that in nature serve as functional compounds required by the marine sponge host. These compounds were found to carry therapeutic importance
[...] Read more.
Sponges and their associated microbial communities have sparked much interest in recent decades due on the abundant production of chemically diverse metabolites that in nature serve as functional compounds required by the marine sponge host. These compounds were found to carry therapeutic importance for medicinal applications. In the presented study, 123 bacterial isolates from the culture collection of the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) previously isolated from two different sponge species, namely Candidaspongia flabellata and Rhopaloeides odorabile, originating from different locations on the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia, were thus studied for their bioactivity. The symbiotic bacterial isolates were first identified using 16S rRNA gene analysis and they were found to belong to five different dominating classes of Domain Bacteria, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Following their taxonomical categorization, the isolates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic microbial reference strains: Escherichia coli (ATCC® BAA-196™), E. coli (ATCC® 13706™), E. coli (ATCC® 25922™), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC® BAA-1705™), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC® 51575™), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC® 19659™), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29247™), Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231™) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC® 16888™). Over 50% of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against one or more of the reference strains tested. The subset of these bioactive bacterial isolates was further investigated to identify their biosynthetic genes such as polyketide synthase (PKS) type I and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. This was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate primers that have been previously used to amplify PKS-I and NRPS genes. These specific genes have been reported to be possibly involved in bacterial secondary metabolite production. In 47% of the bacterial isolates investigated, the PKS and NRPS genes were located. Some of the bacterial isolates were found to possess both gene types, which agrees with the previous reported biosynthetic ability of certain sponge-symbiotic bacteria such as the Actinobacteria or Gammaproteobacteria to produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. All these reported activities further confirm that sponge-symbiotic bacteria hold significant bioactivity with medicinal and biotechnological importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Symbiotic Microbes from Marine Invertebrates: Driving a New Era of Natural Product Drug Discovery
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 49; doi:10.3390/d9040049
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Invertebrates account for more than 89% of all extant organisms in the marine environment, represented by over 174,600 species (recorded to date). Such diversity is mirrored in (or more likely increased by) the microbial symbionts associated with this group and in the marine
[...] Read more.
Invertebrates account for more than 89% of all extant organisms in the marine environment, represented by over 174,600 species (recorded to date). Such diversity is mirrored in (or more likely increased by) the microbial symbionts associated with this group and in the marine natural products (or MNPs) that they produce. Since the early 1950s over 20,000 MNPs have been discovered, including compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria, and the chemical diversity of compounds produced from marine sources has led to them being referred to as "blue gold" in the search for new drugs. For example, 80% of novel antibiotics stemming from the marine environment have come from Actinomycetes, many of which can be found associated with marine sponges, and compounds with anti-tumorigenic and anti-diabetic potential have also been isolated from marine symbionts. In fact, it has been estimated that marine sources formed the basis of over 50% of FDA-approved drugs between 1981 and 2002. In this review, we explore the diversity of marine microbial symbionts by examining their use as the producers of novel pharmaceutical actives, together with a discussion of the opportunities and constraints offered by “blue gold” drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Open AccessReview An Overview on Marine Sponge-Symbiotic Bacteria as Unexhausted Sources for Natural Product Discovery
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 40; doi:10.3390/d9040040
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial symbiotic communities of marine macro-organisms carry functional metabolic profiles different to the ones found terrestrially and within surrounding marine environments. These symbiotic bacteria have increasingly been a focus of microbiologists working in marine environments due to a wide array of reported bioactive
[...] Read more.
Microbial symbiotic communities of marine macro-organisms carry functional metabolic profiles different to the ones found terrestrially and within surrounding marine environments. These symbiotic bacteria have increasingly been a focus of microbiologists working in marine environments due to a wide array of reported bioactive compounds of therapeutic importance resulting in various patent registrations. Revelations of symbiont-directed host specific functions and the true nature of host-symbiont interactions, combined with metagenomic advances detecting functional gene clusters, will inevitably open new avenues for identification and discovery of novel bioactive compounds of biotechnological value from marine resources. This review article provides an overview on bioactive marine symbiotic organisms with specific emphasis placed on the sponge-associated ones and invites the international scientific community to contribute towards establishment of in-depth information of the environmental parameters defining selection and acquisition of true symbionts by the host organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the paper: Review
Tentative title: Marine invertebrates: underexplored sources for extracellular polymer-producing
bacteria
Authors: Rizzo Carmen 1 , Angelina Lo Giudice 1,2
Affiliations: 1 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences
(ChiBioFarAm), University of Messina, Messina, Italy
2 Institute for the Coastal Marine Environment, National Research Council (IAMC-CNR), Messina, Italy
Abstract: Associations between higher organisms and microorganisms often occur as mutualistic or symbiotic relationships, by providing benefits for both, in terms of protection and nutritional requirements.
Microorganisms could live attached to the surface of other organisms or within their tissues, thanks
to the adhesion to biofilm surfaces, very common in the sea as covering layer for all organisms, or
by creating themselves biofilm matrices. Many sponges, for example, are found to be habitat for
complex bacterial communities, by hosting up to 40% of microbial cells for millilitre of sponge
tissue volume. Associated bacteria support the defensive strategies of host organism by producing
secondary metabolites, in response to the environmental conditions of surrounding water.
Among secondary metabolites of microbial origin, extracellular polymeric substances - including
biosurfactants and exopolysaccharides - represent a class of eco-friendly compounds investigated
since several decades for their advantageous applications in numerous and important fields. They
are interesting for the remarkable role that they could assume in agriculture technology, in food,
cosmetic and pharmaceutic industries, in bioremediation strategies against different contaminants
(e.g. hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic compounds, heavy metals), in medical applications as
fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, and anti-viral agents. Despite the recognised and undisputed
potentiality of these compounds in the future economy and technology, the large-scale production
still meets many limits, due to costs of recovery and the effective raw extracts yield. The
exploration of new sources of microbial producers’ isolation, with the subsequent possible
discovery of new producers and new molecules, actually represents the primary tool for a more
effective application and employment. Microorganisms, as little high-specialized factory, and more
strongly microbial communities associated to marine invertebrates, are currently considered the
major potential pool to draw new metabolites and bioactive compounds. The production of
exopolymers could occur in response to environmental stressors, as a result of physiological
processes, which require both complex cell-to-cell and bacteria-host interactions. Despite this,
biological marine matrices have been scarcely considered for the isolation of microorganisms
specialised in the production of extracellular polymeric molecules, as such as biosurfactants or
exopolysaccharides. The present contribute aims at reviewing the role of marine invertebrates as
habitat for the establishment of biosurfactant-producing microbial communities, the biodiversity
inside these latter and their biotechnological applications.

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