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Diversity 2017, 9(4), 53; doi:10.3390/d9040053

Taxonomic and Metabolite Diversity of Actinomycetes Associated with Three Australian Ascidians

1
Environmental Futures Research Institute, School of Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
2
Biodiversity and Geosciences Program, Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 3300, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
3
GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD 4558, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Abstract

Actinomycetes are known to be the most prolific producers of biologically active metabolites. Here, we investigated the host species-specificity and the related secondary metabolites of actinomycetes that are associated with three different Australian ascidians, namely Symplegma rubra, Aplidium solidum, and Polyclinum vasculosum. Results indicated that while isolates from the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora were highly diverse in the ascidian samples, only two culturable actinomycete Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) overlapped between all of the ascidians, pointing to some degree of host species-specificity of the isolates and selective acquisition of microbial associates by the host from the surrounding environment. LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts obtained from the ascidians and their actinomycete associates revealed many overlapping ions between hosts and actinomycetes, indicating that these compounds were likely to be synthesised by the microbial associates. Laboratory cultures of the actinomycetes displayed even more diverse metabolomes than those of their ascidian hosts; thus, making ascidian-associated actinomycetes an excellent target for natural product drug discovery and biotechnology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Actinobacteria; actinomycetes; Actinomycetales; marine microbial diversity; ascidian-associated actinomycetes; secondary metabolites Actinobacteria; actinomycetes; Actinomycetales; marine microbial diversity; ascidian-associated actinomycetes; secondary metabolites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Buedenbender, L.; Carroll, A.R.; Ekins, M.; Kurtböke, D.İ. Taxonomic and Metabolite Diversity of Actinomycetes Associated with Three Australian Ascidians. Diversity 2017, 9, 53.

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