Special Issue "Biomarkers in Blood"

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A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ludmilla A. Morozova-Roche (Website)

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå, SE 90781, Sweden
Phone: +46 90 786 5283
Fax: +46 90 786 9795
Interests: amyloid; protein folding; neurodegeneration; inflammation; amyloid diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The issue "Biomarkers in Blood" will be focused on the diagnostics of plethora of pathologies, including such widely spread ailments as cancer, neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other diseases as well as other pathological conditions, by using biomarkers in the blood. Due to growing elderly population these diseases are on the rise in the modern society and combatting them is a global issue. The early or even pre-clinical diagnostics of pathological conditions at the stage when the clinical symptoms are not obvious would be of significant therapeutic value and would enable to administer protective or preventive treatments at an earlier stage. The molecular constitution of blood can be highly representative of the physiological state of an individual. Patient blood serum analyses are potentially minimally invasive and cheap means of both early disease detection and the convenient monitoring of disease response to therapeutic intervention. These approaches are tightly aligned with the concept of personalised healthcare. Over last years a range of new robust diagnostic assays underpinning the presymptomatic detection of pathological conditions were established as well as a range of new biomarkers associated with the disease pathology were discovered. The biodiagnostics is a rapidly expanding field and yet many problems need to be solved. Experience shows that candidate biomarkers may fail to demonstrate their clinical utility, which can be because they are genuinely not relevant to the disease, or their validation has been limited to a subset of patients to whom they are relevant, or the technical limitations of the detection methods.
The present issue aims at bringing a collection of research and reviewer articles together to summarize a state of the art, problems and future directions in the biomarker and biodiagnostics field based on the blood analysis. Your contribution is very welcome!

Yours faithfully,

Prof. Dr. Ludmilla Morozova-Roche
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • biomarker
  • biosensor assay
  • diagnostics
  • blood analysis
  • presymptomatic detection
  • disease monitoring
  • cancer
  • neurodegenerative diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution
Diagnostics 2015, 5(1), 10-26; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5010010
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 12 January 2015
PDF Full-text (1108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted [...] Read more.
In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum D-Dimer Levels in Pregnant Women with Adnexal Torsion
Diagnostics 2015, 5(1), 1-9; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5010001
Received: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum D-dimer levels in pregnant women with adnexal torsion (AT). The pregnant women with ovarian cysts who suffered from pelvic pain were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of the cases with [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum D-dimer levels in pregnant women with adnexal torsion (AT). The pregnant women with ovarian cysts who suffered from pelvic pain were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of the cases with surgically proven as AT (n = 17) and the second group consisted of the cases whose pain were resolved in the course of follow-up period without required surgery (n = 34). The clinical characteristics and serum D-dimer levels were compared between the groups. Patients with AT had a higher rate of elevated serum white blood cell (WBC) count (57% vs. 16%, p = 0.04) and serum D-dimer levels (77% vs. 21%, p < 0.01) on admission in the study group than in the control group. Elevated D-dimer and cyst diameter larger than 5 cm yielded highest sensitivity (82% for each); whereas the presence of nausea and vomiting and elevated CRP had the highest specificity (85% and 88%, respectively). This is the first study that evaluates the serum D-dimer levels in humans in the diagnosis of AT, and our findings supported the use of D-dimer for the early diagnosis of AT in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Circulating HMGB1 and RAGE as Clinical Biomarkers in Malignant and Autoimmune Diseases
Diagnostics 2015, 5(2), 219-253; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5020219
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High molecular group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved member of the HMG-box-family; abundantly expressed in almost all human cells and released in apoptosis; necrosis or by activated immune cells. Once in the extracellular space, HMGB1 can act as a danger [...] Read more.
High molecular group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved member of the HMG-box-family; abundantly expressed in almost all human cells and released in apoptosis; necrosis or by activated immune cells. Once in the extracellular space, HMGB1 can act as a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP), thus stimulating or inhibiting certain functions of the immune system; depending on the “combinatorial cocktail” of the surrounding milieu. HMGB1 exerts its various functions through binding to a multitude of membrane-bound receptors such as TLR-2; -4 and -9; IL-1 and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products); partly complex-bound with intracellular fragments like nucleosomes. Soluble RAGE in the extracellular space, however, acts as a decoy receptor by binding to HMGB1 and inhibiting its effects. This review aims to outline today’s knowledge of structure, intra- and extracellular functions including mechanisms of release and finally the clinical relevance of HMGB1 and RAGE as clinical biomarkers in therapy monitoring, prediction and prognosis of malignant and autoimmune disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)
Open AccessReview Current Challenges Towards the Development of a Blood Test for Parkinson’s Disease
Diagnostics 2014, 4(4), 153-164; doi:10.3390/diagnostics4040153
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parkinson’ disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, [...] Read more.
Parkinson’ disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper Pain in the Blood? Envisioning Mechanism-Based Diagnoses and Biomarkers in Clinical Pain Medicine
Diagnostics 2015, 5(1), 84-95; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5010084
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic pain is highly prevalent, and pain medicine lacks objective biomarkers to guide diagnosis and choice of treatment. The current U.S. “opioid epidemic” is a reminder of the paucity of effective and safe treatment options. Traditional pain diagnoses according to the International [...] Read more.
Chronic pain is highly prevalent, and pain medicine lacks objective biomarkers to guide diagnosis and choice of treatment. The current U.S. “opioid epidemic” is a reminder of the paucity of effective and safe treatment options. Traditional pain diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases are often unspecific, and analgesics are often prescribed on a trial-and-error basis. In contrast to this current state of affairs, the vision of future mechanism-based diagnoses of chronic pain conditions is presented in this non-technical paper, focusing on the need for biomarkers and the theoretical complexity of the task. Pain is and will remain a subjective experience, and as such is not objectively measurable. Therefore, the concept of “noci-marker” is presented as an alternative to “pain biomarker”, the goal being to find objective, measurable correlates of the pathophysiological processes involved in different chronic pain conditions. This vision entails a call for more translational pain research in order to bridge the gap between clinical pain medicine and preclinical science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood)

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