Special Issue "Catalytic Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jean-François Lamonier

Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, Université Lille1 Sciences et Technologies, UMR CNRS 8181, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: heterogeneous catalysis; VOC catalytic oxidation; transition metal oxides; material surface characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The degradation of air quality by the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air particularly harms human health and our environment. Regulation of outdoor VOC emissions are required to prevent the formation of ground-level ozone, which is principally responsible for photochemical smog. Indoor emissions of VOC have been the subject of recent consideration from many governments around the world because of the adverse impact of VOC on the health of people exposed to them.

Heterogeneous catalytic oxidation is regarded as the most promising technology to control VOC emission with low energy consumption and with selective conversion into harmless molecules. For this application, the use of engineered transition metal containing nanomaterials as catalysts is of interest because of the high price and limited resource of noble metals, most commonly used in practice due to their high intrinsic activity. Moreover, the high volume and low VOC concentrations in air could require the coupling of catalytic oxidation process with other technologies such as adsorption and non-thermal plasma in order to control the emission with reduced operating costs.

The aim of this special issue is to cover promising recent research and novel trends in the fields of outdoor and indoor VOC abatement using different technological approaches and including recent developments in material chemistry to achieve more efficient processes.

Prof. Dr. Jean-François Lamonier
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • volatile organic compounds
  • catalytic oxidation
  • transition metal oxide
  • noble metals
  • coupling technologies
  • adsorption
  • non-thermal plasma

 

 

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Catalytic Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds
Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/catal6010007
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The degradation of air quality by the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air particularly harms human health and our environment. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Removal of Toluene over NaX Zeolite Exchanged with Cu2+
Catalysts 2015, 5(3), 1479-1497; doi:10.3390/catal5031479
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Toluene is a major air pollutant emitted from painting and metal coating processes and might have some health effects. Adsorption and catalytic complete oxidation are promising ways to retain or convert toluene into harmless products. The present work aims to develop a bifunctional
[...] Read more.
Toluene is a major air pollutant emitted from painting and metal coating processes and might have some health effects. Adsorption and catalytic complete oxidation are promising ways to retain or convert toluene into harmless products. The present work aims to develop a bifunctional material which can be used as an adsorbent and catalyst for low-temperature toluene removal. Copper zeolites were obtained by exchanging the sodium in the parent NaX zeolite with copper from aqueous solutions of Cu(NO3)2∙2.5H2O. Several characterization techniques, H2-TPR, XPS, XRD and N2 physisorption, were used in order to evaluate the redox, surface, structural and textural properties of the materials, respectively. The various materials were tested in adsorption and catalytic processes. The sample with low copper content (1 wt. %) exhibited promising features in terms of toluene adsorption capacity and total oxidation. The results can be correlated to the presence of micropores and well-dispersed CuO species. Full article
Open AccessArticle TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units
Catalysts 2015, 5(3), 1498-1506; doi:10.3390/catal5031498
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica) tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD). TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through
[...] Read more.
A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica) tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD). TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm) demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm) of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oxygen Storage Capacity and Oxygen Mobility of Co-Mn-Mg-Al Mixed Oxides and Their Relation in the VOC Oxidation Reaction
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 905-925; doi:10.3390/catal5020905
Received: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg)/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn)/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity
[...] Read more.
Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg)/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn)/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity and oxygen mobility were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), oxygen storage complete capacity (OSCC) and isotopic exchange, respectively. The catalytic behavior of the oxides was evaluated in the total oxidation of a mixture of 250 ppm toluene and 250 ppm 2-propanol. The synthesis methodology affected the crystallite size, redox properties, OSC and oxide oxygen mobility, which determined the catalytic behavior. The co-precipitation method got the most active oxide in the oxidation of the volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture because of the improved mobility of oxygen and ability to favor redox processes in the material structure. Full article
Open AccessArticle Co-Al Mixed Oxides Prepared via LDH Route Using Microwaves or Ultrasound: Application for Catalytic Toluene Total Oxidation
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 851-867; doi:10.3390/catal5020851
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (3794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Co6Al2HT hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthesized by three different methods: co-precipitation, microwaves-assisted and ultrasound-assisted methods. The mixed oxides obtained after calcination were studied by several techniques: XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. They were also tested as catalysts in
[...] Read more.
Co6Al2HT hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthesized by three different methods: co-precipitation, microwaves-assisted and ultrasound-assisted methods. The mixed oxides obtained after calcination were studied by several techniques: XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. They were also tested as catalysts in the reaction of total oxidation of toluene. The physico-chemical studies revealed a modification of the structural characteristics (surface area, morphology) as well as of the reducibility of the formed mixed oxides. The solid prepared by microwaves-assisted synthesis was the most active. Furthermore, a relationship between the ratio of Co2+ on the surface, the reducibility of the Co-Al mixed oxide and the T50 in toluene oxidation was demonstrated. This suggests a Mars Van Krevelen mechanism for toluene total oxidation on these catalysts. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Ozone in the Reaction Mechanism of a Bare Zeolite-Plasma Hybrid System
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 838-850; doi:10.3390/catal5020838
Received: 19 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the reaction mechanism of a metal-unloaded zeolite-plasma hybrid system for decomposition of toluene at room temperature. Short-lived radicals and fast electrons did not contribute substantially to the reaction mechanism of toluene decomposition in the zeolite-plasma hybrid system. The main factor enhancing
[...] Read more.
We investigated the reaction mechanism of a metal-unloaded zeolite-plasma hybrid system for decomposition of toluene at room temperature. Short-lived radicals and fast electrons did not contribute substantially to the reaction mechanism of toluene decomposition in the zeolite-plasma hybrid system. The main factor enhancing the reaction mechanism was gas-phase O3 directly reacting with toluene adsorbed onto the zeolite (the Eley-Rideal mechanism). CO2 selectivity was not improved by using H-Y zeolite due to its low ability to retain the active oxygen species formed by O3. The gas-phase O3 reacted with adsorbed toluene to form a ring cleavage intermediate that was slowly converted into formic acid. The decomposition rate of formic acid was much lower than that of toluene on the H-Y surface. Full article
Open AccessArticle Non-Thermal Plasma Combined with Cordierite-Supported Mn and Fe Based Catalysts for the Decomposition of Diethylether
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 800-814; doi:10.3390/catal5020800
Received: 3 February 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The removal of dilute diethylether (DEE, concentration: 150 ppm) from an air stream (flow rate: 1.0 L min−1) using non-thermal plasma combined with different cordierite-supported catalysts, including Mn, Fe, and mixed Mn-Fe oxides, was investigated. The experimental results showed that the
[...] Read more.
The removal of dilute diethylether (DEE, concentration: 150 ppm) from an air stream (flow rate: 1.0 L min−1) using non-thermal plasma combined with different cordierite-supported catalysts, including Mn, Fe, and mixed Mn-Fe oxides, was investigated. The experimental results showed that the decomposition of DEE occurred in a one-stage reactor without the positive synergy of plasma and supported catalysts, by which ca. 96% of DEE was removed at a specific input energy (SIE) of ca. 600 J L−1, except when the mixed Mn-Fe/cordierite was used. Among the catalysts that were examined, Mn-Fe/cordierite, the catalyst that was the most efficient at decomposing ozone was found to negatively affect the decomposition of DEE in the one-stage reactor. However, when it was utilized as a catalyst in the post-plasma stage of a two-part hybrid reactor, in which Mn/cordierite was directly exposed to the plasma, the reactor performance in terms of DEE decomposition efficiency was improved by more than 10% at low values of SIE compared to the efficiency that was achieved without Mn-Fe/cordierite. The ozone that was formed during the plasma stage and its subsequent catalytic dissociation during the post-plasma stage to produce atomic oxygen therefore played important roles in the removal of DEE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Non-Calorimetric Determination of the Adsorption Heat of Volatile Organic Compounds under Dynamic Conditions
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 653-670; doi:10.3390/catal5020653
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Avoiding strong chemical bonding, as indicated by lower heat of adsorption value, is among the selection criteria for Volatile Organic Compounds adsorbents. In this work, we highlight a non-calorimetric approach to estimating the energy of adsorption and desorption based on measurement of involved
[...] Read more.
Avoiding strong chemical bonding, as indicated by lower heat of adsorption value, is among the selection criteria for Volatile Organic Compounds adsorbents. In this work, we highlight a non-calorimetric approach to estimating the energy of adsorption and desorption based on measurement of involved amounts, under dynamic conditions, with gaseous Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The collected data were used for obtaining adsorption heat values through the application of three different methods, namely, isosteric, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and temperature-programmed adsorption equilibrium (TPAE). The resulting values were compared and discussed with the scope of turning determination of the heat of adsorption with non-calorimetric methods into a relevant decision making tool for designing cost-effective and safe operating of adsorption facilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Oxidation of Propene over Pd Catalysts Supported on CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and M/Al2O3 Oxides (M = Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn)
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 671-689; doi:10.3390/catal5020671
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the following work, the catalytic behavior of Pd catalysts prepared using different oxides as support (Al2O3, CeO2 and TiO2) in the catalytic combustion of propene, in low concentration in excess of oxygen, to mimic the
[...] Read more.
In the following work, the catalytic behavior of Pd catalysts prepared using different oxides as support (Al2O3, CeO2 and TiO2) in the catalytic combustion of propene, in low concentration in excess of oxygen, to mimic the conditions of catalytic decomposition of a volatile organic compound of hydrocarbon-type is reported. In addition, the influence of different promoters (Ce, Ti, Fe and Mn) when added to a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was analyzed. Catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and were characterized by ICP-OES, N2 adsorption, temperature-programmed reduction, temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Catalyst prepared using CeO2 as the support was less easily reducible, due to the stabilization effect of CeO2 over the palladium oxides. Small PdO particles and, therefore, high Pd dispersion were observed for all of the catalysts, as confirmed by XRD and TEM. The addition of Ce to the Pd/Al2O3 catalysts increased the metal-support interaction and the formation of highly-dispersed Pd species. The addition of Ce and Fe improved the catalytic behavior of the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst; however, the addition of Mn and Ti decreased the catalytic activity in the propene oxidation. Pd/TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity, probably due to the high capacity of this catalyst to reoxidize Pd into PdO, as has been found in the temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Silica Supported Platinum Catalysts for Total Oxidation of the Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene: An Investigation of Metal Loading and Calcination Temperature
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 690-702; doi:10.3390/catal5020690
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was
[...] Read more.
A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was evaluated. Increasing the platinum loading up to 2.5 wt.% increased the catalyst activity, whilst a 5.0 wt.% catalyst was slightly less active. The catalyst containing the optimum 2.5 wt.% loading was most active after calcination in air at 550 °C. Characterisation by carbon monoxide chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that low platinum dispersion to form large platinum particles, in combination with platinum in metallic and oxidised states was important for high catalyst activity. Catalyst performance improved after initial use in repeat cycles, whilst there was slight deactivation after prolonged time-on-stream. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Utilization of Volatile Organic Compounds as an Alternative for Destructive Abatement
Catalysts 2015, 5(3), 1092-1151; doi:10.3390/catal5031092
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions is a necessity of today. The catalytic treatment has already proven to be environmentally and economically sound technology for the total oxidation of the VOCs. However, in certain cases, it may also become economical to
[...] Read more.
The treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions is a necessity of today. The catalytic treatment has already proven to be environmentally and economically sound technology for the total oxidation of the VOCs. However, in certain cases, it may also become economical to utilize these emissions in some profitable way. Currently, the most common way to utilize the VOC emissions is their use in energy production. However, interesting possibilities are arising from the usage of VOCs in hydrogen and syngas production. Production of chemicals from VOC emissions is still mainly at the research stage. However, few commercial examples exist. This review will summarize the commercially existing VOC utilization possibilities, present the utilization applications that are in the research stage and introduce some novel ideas related to the catalytic utilization possibilities of the VOC emissions. In general, there exist a vast number of possibilities for VOC utilization via different catalytic processes, which creates also a good research potential for the future. Full article
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Open AccessReview Coupling Noble Metals and Carbon Supports in the Development of Combustion Catalysts for the Abatement of BTX Compounds in Air Streams
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 774-799; doi:10.3390/catal5020774
Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen
[...] Read more.
The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Under these experimental conditions, the chemisorption of water generated from VOCs combustion may inhibit hydrophilic catalysts. Nowadays, a wide variety of carbon materials is available to be used in catalysis. The behavior of these hydrophobic materials in the development of highly active and selective combustion catalysts is analyzed in this manuscript. The support characteristics (porosity, hydrophobicity, structure, surface chemistry, etc.) and the active phase nature (noble metals: Pt, Pd) and dispersion were analyzed by several techniques and the results correlated with the dual adsorptive and/or catalytic performance of the corresponding catalysts. The coupling of highly active phases and carbon materials (activated carbons, honeycomb coated monoliths, carbon aerogels, etc.) with tuneable physicochemical properties leads to the complete abatement of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) from dilute air streams, being selectively oxidized to CO2 at low temperatures. Full article
Open AccessReview Abatement of VOCs with Alternate Adsorption and Plasma-Assisted Regeneration: A Review
Catalysts 2015, 5(2), 718-746; doi:10.3390/catal5020718
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption is an important concern for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from waste air with non-thermal plasma (NTP). Although the combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has shown to reduce the formation of unwanted by-products and improve the energy efficiency
[...] Read more.
Energy consumption is an important concern for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from waste air with non-thermal plasma (NTP). Although the combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has shown to reduce the formation of unwanted by-products and improve the energy efficiency of the process, further optimization of these hybrid systems is still necessary to evolve to a competitive air purification technology. A newly developed innovative technique, i.e., the cyclic operation of VOC adsorption and NTP-assisted regeneration has attracted growing interest of researchers due to the optimized energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. This paper reviews this new technique for the abatement of VOCs as well as for regeneration of adsorbents. In the first part, a comparison of the energy consumption between sequential and continuous treatment is given. Next, studies dealing with adsorption followed by NTP oxidation are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the adsorption mechanisms and the regeneration of catalysts with in-plasma and post-plasma processes. Finally, the influence of critical process parameters on the adsorption and regeneration steps is summarized. Full article

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