Special Issue "New Trends in Gold Catalysts"

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A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Leonarda F. Liotta

Institute of Nanostructured Materials, Palermo Research Division, CNR - ISMN, via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 091 6809371
Fax: +39 091 6809399
Interests: synthesis; characterization and structure-activity relationship of supported noble metal (Pt,Pd,Au) for oxidation reactions; metal-support interaction in gold catalysts for low-temperature CO and VOCs oxidation; use of gold for hydrogen purification by selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (PROX); development of Pd and Au catalysts for abatement at low temperature of VOCs and methane emitted by mobile sources; synthesis and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Au catalysts for hydrocarbon steam reforming reaction and syngas production; optimization of Co-based catalysts composition and preparation method for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing importance of the catalysis by gold is nowadays proved by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry, enantioselective synthesis, environmental catalysis, hydrogen production and purification as well. This special issue “New Trends in Gold catalysts” aims to cover the numerous aspects in the use of gold as main active site as well as in the use of small amount of gold as promoting the activity of transition metals catalysts. In details, the following topics will be addressed: synthesis, characterization and structure-activity relationship of supported mono and bi-metallic (Au-M) catalysts for oxidation reactions; metal-support interaction in gold catalysts for low-temperature CO, VOCs and soot oxidation; synthesis of adipic acid as target product for polyamides manufacturing; use of gold for hydrogen purification by selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (PROX) and for hydrogen production (WGSR); development of Au catalysts for abatement at low temperature of VOCs and methane emitted by mobile sources; synthesis and characterization of supported mono- and bimetallic (M-Au) catalysts for methane dry reforming reaction; optimization of Co-based catalysts composition and preparation method for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; selective hydrogenation of butadienes for olefin streams purification.

Dr. Leonarda F. Liotta
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • Au
  • Au-M (M = Pd, Pt, Ni, Fe, Co)
  • metal-support interaction
  • oxygen vacancy
  • CO
  • VOCs
  • soot oxidation
  • PROX
  • WGSR
  • Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
  • methane dry reforming
  • selective hydrogenation

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial New Trends in Gold Catalysts
Catalysts 2014, 4(3), 299-304; doi:10.3390/catal4030299
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200
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Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III) acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4] or [AuOHxCl4x] species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites are promising supports for Au stabilization, because of the presence of ion-exchange sites, such as NH4+, that can be substituted by Au+ ions through the elimination of NH4Cl [3]. Moreover, zeolites, due to their high thermal stability, the presence of a large surface area and micropores, may hinder Au sintering. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Gold on Hydrotalcite-like Compound Catalysts for Toluene and CO Total Oxidation
Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 966-977; doi:10.3390/catal3040966
Received: 17 November 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
X6Al2HT500 hydrotalcites, where X represents Mg, Fe, Cu or Zn were synthetized and investigated before and after gold deposition for toluene and CO total oxidation reactions. The samples have been characterized by specific areas, XRD measurements and Temperature Programmed
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X6Al2HT500 hydrotalcites, where X represents Mg, Fe, Cu or Zn were synthetized and investigated before and after gold deposition for toluene and CO total oxidation reactions. The samples have been characterized by specific areas, XRD measurements and Temperature Programmed Reduction. Concerning the toluene total oxidation, the best activity was obtained with Au/Cu6Al2HT500 catalyst with T50 at 260 °C. However, catalytic behavior of Au/X6Al2HT500 sample in both reactions depends mainly on the nature of the support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Stability of Supported Gold Nanoparticles
Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 656-670; doi:10.3390/catal3030656
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The procedures leading to the preservation of catalytic performances of Au/ZrO2 samples have been investigated. The three potential causes of deactivation, namely the particle growth by sintering of gold nanoparticles, the metal leaching and the formation of un-reactive species which inhibit the
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The procedures leading to the preservation of catalytic performances of Au/ZrO2 samples have been investigated. The three potential causes of deactivation, namely the particle growth by sintering of gold nanoparticles, the metal leaching and the formation of un-reactive species which inhibit the reaction, have been evaluated. In particular, this paper deals with the stability of gold nanoparticles: (1) under storage conditions; (2) with time on stream for a gas phase reaction (LT-WGSR); (3) with time on stream for a liquid phase reaction (furfural oxidative esterification). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Catalytic Activity of Thermally Stable Gold Nanoparticles on Ultrastable Y (USY) Zeolites
Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 599-613; doi:10.3390/catal3030599
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Au was deposited on ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites using an ion-exchange method. Up to 5.5 wt% Au was introduced into the NH4-form of USY zeolites. In contrast, deposition of Au hardly took place on the H- and Na-forms of Y-type zeolites,
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Au was deposited on ultrastable Y (USY) zeolites using an ion-exchange method. Up to 5.5 wt% Au was introduced into the NH4-form of USY zeolites. In contrast, deposition of Au hardly took place on the H- and Na-forms of Y-type zeolites, NH4-forms of mordenite, and ZSM-5. Treatment of the Au-loaded USY zeolite in a H2 atmosphere, afforded Au0 nanoparticles. These particles were thermally stable even at 973 K, where their mean particle diameter was 3.7 nm. In contrast, highly aggregated Au particles were observed after thermal treatment at temperatures lower than 523 K, followed by storage in air for a month. The resulting particle sizes were in good correlation with the IR band intensity of the adsorbed CO and the catalytic activity of Au in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The Au nanoparticles showed highest activity when the Au/USY zeolite was thermally treated at 673–973 K. A negligible deactivation was observed after repeating the reaction at least 12 times. In the case of Au/TiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, the highest activity was observed at 573 K, which was lower than the temperature used for the Au/USY zeolites. This study demonstrated the potential use of the NH4-form of USY zeolites for supporting Au. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems
Catalysts 2013, 3(2), 563-583; doi:10.3390/catal3020563
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (1439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious
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Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside of the carbon-forming regime. Reactivity and deactivation by carbon formation can be tuned by modifying Ni surfaces with a second metal, such as Au through alloy formation. In the present review, we summarize the very recent progress in the design, synthesis, and characterization of supported bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for steam reforming. The progress in the modification of Ni with noble metals (such as Au and Ag) is discussed in terms of preparation, characterization and pretreatment methods. Moreover, the comparison with the effects of other metals (such as Sn, Cu, Co, Mo, Fe, Gd and B) is addressed. The differences of catalytic activity, thermal stability and carbon species between bimetallic and monometallic Ni-based catalysts are also briefly shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Electron Transfer at Gold Nanostar Assemblies: A Study of Shape Stability and Surface Density Influence
Catalysts 2013, 3(1), 288-309; doi:10.3390/catal3010288
Received: 17 January 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanostars of ~70 nm tip to tip distances were synthesized by a seed mediated method and covalently self-assembled on 1,5-pentanedithiol modified electrodes. Electron transfer kinetics at the AuNS/dithiol modified electrodes were studied as a function of AuNS surface density which was varied
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Gold nanostars of ~70 nm tip to tip distances were synthesized by a seed mediated method and covalently self-assembled on 1,5-pentanedithiol modified electrodes. Electron transfer kinetics at the AuNS/dithiol modified electrodes were studied as a function of AuNS surface density which was varied by increasing their self-assembly time from 8 h, 16 h, 24 h to 32 h. Excellent electrocatalytic properties of AuNSs were observed toward electrochemistry of [Fe(CN)6]4−/3− redox couple. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer constant, ket, has progressively increased with the surface density of AuNSs bonded to the electrodes from 0.65 × 10−5 cm s−1 (8 h), 1.47 × 10−5 cm s−1 (16 h), 3.95 × 10−5 cm s−1 (24 h) to an excellent 85.0 × 10−5 cm s−1 (32 h). Electrochemical charging of nanostars was confirmed, for the first time, by 79 times increase of double layer capacitance, Cdl, from 0.34 µF (8 h) to 27 µF (32 h). The electrochemical charging of AuNSs had also a strong influence on the electron tunneling process through the 1,5PDT molecules being more efficient at dense layers of AuNSs. The tunneling parameter, β, has decreased from 1.13 Å−1 (16 h) to 0.50 Å−1 (32 h). The AuNSs were chemically stable toward [Fe(CN)6]4−/3− showing no change in shape after electrochemical measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Defect-Driven Restructuring of TiO2 Surface and Modified Reactivity Toward Deposited Gold Atoms
Catalysts 2013, 3(1), 276-287; doi:10.3390/catal3010276
Received: 11 January 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A partially reduced TiO2 surface exhibits increasingly complex nature when forming various defects, whose stoichiometry, structure and properties are markedly different from those of bulk TiO2. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we investigate different types of surface defects formed by
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A partially reduced TiO2 surface exhibits increasingly complex nature when forming various defects, whose stoichiometry, structure and properties are markedly different from those of bulk TiO2. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory, we investigate different types of surface defects formed by Ti interstitials on TiO2 (110) and their reactivity toward deposited gold atoms. Sub-stoichiometric strands greatly enhance bonding of Au by transferring the excess charges from the reduced Ti3+ onto the strands. Thus the sub-stoichiometric strands behave as strong electron donor sites toward reactants. On the contrary, fully stoichiometric nanoclusters provide increased Au bonding through its 1-coordinated oxygen, which acts as a strong electron acceptor site. Specific interactions between Au and defects as well as the implication of electron donor/acceptor complexes for catalytic reactions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)

Review

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Open AccessReview Gold Nanoparticles as the Catalyst of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis
Catalysts 2014, 4(1), 38-48; doi:10.3390/catal4010038
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a
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Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) synthesis. This is not a traditional meaning of catalytic reaction, but SWCNTs cannot be synthesized without nanoparticles. Previously, gold was considered as unsuitable metal species as the catalyst of SWCNT synthesis. However, gold nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm were found to effectively produce SWCNTs. We discuss the catalysis of gold and related metals for SWCNT synthesis in comparison with conventional catalysts, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessReview Gold Nanoparticle-Biological Molecule Interactions and Catalysis
Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 683-708; doi:10.3390/catal3030683
Received: 18 May 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review gives a brief summary of the field of gold nanoparticle interactions with biological molecules, particularly those with possible catalytic relevance. Gold nanoparticles are well known as catalysts in organic chemistry but much is unknown regarding their potential as catalysts of reactions
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This review gives a brief summary of the field of gold nanoparticle interactions with biological molecules, particularly those with possible catalytic relevance. Gold nanoparticles are well known as catalysts in organic chemistry but much is unknown regarding their potential as catalysts of reactions involving biological molecules such as protein and nucleic acids. Biological molecules may be the substrate for catalysis or, if they are the ligand coating the gold particle, may be the catalyst itself. In other cases biological molecules may form a template upon which gold nanoparticles can be precisely arrayed. As relatively little is currently known about the catalytic capabilities of gold nanoparticles in this area, this review will consider templating in general (including, but not restricted to, those which result in structures having potential as catalysts) before going on to consider firstly catalysis by the gold nanoparticle itself followed by catalysis by ligands attached to gold nanoparticles, all considered with a focus on biological molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Gold Catalysts)

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