Special Issue "Ionic Liquids in Catalysis"

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A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Liebscher

Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ionic liquids as solvents in catalysis; ionic liquids and recycling of catalysts; ionic liquid as supports for catalysts ; ionic liquids on catalytic nanoparticles; ionic liquids in organocatalysis; ionic liquids in transition metal catalysis; task specific ionic liquids with catalytic activity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ionic liquids have gained extremely wide interest in organic synthesis over the last 12 years. Their properties can be tuned according to the needs of the reaction by changing cations or anions or both. Ionic liquids entered also the field of catalysis. Here, they can give rise to a number of advantages over conventional solvents such as higher catalytic activity, better solubility of the catalyst, homogeneity of the reaction mixture, wider temperature range, easy separation of products, effective absorption of microwaves for activation, recycling of catalysts and solvents. Recycling and re-usage of the catalytic system, i. e., catalyst and ionic liquid is in particular attractive for economic and environmental reasons in especially if it comes to large scale applications. Although ionic liquids were initially used mainly in transition metal complex catalysis they have found many fold applications in organocatalysis and enzymology afterwards. In addition to traditional methods also microreactors have been applied with success in this area.

In this special issue we aim at recent progress in the application of ionic liquids in catalysis of organic reactions and the development of new catalytic systems based on ionic liquids.

Prof. Dr. Jürgen Liebscher
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • ionic liquids as solvents in catalysis
  • ionic liquids and recycling of catalysts
  • ionic liquid as supports for catalysts
  • ionic liquids on catalytic nanoparticles
  • ionic liquids in organocatalysis
  • ionic liquids in transition metal catalysis
  • task specific ionic liquids with catalytic activity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Ionic Liquid Solution of Chitosan as Organocatalyst
Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 914-921; doi:10.3390/catal3040914
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan, which is derived from the biopolymer chitin, can be readily dissolved in different ionic liquids. The resulting homogeneous solutions were applied in an asymmetric Aldol reaction. Depending on the type of ionic liquid used, high asymmetric inductions were found. The influence of
[...] Read more.
Chitosan, which is derived from the biopolymer chitin, can be readily dissolved in different ionic liquids. The resulting homogeneous solutions were applied in an asymmetric Aldol reaction. Depending on the type of ionic liquid used, high asymmetric inductions were found. The influence of different additives was also studied. The best results were obtained in [BMIM][Br] without an additive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Sulfonate Ionic Liquid as a Stable and Active Catalyst for Levoglucosenone Production from Saccharides via Catalytic Pyrolysis
Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 757-773; doi:10.3390/catal3040757
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, various types of ionic liquids (ILs) were examined for catalytic activity in the pyrolysis of cellulose for the production of levoglucosenone, which is a valuable and versatile compound for the synthesis of a variety of novel compounds. Cellulose was simply
[...] Read more.
In this study, various types of ionic liquids (ILs) were examined for catalytic activity in the pyrolysis of cellulose for the production of levoglucosenone, which is a valuable and versatile compound for the synthesis of a variety of novel compounds. Cellulose was simply mixed with the ILs and subjected for the pyrolysis, typically at 300 °C, to produce volatile products, including levoglucosenone, separated from the ILs phase. The type of IL anion significantly affected the catalysis, and the use of ILs bearing sulfonate anion resulted in distinguished yields of levoglucosenone and IL recoveries for the reutilization. Detailed thermogravimetric analysis and discussion on properties of ILs revealed the active and thermally stable nature of the sulfonate ILs. Catalytic pyrolysis with those ILs was applied to the conversion of other saccharides composed of glucose molecules, resulting in a preferential formation of levoglucosenone but at low yields as compared to that from cellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
Open AccessCommunication Cellulases in Ionic Liquids—The Long Term Stability of Aspergillus sp. Cellulase
Catalysts 2013, 3(2), 584-587; doi:10.3390/catal3020584
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a well known fact that some ionic liquids (ILs) have the potential to dissolve crystalline, water-insoluble cellulose that could be used as a source of glucose and subsequently derived molecules. Nevertheless, in the presence of high IL concentrations, cellulase activity and,
[...] Read more.
It is a well known fact that some ionic liquids (ILs) have the potential to dissolve crystalline, water-insoluble cellulose that could be used as a source of glucose and subsequently derived molecules. Nevertheless, in the presence of high IL concentrations, cellulase activity and, even more so, cellulase stability are still challenging difficulties that need to be overcome. Therefore four fungal cellulase preparations were assayed in the presence of 30% (v/v) of five different ILs. Thereby the cellulase from Aspergillus sp. (Sigma-Aldrich) was not only remarkably active (up to 28 U/mg in 30% (v/v) IL ([BMMIM]Cl)), but furthermore stayed active during several weeks in the presence of 60% (v/v) IL (up to 50% relative activity after 9 weeks). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Towards Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysis in Ionic Liquids
Catalysts 2013, 3(2), 543-562; doi:10.3390/catal3020543
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This feature article introduces the strategies on the design of highly efficient nanoparticle (NP) catalytic systems in ionic liquids (ILs). The employment of functional ILs as the media for NP preparation and catalysis could prove advantageous in terms of enhancing both NP stability
[...] Read more.
This feature article introduces the strategies on the design of highly efficient nanoparticle (NP) catalytic systems in ionic liquids (ILs). The employment of functional ILs as the media for NP preparation and catalysis could prove advantageous in terms of enhancing both NP stability and catalytic activity. Hydroxyl group functionalized ILs, in particular, exhibited a remarkable promotion effect on a variety of reactions catalyzed by NPs, such as hydrogenation over Rh NPs, hydrodehalogenation over Pt NPs and Suzuki reaction over Pd NPs. In some cases, tailor-made stabilizer is used in addition to keep the NPs sufficiently stable. For example, a carboxylic group modified polyvinylpyrrolidone endows NPs three-fold stabilization, including steric, electrostatic and ligand stabilizations, which leads to excellent stability of the NPs. The catalytic activities of these NPs, on the other hand, are not compromised, as each of these stabilizations is not too strong. Following that, the article describes our recent work on the rational design of bimetallic NPs in ILs and the development of multifunctional systems involving NPs for a tandem reaction sequence that convert lignin-derived phenolic compounds into fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)

Review

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Open AccessReview Ionic Liquids: The Synergistic Catalytic Effect in the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates
Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 878-901; doi:10.3390/catal3040878
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 27 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review presents the synergistic effect in the catalytic system of ionic liquids (ILs) for the synthesis of cyclic carbonate from carbon dioxide and epoxide. The emphasis of this review is on three aspects: the catalytic system of metal-based ionic liquids, the catalytic
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This review presents the synergistic effect in the catalytic system of ionic liquids (ILs) for the synthesis of cyclic carbonate from carbon dioxide and epoxide. The emphasis of this review is on three aspects: the catalytic system of metal-based ionic liquids, the catalytic system of hydrogen bond-promoted ionic liquids and supported ionic liquids. Metal and ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The cations and anions of ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. The functional groups in cations or supports combined with the anions have a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. Synergistic catalytic effects of ILs play an important role of promoting the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The design of catalytic system of ionic liquids will be possible if the synergistic effect on a molecular level is understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
Open AccessReview Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media
Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 709-725; doi:10.3390/catal3030709
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic liquids are organic salts with melting points typically below ambient or reaction temperature. The unique combination of physical properties of ionic liquids, such as lack of measurable vapor pressure, high thermal and chemical stability, make them ideal to be used as reusable
[...] Read more.
Ionic liquids are organic salts with melting points typically below ambient or reaction temperature. The unique combination of physical properties of ionic liquids, such as lack of measurable vapor pressure, high thermal and chemical stability, make them ideal to be used as reusable homogenous support for catalysts. In addition, the solubility of ionic liquids in various reaction media can be controlled and easily fine-tuned by modification of the structures of their cations and anions. As a result, ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are very effective in aqueous media and can be separated easily from organic solvents, as well as aqueous phases by simply adjusting the polarity of the media. Ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are not only very versatile compounds that are effective catalysts for a wide spectrum of reactions, but are also environmentally friendly and recyclable organocatalysts. Herein, we provide a summary of the past decade in the area of asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media for a wide variety of reactions in which ionic liquid and related ammonium salt immobilized organocatalysts are used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)

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