Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 709-725; doi:10.3390/catal3030709
Review

Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
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Abstract: Ionic liquids are organic salts with melting points typically below ambient or reaction temperature. The unique combination of physical properties of ionic liquids, such as lack of measurable vapor pressure, high thermal and chemical stability, make them ideal to be used as reusable homogenous support for catalysts. In addition, the solubility of ionic liquids in various reaction media can be controlled and easily fine-tuned by modification of the structures of their cations and anions. As a result, ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are very effective in aqueous media and can be separated easily from organic solvents, as well as aqueous phases by simply adjusting the polarity of the media. Ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are not only very versatile compounds that are effective catalysts for a wide spectrum of reactions, but are also environmentally friendly and recyclable organocatalysts. Herein, we provide a summary of the past decade in the area of asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media for a wide variety of reactions in which ionic liquid and related ammonium salt immobilized organocatalysts are used.
Keywords: ionic liquids; organocatalysis; water; asymmetric reaction

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MDPI and ACS Style

Qiao, Y.; Headley, A.D. Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media. Catalysts 2013, 3, 709-725.

AMA Style

Qiao Y, Headley AD. Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media. Catalysts. 2013; 3(3):709-725.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qiao, Yupu; Headley, Allan D. 2013. "Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media." Catalysts 3, no. 3: 709-725.

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