Special Issue "Carbon Hybrid Materials"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Camélia Matei Ghimbeu

Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR 7361 UHA, 15 Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hybrid carbon materials; confinement of metal-based NPs in carbon; carbon synthesis and modification (mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, hard carbon, graphitic carbon); hard and soft-templated carbon; biosourced derived carbon; carbon surface chemistry and reactivity modification; carbon-based materials for gas and energy storage (supercapacitors and batteries); carbon for air and water cleaning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to their specific properties, i.e., high surface area, good electronic and thermal conductivity, mechanical and chemical stability, carbon materials emerged as essential materials used as supports or additives to design multifunctional carbon hybrid materials, Particularly, metal-based particles such as noble and transition metals, metal oxides, metal nitrides or metal hydrides supported on carbon have attracted tremendous interest in various fields of applications. Such composites are fascinating as they exhibit synergistic effects compared to their single counterparts. The aim of this issue is to present the development strategies to design carbon-based nanocomposites along with their performances in energy storage and environmental applications. Nanocomposites based of different forms of carbon (micro/mesoporous carbon, graphite, graphene, CNTs, carbon black…) and metal, metal oxides, metal nitrates, polymers or other carbon matrices can be discussed.

In this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit original communications, articles, and reviews on the experimental and theoretical aspects on hybrid carbon materials design, characterization, specific correlations between the carbon support characteristics (porosity, surface chemistry, structure) and the resulting metal particle properties. Special emphasis is laid on their potential uses in the fields of catalysis, energy storage (batteries, supercapacitors), hydrogen storage, adsorption, sensors or biomedical applications.

Dr. Camélia Matei Ghimbeu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid carbon/metal-based nanocomposites (metal, oxides, nitrates...)
  • carbon as support for metalic-based nanoparticles (NPs)
  • carbon additives for electrodes
  • confinement of NPs in carbon
  • size effects of NPs supported on carbon
  • NPs supported on carbon for hydrogen sorption
  • carbon nanocomposites as electrodes in batteries
  • carbons nanocomposites as electrodes for supercapacitors

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Functionalized Graphene–Polyoxometalate Nanodots Assembly as “Organic–Inorganic” Hybrid Supercapacitors and Insights into Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Processes
C 2017, 3(3), 24; doi:10.3390/c3030024
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM) and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW)) nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and
[...] Read more.
The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM) and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW)) nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and POM (and POW) components create emergent “organic–inorganic” hybrids with desirable physicochemical properties (specific surface area, mechanical strength, diffusion, facile electron and ion transport) enabled by molecularly bridged (covalently and electrostatically) tailored interfaces for electrical energy storage. The synergistic hybridization between two electrochemical energy storage mechanisms, electrochemical double-layer from rGO and redox activity (faradaic) of nanoscale POM (and POW) nanodots, and the superior operating voltage due to high overpotential yielded converge yielding a significantly improved electrochemical performance. They include increase in specific capacitance from 70 F·g−1 for rGO to 350 F·g−1 for hybrid material with aqueous electrolyte (0.4 M sodium sulfate), higher current carrying capacity (>10 A·g−1) and excellent retention (94%) resulting higher specific energy and specific power density. We performed scanning electrochemical microscopy to gain insights into physicochemical processes and quantitatively determine associated parameters (diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate (kET)) at electrode/electrolyte interface besides mapping electrochemical (re)activity and electro-active site distribution. The experimental findings are attributed to: (1) mesoporous network and topologically multiplexed conductive pathways; (2) higher density of graphene edge plane sites; and (3) localized pockets of re-hybridized orbital engineered modulated band structure provided by polyoxometalates anchored chemically on functionalized graphene nanosheets, contribute toward higher interfacial charge transfer, rapid ion conduction, enhanced storage capacity and improved electroactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Mechanical and Physical Characterization of Carbon Fiber/Buckypaper/ZincOxide Hybrid Composites
Abstract: The quest for multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRPs)facilitates use of several nano enforcements. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is semi-conductor with good piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. These properties could be transferred to the CFRPs if the nanophase of ZnO; nanorods, is incorporated. The surface growth of ZnO over the carbon fibers could possibly make them multi-functional. Thus, a hydrothermal synthesis method at a low temperature of 90ºC was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on the surface of carbon fiber fabrics. Alternatively, Buckypaper, known for its elevated electrical conductivity and heat dissipative, could be sandwiched in-between layers of carbon fiber to construct a functionally graded composite. In this study, different configurations of hybrid composites based on carbon fibers combination with ZnO nanorods and Buckypaper were fabricated. The composites were tested mechanically and fracture analysis was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests were performed to examine the effect of the nanoadditives on the damping performance of the composites. In addition, volume and surface electrical resistivities of the hybrid composites were probed to examine which of the nanoaddiatve phases combinations could enhance the electrical conductivity. Finally, hot disk thermal analysis tests were performed to examine the evolution of the thermal conductivity in response to the different nanoadditives. The results suggest that there are certain hybrid combinations that could lead to the development of highly functional composites with better strength, stiffness, damping, electrical and thermal conductivities.

Title: Reactivtiy of Carbon Precursors in the Sof-Template Process for Mesoporous C/Fe and C/Fe/Pd Nanocomposites
Authors: Julien Kiener, Clovis Peter, Antoine Derible, Jean-Michel Becht, Maria Girleanu, Ovidiu Ersen and Julien Parmentier
Abstract: The soft-template process have been used to prepare mesoporous nanocomposites in C/Fe and C/Fe/Pd systems using two different carbon precursors: a biosourced polymer (tannin) and a as-made phenolic resin. Mixture of the carbon precursor with iron (III) nitrate, palladium (II) chloride and the amphiphil triblock copolymer (porogen agent) F127 in HCl//H2O/ Ethanol liquid media was submit to an Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) and then carbonised at different temperatures. Mesoporous carbons more or less ordered were obtained with noticeable differences (nature of Fe-based crystalline phases, size and dispersion of the Fe-based particles, magnetic properties and level of graphitization) according to the nature of the precursor. Addition of Pd leads also to different Fe-Pd alloys. These differences are discussed in the light of the carbon precursor reactivity during both the EISA and the carbonisation steps.

Title: Hybrid Carbon-based Clathrates for Energy Storage
Authors: Kwai S. Chan
Abstract: Hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates are two new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si and/or N atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values of the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, the elastic and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates that may be considered candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates are highlighted and difficulties encountered are discussed.

Title: Eco-friendly synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for supercapacitor application
Authors: Georges Moussa 1,2,3, Pierre-Louis Teberna 2,3, Samar Hajjar-Garreau 1, Patrice Simon 2,3, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu 1,3,*
Affiliations: 1 Université de Strasbourg, Université de Haute-Alsace, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, UMR 7361 CNRS-UHA, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse-France
2 Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche et d’Ingénierie des Matériaux(CIRIMAT), UMR CNRS 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, France
3 (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex France
Abstract: Nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon was prepared by a simple synthesis procedure involving the self-assembly of green phenolic resin and amphiphilic polymer template in water/ethanol mixture at room temperature. Guanine is proposed as a novel precursor which is able to cross-link with the phenolic resin allowing nitrogen doping in the resulting carbon framework. The influence of the synthesis procedure, template amount and annealing temperature on the carbon textural properties and surface chemistry were investigated in detail. For several conditions, carbon materials with ordered and uniform pore size and high nitrogen content (up to 10 at.%) could be achieved. Combined stirring/ evaporation procedure and low template amounts favor the formation of disordered carbons with lower specific surface area while the increase in the temperature from 600 to 900°C induces a decrease in the surface area and heteroatoms amount (N and O). The electrochemical performances as electrode in supercapacitors were evaluated in acidic medium and the capacitance was closely related to the textural properties/surface chemistry but also to the materials conductivity. Low temperature annealed carbons (600°C) exhibit low performances which could be improved by increasing the annealing temperature or by preparing composites with conductive carbon nanoparticles.

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