Special Issue "Carbon Hybrid Materials"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Camélia Matei Ghimbeu

Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR 7361 UHA, 15 Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hybrid carbon materials; confinement of metal-based NPs in carbon; carbon synthesis and modification (mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, hard carbon, graphitic carbon); hard and soft-templated carbon; biosourced derived carbon; carbon surface chemistry and reactivity modification; carbon-based materials for gas and energy storage (supercapacitors and batteries); carbon for air and water cleaning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to their specific properties, i.e., high surface area, good electronic and thermal conductivity, mechanical and chemical stability, carbon materials emerged as essential materials used as supports or additives to design multifunctional carbon hybrid materials, Particularly, metal-based particles such as noble and transition metals, metal oxides, metal nitrides or metal hydrides supported on carbon have attracted tremendous interest in various fields of applications. Such composites are fascinating as they exhibit synergistic effects compared to their single counterparts. The aim of this issue is to present the development strategies to design carbon-based nanocomposites along with their performances in energy storage and environmental applications. Nanocomposites based of different forms of carbon (micro/mesoporous carbon, graphite, graphene, CNTs, carbon black…) and metal, metal oxides, metal nitrates, polymers or other carbon matrices can be discussed.

In this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit original communications, articles, and reviews on the experimental and theoretical aspects on hybrid carbon materials design, characterization, specific correlations between the carbon support characteristics (porosity, surface chemistry, structure) and the resulting metal particle properties. Special emphasis is laid on their potential uses in the fields of catalysis, energy storage (batteries, supercapacitors), hydrogen storage, adsorption, sensors or biomedical applications.

Dr. Camélia Matei Ghimbeu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid carbon/metal-based nanocomposites (metal, oxides, nitrates...)
  • carbon as support for metalic-based nanoparticles (NPs)
  • carbon additives for electrodes
  • confinement of NPs in carbon
  • size effects of NPs supported on carbon
  • NPs supported on carbon for hydrogen sorption
  • carbon nanocomposites as electrodes in batteries
  • carbons nanocomposites as electrodes for supercapacitors

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Bonded to Solid Graphite Substrates: Thermal Analysis for Future Device Cooling Applications
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for high thermal conductivity and have potential use as nano-radiators or heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the thermal performance of carpet-like arrays of vertically aligned CNTs on solid graphite substrates with the idea of investigating their behavior as a function of carpet dimensions and predicting their performance as thermal interface material (TIM) for electronic device cooling. Vertically aligned CNTs were grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate, which creates a robust and durable all-carbon hierarchical structure. The multi-layer thermal analysis approach using Netzsch laser flash analysis system was used to evaluate their performance as a function of carpet height, from which their thermal properties can be determined. It was seen that the thermal resistance of the CNT array varies linearly with CNT carpet height, providing a unique way of decoupling the properties of the CNT carpet from its interface. This data was used to estimate the thermal conductivity of individual multi-walled nanotube strands in this carpet, which was about 35 W/m-K. The influence of CNT carpet parameters (aerial density, diameter, and length) on thermal resistance of the CNT carpet and its potential advantages and limitations as an integrated TIM are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon for Supercapacitor Application
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A sustainable and simple synthesis procedure involving the co-assembly of green phenolic resin and amphiphilic polymer template in water/ethanol mixture at room temperature to synthesize nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon is reported herein. Guanine is proposed as a novel nitrogen-based precursor which is able
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A sustainable and simple synthesis procedure involving the co-assembly of green phenolic resin and amphiphilic polymer template in water/ethanol mixture at room temperature to synthesize nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon is reported herein. Guanine is proposed as a novel nitrogen-based precursor which is able to create H-bondings both with the phenolic resin and the template allowing the formation of mesoporous carbons with nitrogen atoms uniformly distributed in their framework. The influence of the synthesis procedure, template amount and annealing temperature on the carbon textural properties, structure and surface chemistry were investigated. For several conditions, carbon materials with ordered pore size and high nitrogen content (up to 10.6 at %) could be achieved. The phase separation procedure combined with optimal amount of template favor the formation of ordered mesoporous carbons with higher specific surface area while the increase in the temperature induces a decrease in the surface area and amount of heteroatoms (N and O). The electrochemical performances as electrode in supercapacitors were evaluated in acidic medium and the capacitance was closely related to the material conductivity and surface chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical and Electrical Characterization of Carbon Fiber/Bucky Paper/Zinc Oxide Hybrid Composites
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
The quest for multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRPs) expedited the use of several nano reinforcements such as zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Zinc oxide is a semi-conductor with good piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. These properties could be transmitted to
[...] Read more.
The quest for multifunctional carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRPs) expedited the use of several nano reinforcements such as zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Zinc oxide is a semi-conductor with good piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. These properties could be transmitted to CFRPs when a nanophase of ZnO is embedded within CFRPs. In lieu of ZnO nanorods, Bucky paper comprising mat of CNTs could be sandwiched in-between composite laminae to construct a functionally graded composite with enhanced electrical conductivities. In this study, different configurations of hybrid composites based on carbon fibers with different combinations of ZnO nanorods and Bucky paper were fabricated. The composites were tested mechanically via tensile and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests to examine the effect of the different nanoadditives on the stiffness, strength and the damping performance of the hybrid composites. Electrical resistivities of the hybrid composites were probed to examine the contributions of the different nanoadditives. The results suggest that there are certain hybrid composite combinations that could lead to the development of highly multifunctional composites with better strength, stiffness, damping and electrical conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Functionalized Graphene–Polyoxometalate Nanodots Assembly as “Organic–Inorganic” Hybrid Supercapacitors and Insights into Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Processes
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM) and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW)) nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and
[...] Read more.
The stable high-performance electrochemical electrodes consisting of supercapacitive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets decorated with pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates (phosphomolybdate acid-H3PMo12O40 (POM) and phosphotungstic acid-H3PW12O40 (POW)) nanodots/nanoclusters are hydrothermally synthesized. The interactions between rGO and POM (and POW) components create emergent “organic–inorganic” hybrids with desirable physicochemical properties (specific surface area, mechanical strength, diffusion, facile electron and ion transport) enabled by molecularly bridged (covalently and electrostatically) tailored interfaces for electrical energy storage. The synergistic hybridization between two electrochemical energy storage mechanisms, electrochemical double-layer from rGO and redox activity (faradaic) of nanoscale POM (and POW) nanodots, and the superior operating voltage due to high overpotential yielded converge yielding a significantly improved electrochemical performance. They include increase in specific capacitance from 70 F·g−1 for rGO to 350 F·g−1 for hybrid material with aqueous electrolyte (0.4 M sodium sulfate), higher current carrying capacity (>10 A·g−1) and excellent retention (94%) resulting higher specific energy and specific power density. We performed scanning electrochemical microscopy to gain insights into physicochemical processes and quantitatively determine associated parameters (diffusion coefficient (D) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate (kET)) at electrode/electrolyte interface besides mapping electrochemical (re)activity and electro-active site distribution. The experimental findings are attributed to: (1) mesoporous network and topologically multiplexed conductive pathways; (2) higher density of graphene edge plane sites; and (3) localized pockets of re-hybridized orbital engineered modulated band structure provided by polyoxometalates anchored chemically on functionalized graphene nanosheets, contribute toward higher interfacial charge transfer, rapid ion conduction, enhanced storage capacity and improved electroactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Hybrid Carbon-Based Clathrates for Energy Storage
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Hybrid carbon–silicon, carbon–nitrogen, and carbon–boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by
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Hybrid carbon–silicon, carbon–nitrogen, and carbon–boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon–silicon, carbon–boron, carbon–nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values for the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, elastic properties, and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials, electronic materials, or hard materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon–silicon and carbon–nitrogen clathrates that may be considered as candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are highlighted and the difficulties encountered are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Hybrid Materials)
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