Special Issue "Carbon-Based Sensors"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jandro L. Abot

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: experimental stress mechanics; polymeric composite materials; carbon nanotube fibers; integrated and distributed structural health monitoring in composite materials; piezoresistive sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensors will play an even more significant impact in future years and demand for highly responsive, selective, and cost effective sensors requires research on new sensing materials and technologies. Novel nanoscale carbon materials may provide new opportunities towards the development of highly miniaturized and integrated sensors and bring new challenges in their synthesis, assembly and fabrication. Functional carbon materials include graphene, carbon nanotubes and their assemblies, such as fibers, fabrics or mats, porous carbon, and polymeric-based carbon fibers. These materials have superb mechanical, thermal and electrical properties and could be tapped to develop the next generation of sensors. The main aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest experimental research and development on carbon sensors and their applications. Both stand-alone sensors and sensors integrated in polymers and composite materials are of special interest. Electrochemical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, mass, optical, photonic-based sensors are of interest. Sensing effects may include physical, chemical, piezoresistive, piezoelectric, capacitive, optical, thermal, magnetic, or combined effects between them. Novel sensing concepts and principles including synergistic ones among existing sensing approaches are of interest in the context of applications in several sectors of the economy including structural health monitoring, health care, security and defense. Sensor and actuator systems based on carbon materials are also of interest.

Prof. Dr. Jandro L. Abot
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • physical sensors
  • chemical sensors
  • electrochemical sensors
  • carbon nanomaterials
  • sensor applications
  • experimental research

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Piezoresistive Response of Integrated CNT Yarns under Compression and Tension: The Effect of Lateral Constraint
C 2017, 3(2), 14; doi:10.3390/c3020014
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are fiber-like materials that exhibit excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. More importantly, they exhibit a piezoresistive response that can be tapped for sensing purposes. The objective of this study is to determine experimentally the piezoresistive response of CNT
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are fiber-like materials that exhibit excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. More importantly, they exhibit a piezoresistive response that can be tapped for sensing purposes. The objective of this study is to determine experimentally the piezoresistive response of CNT yarns that are embedded in a polymeric medium while subjected to either tension or compression, and compare it with that of the free or unconstrained CNT yarns. The rationale is the need to know the piezoresistive response of the CNT yarn while in a medium, which provides a lateral constraint to the CNT yarn, thus mimicking the response of integrated CNT yarn sensors. The experimental program includes the fabrication of samples and their electromechanical characterization. The CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric beams and subjected to four-point bending, allowing the determination of their response under tension and compression. The electromechanical data from a combined Inductance–Capacitance–Resistance (LCR) device and a mechanical testing system were used to determine the piezoresistive response of the CNT yarns. At a strain rate of 0.006 min−1, the gauge factor obtained under tension for a maximum strain of 0.1% is ~29.3 which is higher than ~21.2 obtained under compression. The CNT yarn sensor exhibited strain rate dependence with a gauge factor of approximately 23.0 at 0.006 min−1, in comparison to 19.0 and 1.3, which were obtained at 0.0005 min−1 and 0.003 min−1, respectively. There is a difference of up to two orders of magnitude in the sensitivity of the constrained CNT yarn under bending with respect to that of the free CNT yarn under uniaxial tension. However, the difference becomes smaller when the constrained CNT yarn was tested under uniaxial tension. This data and information will be used for future modeling efforts and to study the phenomena that occur when CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric and composite materials and structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle High-Bandwidth and Sensitive Air Flow Sensing Based on Resonance Properties of CNT-on-Fiber Hairs
C 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/c3010006
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Artificial hair flow sensors were fabricated using piezoresistive, radially grown carbon nanotube arrays on glass fibers and investigated for their dynamic aerodynamic response as measured within an instrumented plane-wave tube. The sensors were experimentally observed to provide both a large bandwidth of operation
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Artificial hair flow sensors were fabricated using piezoresistive, radially grown carbon nanotube arrays on glass fibers and investigated for their dynamic aerodynamic response as measured within an instrumented plane-wave tube. The sensors were experimentally observed to provide both a large bandwidth of operation below first resonance and a strong resonance response at selected frequencies above first resonance. The frequency of first resonance was easily tunable by adjusting the length of the exposed hair and could be made to vary from a few hundred hertz to over 13 kHz. Higher frequency bands were accessible for a given hair length using higher-order resonance modes, up to five of which were observed. All of the responses were understood and modeled using a vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biosensors Based on Lipid Modified Graphene Microelectrodes
C 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/c3010009
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic
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Graphene is one of the new materials which has shown a large impact on the electronic industry due to its versatile properties, such as high specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, chemical stability, and large spectrum of electrochemical properties. The graphene material-based electronic industry has provided flexible devices which are inexpensive, simple and low power-consuming sensor tools, therefore opening an outstanding new door in the field of portable electronic devices. All these attractive advantages of graphene give a platform for the development of a new generation of devices in both food and environmental applications. Lipid-based sensors have proven to be a good route to the construction of novel devices with improved characteristics, such as fast response times, increased sensitivity and selectivity, and the possibility of miniaturization for the construction of portable biosensors. Therefore, the incorporation of a lipid substrate on graphene electrodes has provided a route to the construction of a highly sensitive and selective class of biosensors with fast response times and portability of field applications for the rapid detection of toxicants in the environment and food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Carbon Nanostructures for Tagging in Electrochemical Biosensing: A Review
C 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/c3010003
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
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Abstract
Growing demand for developing ultrasensitive electrochemical bioassays has led to the design of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this context, carbon-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be excellent tags for greatly amplifying the transduction of recognition events and simplifying the protocols used in
[...] Read more.
Growing demand for developing ultrasensitive electrochemical bioassays has led to the design of numerous signal amplification strategies. In this context, carbon-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to be excellent tags for greatly amplifying the transduction of recognition events and simplifying the protocols used in electrochemical biosensing. This relevant role is due to the carbon-nanomaterials’ large surface area, excellent biological compatibility and ease functionalization and, in some cases, intrinsic electrochemistry. These carbon-based nanomaterials involve well-known carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene as well as the more recent use of other carbon nanoforms. This paper briefly discusses the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites for amplification through tagging in electrochemical biosensing platforms and provides an updated overview of some selected examples making use of labels involving carbon nanomaterials, acting both as carriers for signal elements and as electrochemical tracers, applied to the electrochemical biosensing of relevant (bio)markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Sensors)
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