Special Issue "Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Enrico Andreoli

Energy Safety Research Institute, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon dioxide capture and utilisation; sustainable and clean energy production; materials science and engineering; electrochemistry; photovoltaics; sensors; drug delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The capture and conversion of carbon dioxide to added value products—such as chemicals, polymers, and carbon-based fuels—certainly represent a promising approach to turn a molecule from a threat to the environment into an opportunity for long term sustainability. Materials and processes for carbon capture and utilisation are essential in this perspective, especially in view of decreasing the cost of carbon dioxide utilisation and establishing an alternative to geological storage.

In this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit original communications, articles, and reviews on the experimental and theoretical aspects of materials and processes development and application for carbon capture and utilisation.

Some of the key topics relevant to this Issue are:

  • The synthesis, characterisation, and application of novel and advanced liquid, solid, or hybrid sorbent materials and systems for carbon dioxide capture;
  • The design, preparation, and performance evaluation of homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic systems for carbon dioxide conversion to added value products;
  • The integration of renewable energy harvesting and generation with carbon dioxide conversion for carbon-neutral energy production and storage;
  • The numerical, computational, and theoretical study of materials and processes used in the capture and chemical conversion of carbon dioxide;
  • The engineering of materials and processes with reduced carbon dioxide footprints.

We are looking forward to receiving your high quality research manuscripts.

Dr. Enrico Andreoli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon dioxide capture
  • carbon dioxide utilisation
  • carbon dioxide sorbent materials
  • carbon dioxide activation
  • carbon dioxide catalysts
  • low-carbon energy production

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation
C 2017, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/c3020016
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)

Research

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Open AccessArticle More Energy-Efficient CO2 Capture from IGCC GE Flue Gases
C 2017, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/c3010007
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale,
[...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are one of the main reasons for the increase in greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is known as an effective method to reduce CO2 emissions on a larger scale, such as for fossil energy utilization systems. In this paper, the feasibility of capturing CO2 using cryogenic liquefaction and improving the capture rate by expansion will be discussed. The main aim was to design an energy-saving scheme for an IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power plant with CO2 cryogenic liquefaction capture. The experimental results provided by the authors, using the feed gas specification of a 740 MW IGCC General Electric (GE) combustion power plant, demonstrated that using an orifice for further expanding the vent gas after cryogenic capture from 57 bar to 24 bar gave an experimentally observed capture rate up to 65%. The energy-saving scheme can improve the overall CO2 capture rate, and hence save energy. The capture process has also been simulated using Aspen HYSYS simulation software to evaluate its energy penalty. The results show that a 92% overall capture rate can be achieved by using an orifice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessCommunication CO2 Adsorption by para-Nitroaniline Sulfuric Acid-Derived Porous Carbon Foam
C 2016, 2(4), 25; doi:10.3390/c2040025
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The expansion product from the sulfuric acid dehydration of para-nitroaniline has been characterized and studied for CO2 adsorption. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the foam indicates that both N and S contents (15 and 9 wt%, respectively) are comparable
[...] Read more.
The expansion product from the sulfuric acid dehydration of para-nitroaniline has been characterized and studied for CO2 adsorption. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the foam indicates that both N and S contents (15 and 9 wt%, respectively) are comparable to those separately reported for nitrogen- or sulfur-containing porous carbon materials. The analysis of the XPS signals of C1s, O1s, N1s, and S2p reveals the presence of a large number of functional groups and chemical species. The CO2 adsorption capacity of the foam is 7.9 wt% (1.79 mmol/g) at 24.5 °C and 1 atm in 30 min, while the integral molar heat of adsorption is 113.6 kJ/mol, indicative of the fact that chemical reactions characteristic of amine sorbents are observed for this type of carbon foam. The kinetics of adsorption is of pseudo-first-order with an extrapolated activation energy of 18.3 kJ/mol comparable to that of amine-modified nanocarbons. The richness in functionalities of H2SO4-expanded foams represents a valuable and further pursuable approach to porous carbons alternative to KOH-derived activated carbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Thermochemistry of a Biomimetic and Rubisco-Inspired CO2 Capture System from Air
C 2016, 2(3), 18; doi:10.3390/c2030018
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In theoretical studies of chemical reactions the reaction thermochemistry is usually reported for the stoichiometric reaction at standard conditions (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°). We describe the computation of the equilibrium concentrations of the CO2-adducts for the
[...] Read more.
In theoretical studies of chemical reactions the reaction thermochemistry is usually reported for the stoichiometric reaction at standard conditions (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°). We describe the computation of the equilibrium concentrations of the CO2-adducts for the general capture reaction CO2 + Capture System ⇆ CO2-adduct (GCR) and the rubisco-type capture reaction CO2 + Capture System ⇆ CO2-adduct + H2O (RCR) with consideration of the reaction CO2(g) ⇆ CO2(aq) via Henry’s law. The resulting equations are evaluated and graphically illustrated as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration and as a function of temperature. The equations were applied to the thermochemistry of small molecule rubisco-model reactions and series of additional model reactions to illustrate the range of the Gibbs free enthalpy for the effective reversible capture and of the reaction entropy for economic CO2 release at elevated temperature. A favorable capture of free enthalpy is of course a design necessity, but not all exergonic reactions are suitable CO2 capture systems. Successful CO2 capture systems must allow for effective release as well, and this feature is controlled by the reaction entropy. The principle of using a two-pronged capture system to ensure a large negative capture entropy is explained and highlighted in the graphical abstract. It is hoped that the presentation of the numerical examples provides useful guidelines for the design of more efficient capture systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessCommunication Two Blind Mice: It Is Time for Greater Collaboration between Engineers and Social Scientists around the RDD & D of Industrial Technologies
C 2016, 2(2), 16; doi:10.3390/c2020016
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within this short communication article, we consider the value that closer and earlier collaboration between engineers and social scientists could offer the research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD & D) of industrial technologies. We consider perspectives taken from both the social sciences and
[...] Read more.
Within this short communication article, we consider the value that closer and earlier collaboration between engineers and social scientists could offer the research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD & D) of industrial technologies. We consider perspectives taken from both the social sciences and engineering in order to highlight the prejudices and misunderstandings that currently limit the extent and quality of such collaboration. It is reasoned that the complex engineering challenges of the future demand a move towards greater interdisciplinarity. Current successful approaches towards fostering interdisciplinarity within the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) research community are then used to illustrate the benefits of employing a more holistic approach to the design and introduction of new industrial technologies. It is our hope that this article will catalyse similar collaborative research efforts within other sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Calculating the Emissions Impacts of Waste Electronics Recycling in Ontario, Canada
C 2016, 2(2), 11; doi:10.3390/c2020011
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 11 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study highlights the economic and environmental challenges of recycling in Ontario, specifically examining the effect of attempting to increase the emissions target for the province’s Waste Electronics (WEEE) program. The findings from the cost model analysis found that Ontario’s Electronic Stewardship program
[...] Read more.
This study highlights the economic and environmental challenges of recycling in Ontario, specifically examining the effect of attempting to increase the emissions target for the province’s Waste Electronics (WEEE) program. The findings from the cost model analysis found that Ontario’s Electronic Stewardship program reduces overall carbon emissions by approximately 205 thousand tonnes every year. This study also found that targeting specific materials for recovery could result in a scenario where the province could improve emissions offsets while reducing material management costs. Under our modeled scenario, as the tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) avoided increases, the system cost per tonne of GHG avoided initially declines. However, after avoiding 215 thousand tonnes of GHGs (the optimal point), the system cost/tonne GHG avoided increases. To achieve an emissions target in excess of 215 thousand tonnes, the province will have to have to start recycling higher cost difficult to recycle materials (display monitors, computer peripherals, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessCommunication Is the Formation of Poly-CO2 Stabilized by Lewis Base Moieties in N- and S-Doped Porous Carbon?
C 2016, 2(1), 5; doi:10.3390/c2010005
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polymerization of CO2 by Lewis basic moieties has been recently proposed to account for the high adsorption ability of N and S-doped porous carbon materials formed from the pyrolysis of sulfur or nitrogen containing polymers in the presence of KOH. Ab
[...] Read more.
The polymerization of CO2 by Lewis basic moieties has been recently proposed to account for the high adsorption ability of N and S-doped porous carbon materials formed from the pyrolysis of sulfur or nitrogen containing polymers in the presence of KOH. Ab initio calculations performed on the ideal CO2 tetramer complex LB-(CO2)4 (LB = NH3, H2O, H2S) showed no propensity for stabilization. A weak association is observed using Lewis acid species bound to oxygen (LA = H+, AlF3, AlH3, B4O6); however, the combination of a Lewis acid and base does allow for the formation of polymerized CO2 (i.e., LB-C(O)O-[C(O)O]n-C(O)O-LA). While the presence of acid moieties in porous carbon is well known, and borate species are experimentally observed in KOH activated porous carbon materials, the low stability of the oligomers calculated herein, is insufficient to explain the reported poly-CO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Open AccessArticle Using Vegetation near CO2 Mediated Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) Activities for Monitoring Potential Emissions and Ecological Effects
C 2015, 1(1), 95-111; doi:10.3390/c1010095
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CO2 mediated enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) may lead to methods of CO2 reduction in the atmosphere through carbon capture and storage (CCS); therefore, monitoring and verification methods are needed to ensure that CO2-EOR and CCS activities are
[...] Read more.
CO2 mediated enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) may lead to methods of CO2 reduction in the atmosphere through carbon capture and storage (CCS); therefore, monitoring and verification methods are needed to ensure that CO2-EOR and CCS activities are environmentally safe and effective. This study explored vegetation growth rate to determine potential ecological effects of emissions from CO2-EOR activities. Plant relative growth rates (RGR) from plots within an oilfield and reference areas, before and after CO2 breakthrough were used to assess CO2-EOR activities impact surrounding vegetation. The trend for both areas was the decrease in RGR ratio during the study time; however, the decrease in RGR ratio was significantly less in the oilfield area compared to the reference area overall and by subcategories of pine, tree and shrub. Based on data from plant plots, RGR decreased in the reference and oilfield areas except one plot, which increased in RGR. Within the oilfield and reference areas, several species decreased significantly in RGR, but American olive increased in RGR. Vegetation monitoring could provide parameters related to the modeling potential effects of emissions on local ecosystems (species, groups and community) and serve as a necessary component to the monitoring and verification of CO2-EOR and CCS projects. The challenge and limitations of vegetation monitoring were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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Other

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Open AccessEssay The Role of Synthetic Fuels for a Carbon Neutral Economy
C 2017, 3(2), 11; doi:10.3390/c3020011
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and
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Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and industrial sector requirements. A major question posed by the shift away from traditional fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources lies in matching the power demand with the daily and seasonal oscillation and the intermittency of these natural energy fluxes. Huge energy storage requirements become necessary or otherwise the decline of the power factor of both the renewable and conventional generation would mean loss of resources. On the other hand, liquid and gaseous fuels, for which there is vast storage and distribution capacity available, appear essential to supply the transport sector for a very long time ahead, besides their domestic and industrial roles. Within this context, the present assessment suggests that proven technologies and sound tested principles are available to develop an integrated energy system, relying on synthetic fuels. These would incorporate carbon capture and utilization in a closed carbon cycle, progressively relying mostly on solar and/or nuclear primary sources, providing both electric power and gaseous/liquid hydrocarbon fuels, having ample storage capacity, and able to timely satisfy all forms of energy demand. The principles and means are already available to develop a carbon-neutral synthetic fuel economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Processes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation)
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