Special Issue "Advances in Mass Timber and Timber Hybrid Lateral Load Resisting Systems"

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Tannert Thomas

University of Northern British Columbia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Wood and hybrid structures, design of wood joints and components

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a great potential for timber to be used as structural material beyond the more common low-rise residential light-frame construction. The prospect of building larger timber structures comes with certain challenges, amongst them increased lateral force created by wind and earthquakes. Two of the most promising solutions to this problem involve the notions of “mass timber”, such as cross-laminated timber and hybrid constructions that strategically combine two (or more) materials, such as timber–steel and timber–concrete systems. This Special Issue will provide insight into state-of-the-art research on the challenges and innovative solutions of adopting mass timber and timber–hybrid structural systems. Considering the global need for more sustainable building solutions, this Special Issue is of international interest.

Dr. Tannert Thomas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sustainable Construction
  • Lateral Load Resisting Systems
  • Mass Timber
  • Cross-Laminated Timber
  • Hybrid Structures

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Fire Resistance of In-Plane Compressed Log-House Timber Walls with Partial Thermal Insulation
Buildings 2018, 8(10), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8100131 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the full-scale experimental assessment of a log-house timber wall with partial thermal insulation under in-plane compression and exposed to fire on one side. A key aspect of the current design application for log-house systems is represented by geometrical details, like
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This paper presents the full-scale experimental assessment of a log-house timber wall with partial thermal insulation under in-plane compression and exposed to fire on one side. A key aspect of the current design application for log-house systems is represented by geometrical details, like cross-sectional properties of logs (typically characterised by high depth-to-width ratios) and outriggers. The latter provides restraint condition for the examined walls and hence markedly affects their overall load-carrying capacity. As a result, careful consideration should be given to the choice of these details, compared to fully monolithic timber walls (i.e., made from cross-laminated timber), due to the possible occurrence of local structural and/or thermo-mechanical mechanisms. This is the case of exceptional loading conditions like fire load, as the fire resistance of these systems could be affected by a multitude of variables, including the presence (even though limited to few surfaces only) of thermal insulation panels. To this aim, the results of a full-scale furnace test are discussed in the paper for a log-wall with partial thermal insulation, namely thermal insulation applied on the outriggers only, under the effects of EN/ISO standard fire conditions. The results of Finite Element (FE) numerical studies are also reported, to further explore the load-carrying performance of the reference log-house specimen and compare it with the experimental observations. Several thermal insulation configurations are finally numerically investigated, showing their effects on the overall fire resistance of the assembly. In accordance with literature, the test shows that the log house’s timber wall is suitable to obtain a fire resistance of about 60 min under relevant loading. The FE results are in rather close agreement with the temperature measurements within the section of logs, as well as a qualitative correlation with respect to the mechanical behaviour observed in the full-scale furnace experiment. The key role of outriggers and their thermo-mechanical boundaries, finally, is emphasised. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Panel Lay-Up on the Characteristic Bending and Rolling Shear Strength of CLT
Buildings 2018, 8(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090114
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to characterise the behaviour of cross laminated timber (CLT) panels and the influence of the panel lay-up on the failure strength. Three different panel configurations of thickness, 60 mm, 100 mm, and 120 mm, were loaded in
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The objective of this study was to characterise the behaviour of cross laminated timber (CLT) panels and the influence of the panel lay-up on the failure strength. Three different panel configurations of thickness, 60 mm, 100 mm, and 120 mm, were loaded in the out-of-plane direction. The 60 mm and 120 mm panel configuration comprised three layers of equal thickness, and the intermediate 100 mm thick panel comprised five layers of equal thickness. The mean and characteristic bending and rolling shear strength of the panels were examined. The results show that the mean bending and rolling shear strength decrease with the panel thickness. The characteristic results have shown that there is an influence because of the number of boards within the panel. The characteristic bending strength values for the five-layer 100 mm thick panel were found to be higher than that of the three-layer 60 mm panel. The characteristic rolling shear values decreased in the five-layer panels, however, the increased number of layers subjected to the rolling shear results in a reduced variability in the rolling shear strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In-Plane Strength and Stiffness of Cross-Laminated Timber Shear Walls
Buildings 2018, 8(8), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080100
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
The research presented herein investigated the in-plane performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) shear walls for platform-type buildings under lateral loading. Finite element models of CLT connections (i.e., brackets, hold-downs and self-tapping screws) were developed in OpenSees and calibrated against experimental tests to represent
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The research presented herein investigated the in-plane performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) shear walls for platform-type buildings under lateral loading. Finite element models of CLT connections (i.e., brackets, hold-downs and self-tapping screws) were developed in OpenSees and calibrated against experimental tests to represent the connections’ hysteresis behaviour under cyclic tension and shear loading. The results were incorporated into models of CLT single and coupled shear walls. The results in terms of peak displacement, peak load and energy dissipation were in good agreement when compared to full-scale shear wall tests. Subsequently, a parametric study of 56 single and 40 coupled CLT shear walls was conducted with varying numbers and types of connectors (wall-to-floor and wall-to-wall) for evaluating their seismic performance. It was found that the strength, stiffness and energy dissipation of the single and coupled CLT shear walls increased with an increase in the number of connectors. Single shear walls with hold-downs and brackets performed better under seismic loading compared to walls with brackets only. Similarly, coupled shear walls with four hold-downs performed better compared to walls with two hold-downs. Finally, ductility of coupled shear walls was found to be 31% higher compared to that of single shear walls. The findings from this research are useful for engineers to efficiently design CLT shear walls in platform-type construction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Shear Performance Assessment of Timber Log-House Walls under In-Plane Lateral Loads via Numerical and Analytical Modelling
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Log-house is an ancient construction technology based on the superposition of linear timber logs, connected to the orthogonal walls by a system of carvings, notches and corner joints. Due to the fact that this solution is widely used in constructions located in seismic
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Log-house is an ancient construction technology based on the superposition of linear timber logs, connected to the orthogonal walls by a system of carvings, notches and corner joints. Due to the fact that this solution is widely used in constructions located in seismic or windy areas, the in-plane behaviour of walls represents an attractive research topic. In this paper, major outcomes of a Finite-Element (FE) numerical investigation carried out on single corner joints currently in use for log-house buildings are discussed under different loading conditions (i.e., in-plane lateral and vertical compressive loads), including parametric analyses to capture the key aspects of their typical structural response. Careful consideration is paid for the elastic stiffness of such joints, being of primary interest for design purposed. At the same time, a linear analytical formulation is presented, with the aim of providing a simple but useful tool in support of design, and especially to estimate the maximum lateral displacement/resistance for a given log-house wall when subjected to in-plane lateral forces. There, the intrinsic mechanical features of corner joints and related aspects are properly considered (i.e., static friction phenomena, as well as the presence of small gaps, etc.). The analytical model, in addition, takes advantage of the numerically predicted joint stiffness values, being dependent on several parameters. As shown, rather good agreement is obtained between the FE model output, the analytical predictions and past reference experimental/numerical results available in the literature for full-scale log-house walls under in-plane lateral loads, hence suggesting the potential of the proposed approach. In conclusion, possible Force-Preload-Displacement (FPD) charts are presented, to act as simplified tools for preliminary design considerations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Feasibility Study of Mass-Timber Cores for the UBC Tall Wood Building
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
The UBC Brock Commons building in Vancouver, which comprises of 18 stories and stands 53 m in height, was at the time of completion in 2016 the world’s tallest hybrid wood-based building. The building’s 17 stories of mass-timber superstructure, carrying all gravity loads,
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The UBC Brock Commons building in Vancouver, which comprises of 18 stories and stands 53 m in height, was at the time of completion in 2016 the world’s tallest hybrid wood-based building. The building’s 17 stories of mass-timber superstructure, carrying all gravity loads, rest on a concrete podium with two concrete cores that act as both the wind and seismic lateral load-resisting systems. Whereas the construction of the concrete cores took fourteen weeks in time, the mass-timber superstructure took only ten weeks from initiation to completion. A substantial reduction in the project timeline could have been achieved if mass-timber had been used for the cores, leading to a further reduction of the building’s environmental footprint and potential cost savings. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of designing the UBC Brock Commons building using mass-timber cores. The results from a validated numerical structural model indicate that applying a series of structural adjustments, that is, configuration and thickness of cores, solutions with mass-timber cores can meet the seismic and wind performance criteria as per the current National Building Code of Canada. Specifically, the findings suggest the adoption of laminated-veneer lumber cores with supplementary ‘C-shaped’ walls to reduce torsion and optimize section’s mechanical properties. Furthermore, a life cycle analysis showed the environmental benefit of these all-wood solutions. Full article
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