Special Issue "Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future"

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carol North

VA North Texas Health Care System, 4500 S. Lancaster Rd., 116A, Dallas, TX 75216, USA
Psychiatry and Surgery/Division of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6363 Forest Park Rd., Dallas, TX 75390-8828,USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Psychiatric aspects of medical illnesses; Psychiatric effects of disasters, terrorism, and other trauma; Psychiatric epidemiology, substance abuse, and service use among the homeless population; Psychoeducation; Somatoform and dissociative disorders
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alina Suris

VA North Texas Health Care System 4500 S. Lancaster Road, 116A, Dallas, TX 75216, USA
Psychiatry and Surgery/Division of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6363 Forest Park Rd., Dallas, TX 75390-8828,USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Mental health and functional outcome measures; Novel interventions for PTSD; Women’s mental health issues and treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Psychiatric diagnosis has had a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy. This Special Issue will review the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and supporting research literature. It will explore the phenomenological, nosological, biological, and clinical bases of psychiatric diagnosis both broadly and more specifically (for several diagnostic categories). This Special Issue’s extensive, in-depth treatment of psychiatric diagnosis will equip the field to appreciate the complexities of psychiatric diagnosis as it pushes forward toward future advancements.

Dr. Carol North
Dr. Alina Suris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Behavioral Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • psychiatric diagnosis
  • psychopathology
  • nosology
  • diagnostic classification systems
  • diagnostic validity
  • diagnostic conceptualization of psychotic disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of mood disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of addictive disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of developmental disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of trauma- and stress-related disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of somatoform disorders
  • diagnostic conceptualization of personality disorders

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis: Past, Present, and Future
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/bs7020027
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 22 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation
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This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria. The articles seek to guide readers in appreciating the complexities of psychiatric diagnosis as the field of psychiatry pushes forward toward future advancements in diagnosis. Despite efforts of many scientists to advance a diagnostic classification system that incorporates neuroscience and genetics, it has been argued that it may be premature to attempt to move to a biologically-based classification system, because psychiatric disorders cannot yet be fully distinguished by any specific biological markers. For now, the symptom-based criteria that the field has been using continue to serve many essential purposes, including selection of the most effective treatment, communication about disease with colleagues, education about psychiatric illness, and support for ongoing research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)

Research

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Open AccessArticle The Syndrome of Catatonia
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 576-588; doi:10.3390/bs5040576
Received: 12 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia. Many clinicians have thought that the prevalence of this condition has been decreasing over the past few decades. This review reminds clinicians that catatonia is not exclusively associated with schizophrenia, and
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Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia. Many clinicians have thought that the prevalence of this condition has been decreasing over the past few decades. This review reminds clinicians that catatonia is not exclusively associated with schizophrenia, and is still common in clinical practice. Many cases are related to affective disorders or are of an idiopathic nature. The illusion of reduced prevalence has been due to evolving diagnostic systems that failed to capture catatonic syndromes. This systemic error has remained unchallenged, and potentiated by the failure to perform adequate neurological evaluations and catatonia screening exams on psychiatric patients. We find that current data supports catatonic syndromes are still common, often severe and of modern clinical importance. Effective treatment is relatively easy and can greatly reduce organ failure associated with prolonged psychomotor symptoms. Prompt identification and treatment can produce a robust improvement in most cases. The ongoing prevalence of this syndrome requires that psychiatrists recognize catatonia and its presentations, the range of associated etiologies, and the import of timely treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 565-575; doi:10.3390/bs5040565
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort
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In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders: Historical and Phenomenological Considerations
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 496-517; doi:10.3390/bs5040496
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 31 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions
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This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions of dissenting sectors on classification of these disorders. This article then considers the extensive phenomenological overlap across these disorders in empirical research, and from this foundation presents a new model for the conceptualization of these disorders. The classification of disorders formerly known as hysteria and phenomenologically-related syndromes has long been contentious and unsettled. Examination of the long history of the conceptual difficulties, which remain inherent in existing classification schemes for these disorders, can help to address the continuing controversy. This review clarifies the need for a major conceptual revision of the current classification of these disorders. A new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the DSM-5: Controversy, Change, and Conceptual Considerations
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/bs7010007
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD have changed considerably with the newest edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Changes to the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV to DSM-5 include: the relocation
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The criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD have changed considerably with the newest edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Changes to the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV to DSM-5 include: the relocation of PTSD from the anxiety disorders category to a new diagnostic category named “Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders”, the elimination of the subjective component to the definition of trauma, the explication and tightening of the definitions of trauma and exposure to it, the increase and rearrangement of the symptoms criteria, and changes in additional criteria and specifiers. This article will explore the nosology of the current diagnosis of PTSD by reviewing the changes made to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the DSM-5 and discuss how these changes influence the conceptualization of PTSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview DSM Nosology Changes in Neuropsychological Diagnoses through the Years: A Look at ADHD and Mild Neurocognitive Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/bs7010001
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article discusses the evolution of modern neuropsychology as a field and the concomitant changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Themes in neuropsychology through the years will be highlighted alongside discussion of how neuropsychologists and neuropsychological research have
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This article discusses the evolution of modern neuropsychology as a field and the concomitant changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Themes in neuropsychology through the years will be highlighted alongside discussion of how neuropsychologists and neuropsychological research have influenced and have been influenced by the DSM. The DSM 5 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mild neurocognitive disorder will be used as examples to reflect the evolution of the disorders in relation to neuropsychology and the DSM. In particular, recent criticism and research regarding the nosology of both disorders and future directions will be presented in the context of neuropsychology and DSM. Finally, influence regarding changes to the DSM 5 on neuropsychology in clinical decision making, test selection, and diagnosis will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations
Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 18; doi:10.3390/bs6030018
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users
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This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs) and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria
Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/bs6030014
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being
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Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/bs6010005
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines,
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This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines, pre-publication meetings, and field trials. Important changes in the purpose of the manuals are described with a focus on events leading to the manual’s third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how we think about, and use, the classification system for mental illness. For the first time, DSM-III emphasized empirically-based, atheoretical and agnostic diagnostic criteria. New criticisms of the DSM-III and subsequent editions have arisen with a call for a new paradigm shift to replace diagnostic categories with continuous dimensional systems of classification, returning to etiologically-based definitions and incorporating findings from neurobiological science into systems of diagnosis. In the foreseeable future, however, psychiatric diagnosis must continue to be accomplished by taking a history and assessing the currently established criteria. This is necessary for communication about diseases and education of clinicians and scientists in medical fields, as well as advancement of research needed to further advance the diagnostic criteria of psychiatry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)

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