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Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/bs6030014

Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Dallas, TX 75390, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55901, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carol North and Alina Suris
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [244 KB, uploaded 15 July 2016]

Abstract

Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: bipolar disorder; manic depression; major depressive disorder; depression; mood disorder; diagnostic criteria; diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM; research domain criteria; history of bipolar disorder bipolar disorder; manic depression; major depressive disorder; depression; mood disorder; diagnostic criteria; diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM; research domain criteria; history of bipolar disorder
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mason, B.L.; Brown, E.S.; Croarkin, P.E. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria. Behav. Sci. 2016, 6, 14.

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