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Special Issue "Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Micrometeorology and Pollution Dispersal"

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A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Daniele Contini

Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Str. Prv. Lecce-Monteroni km 1.2, 73100 Lecce, Italy
E-Mail
Phone: +39-0832-298919
Fax: +39 0832 298716
Interests: transport, dispersion and transformation of atmospheric pollutants; emission and deposition processes of gas and particles; identification and characterisation of aerosol sources; Planetary Boundary-Layer structure and micrometeorology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Land-atmosphere interaction is a key-aspect in several atmospheric processes of the surface layer and, more generally, of the Planetary Boundary-Layer. This interaction determines the energy balance at the surface, which, in turn, influences turbulence, atmospheric stability, and surface-layer structure. There is nowadays a strong interest in the scientific community in the measurement and modeling of atmosphere-surface exchange, over different typologies of surfaces, of energy, tracers, and pollutants for studying both air quality implications and impact on climate in urban, coastal, and remote sites. The vertical exchange (flux) of water vapor is an essential part of the water balance in the biosphere. The determination of vertical net exchange of CO2 over forest and vegetated surfaces is extremely important in determining the CO2 concentration levels and trends at a global scale and has an important role in climate change scenarios. The net balance between pollutant emission and deposition in urban areas and its parameterization is a key-step in modeling and in the evaluation of the role of urban agglomerates and mega-cities on air quality, health, and climate.

Manuscripts on all aspects of land-atmosphere interactions are welcome for this special issue.

Dr. Daniele Contini
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • Micrometeorology
  • Surface-layer structure and turbulence
  • Emission and deposition processes
  • Vertical fluxes
  • Surface energy balance
  • Deposition velocity

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Irradiance Impact on Pollution by Integrating Nephelometer Measurements
Atmosphere 2015, 6(12), 1889-1903; doi:10.3390/atmos6121836
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract
Three-wavelength integrating nephelometer measurements combined with short- (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements were used to investigate the irradiance effects on the daily evolution of the particulate matter (PM) at the ground level, and contribute to the characterization of the land–atmosphere interaction in
[...] Read more.
Three-wavelength integrating nephelometer measurements combined with short- (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements were used to investigate the irradiance effects on the daily evolution of the particulate matter (PM) at the ground level, and contribute to the characterization of the land–atmosphere interaction in pollution dispersal. The integrating nephelometer measurements have allowed characterizing the daily changes of the PM optical and microphysical properties by the aerosol scattering coefficient (σp) and the scattering Ångström coefficient (å). We found that on a daily basis σp reached the minimum values when the irradiance reached the maximum values, since the convective motions, which favor the particle dispersion at the surface, increase with the irradiance. The å value, which is commonly used as qualitative indicator of the dominant particle size, has allowed evaluating the irradiance effects on the mean particle size distribution at the surface and revealed that the irradiance increase favors mainly the dispersion of the ground-level fine particles. Particle size-distribution measurements supported the last comment. Measurements were performed from 4 to 10 May 2015 when the study site was affected by a Saharan dust outbreak, to also evaluate the impact of long-range transported particles on the daily evolution of the ground-level particle’s properties and the SW and LW irradiance. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Radiation Balance of Urban Materials and Their Thermal Impact in Semi-Desert Region: Mexicali, México Study Case
Atmosphere 2015, 6(10), 1578-1589; doi:10.3390/atmos6101578
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
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Abstract
Net radiation is an essential forcing of climate in the lower layers of Earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, radiation balance is measured in clay soil and green grass, and is compared with three urban materials. These materials: asphalt, concrete and white painted elastomeric
[...] Read more.
Net radiation is an essential forcing of climate in the lower layers of Earth’s atmosphere. In this paper, radiation balance is measured in clay soil and green grass, and is compared with three urban materials. These materials: asphalt, concrete and white painted elastomeric polystyrene roofing sheet are widely used in Mexicali, Baja California, México. This study was carried out during August of 2011, the hottest time of the year. The 24-hour average values of net radiation found were: 137.2 W·m2 for asphalt, 119.1 for concrete, 104.6 for clay soil, 152 for green grass and 29.2 for the polystyrene insulation. The latter two types of materials are likely to be the most effective in reducing urban heat island effects. This variation in the radiation balance has widespread implications for human living conditions, as land cover change tends to be towards surfaces that have higher levels of net radiation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Gravity Waves over an Antarctic Ice Sheet during an Austral Summer
Atmosphere 2015, 6(9), 1271-1289; doi:10.3390/atmos6091271
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While occurrences of wavelike motion in the stable boundary layer due to the presence of a significant restoring buoyancy force are rarely disputed, their modalities and interaction with turbulence remain a subject of active research. In this work, the characteristics of gravity waves
[...] Read more.
While occurrences of wavelike motion in the stable boundary layer due to the presence of a significant restoring buoyancy force are rarely disputed, their modalities and interaction with turbulence remain a subject of active research. In this work, the characteristics of gravity waves and their impact on flow statistics, including turbulent fluxes, are presented using data collected above an Antarctic Ice sheet during an Austral Summer. Antarctica is an ideal location for exploring the characteristics of gravity waves because of persistent conditions of strong atmospheric stability in the lower troposphere. Periods dominated by wavelike motion have been identified by analysing time series measured by fast response instrumentation. The nature and characteristic of the dominant wavy motions are investigated using Fourier cross-spectral indicators. Moreover, a multi-resolution decomposition has been applied to separate gravity waves from turbulent fluctuations in case of a sufficiently defined spectral gap. Statistics computed after removing wavy disturbances highlight the large impact of gravity waves on second order turbulent quantities including turbulent flux calculations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Case Study of Particle Number Fluxes and Size Distributions during Nucleation Events in Southeastern Italy in the Summer
Atmosphere 2015, 6(7), 942-959; doi:10.3390/atmos6070942
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concentrations, size distributions and particle number vertical turbulent fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance method at an urban background site in southeastern Italy during the summer. CO2/H2O concentrations and fluxes were also determined together with meteorological parameters. Time series show that particles could
[...] Read more.
Concentrations, size distributions and particle number vertical turbulent fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance method at an urban background site in southeastern Italy during the summer. CO2/H2O concentrations and fluxes were also determined together with meteorological parameters. Time series show that particles could be divided into two size classes with negatively-correlated temporal trends in diurnal hours: nanoparticles (diameter Dp < 50 nm) and larger particles (Dp > 50 nm). Larger particles include part of the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode. Nanoparticles peaked in diurnal hours due to the presence of several days with nucleation events when particles Dp > 50 nm were at minimum concentrations. Nucleation increased diurnal total particle concentration by a factor of 2.5, reducing mean and median diameters from Dmean = 62.3 ± 1.2 nm and Dmedian = 29.1 ± 1.3 nm on non-event days to Dmean = 35.4 ± 0.6 nm and Dmedian = 15.5 ± 0.3 nm on event days. During nucleation events, particle deposition increased markedly (i.e., downward fluxes), but no significant changes in CO2 concentrations and fluxes were observed. This is compatible with new particle formation above the measurement height and a consequent net transport towards the surface. Correlation with meteorology shows that the formation of new particles is correlated with solar radiation and favored at high wind velocity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land-Atmosphere Transfer Parameters in the Brazilian Pantanal during the Dry Season
Atmosphere 2015, 6(6), 805-821; doi:10.3390/atmos6060805
Received: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 10 June 2015
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Abstract
The Brazilian region of Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world, characterized by a wet season, in which it is covered by a shallow water layer, and a dry season, in which the water layer disappears. The aim of this
[...] Read more.
The Brazilian region of Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world, characterized by a wet season, in which it is covered by a shallow water layer, and a dry season, in which the water layer disappears. The aim of this study is the estimation of the main parameters (drag coefficients and surface scale lengths) involved in modelling the surface atmosphere transfer of momentum, heat and water vapor from the dataset of the second Interdisciplinary Pantanal Experiment (IPE2). The roughness parameters and the stability correction parameters have been estimated in the framework of the similarity theory for the vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature. Thus, a previously-developed methodology was adapted to the available dataset from the IPE2 five-level mast. The results are in reasonable agreement with the available literature. An attempt to obtain the scalar transfer parameters for water vapor has been performed by a Penman–Monteith approach using a two-component surface resistance in parallel between a vegetation and a bare soil part. The parameters of the model have been calibrated using a non-linear regression method. The scalar drag coefficient retrieved in this way is in agreement with that calculated by the flux-gradient approach for the sensible heat flux. Eventually, an evaluation of the vegetation contribution to the total vapor flux is given. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing
Atmosphere 2015, 6(5), 650-676; doi:10.3390/atmos6050650
Received: 17 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1) the PM mass concentration is
[...] Read more.
Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1) the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2) the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3) the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4) the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evapotranspiration Estimates over Non-Homogeneous Mediterranean Land Cover by a Calibrated “Critical Resistance” Approach
Atmosphere 2015, 6(3), 255-272; doi:10.3390/atmos6030255
Received: 5 November 2014 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation was used to estimate the actual evapotranspiration from local meteorological data over non-homogeneous land cover in a Mediterranean site in the south-east of Italy, with two six month data sets from two different years of measurements
[...] Read more.
An approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation was used to estimate the actual evapotranspiration from local meteorological data over non-homogeneous land cover in a Mediterranean site in the south-east of Italy, with two six month data sets from two different years of measurements (2006 and 2009). The “critical resistance” formulation was used in different forms to model the surface resistance, together with some modifications to take into account the soil moisture content. One, two, or three model parameters were estimated, one of them related to the atmospheric resistance and the others to the surface resistance, and the calibration was made by either linear regression or nonlinear minimization of a proper cost function, depending on the applicability. Two kinds of cost functions were tested, the first depending on both the latent heat flux and the difference between screen air temperature and surface radiometric temperature, and the second depending on the temperature difference only. In all cases the calculated fluxes give better results with respect to both a flux-gradient approach and a complementarity based method, that require comparable data inputs. However the calibration by the temperature differences only, that requires no turbulent flux measurements, considerably increases the statistical uncertainty of the calibration parameters. The inclusion of the soil moisture did not significantly improve the model results in the considered site. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characteristics and Sources of Metals in TSP and PM2.5 in an Urban Forest Park at Guangzhou
Atmosphere 2014, 5(4), 775-787; doi:10.3390/atmos5040775
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban forest parks play important roles in improving environments, protecting biodiversity and even public welfare. Aerosols, including total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), were simultaneously collected in an urban forest park
[...] Read more.
Urban forest parks play important roles in improving environments, protecting biodiversity and even public welfare. Aerosols, including total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), were simultaneously collected in an urban forest park (Dafushan) at Guangzhou, southern China, from January 2012 to December 2013. The concentrations of 12 metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in both TSP and PM2.5 were quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The origins and possible sources of the studied metals in the PM2.5 and TSP were evaluated using the crustal enrichment factors and the principal component analysis, respectively. The results showed that Dafushan urban forest park was polluted by PM2.5 rather than by TSP. The PM2.5 and TSP in the forest park exhibited seasonal patterns with significantly higher contents in the dry season compared with the rainy season. The metals Al, Zn, Pb were the most abundant, while Hg was the lowest metals in the aerosols. The ratios of PM2.5/TSP ratio indicated that the metals were predominant in the finer particles (PM2.5). The crustal enrichment factors indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn in the aerosols originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al and Mn were mainly of crustal origin. The principal component analysis implied that industrial activities, traffic-related emissions, and soil dust were the main possible sources of the metals in both PM2.5 and TSP in Dafushan forest park. Full article

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Open AccessLetter Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging
Atmosphere 2015, 6(8), 1032-1044; doi:10.3390/atmos6081032
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensible heat flux (H) plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC) to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and remote
[...] Read more.
Sensible heat flux (H) plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC) to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and remote sensing (RS) products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK) model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products. Full article
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