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Atmosphere 2014, 5(4), 775-787; doi:10.3390/atmos5040775

Characteristics and Sources of Metals in TSP and PM2.5 in an Urban Forest Park at Guangzhou

1
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, China
2
Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment, China's State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
3
College of Forestry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
4
Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
5
Guangdong Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
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Abstract

Urban forest parks play important roles in improving environments, protecting biodiversity and even public welfare. Aerosols, including total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), were simultaneously collected in an urban forest park (Dafushan) at Guangzhou, southern China, from January 2012 to December 2013. The concentrations of 12 metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in both TSP and PM2.5 were quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The origins and possible sources of the studied metals in the PM2.5 and TSP were evaluated using the crustal enrichment factors and the principal component analysis, respectively. The results showed that Dafushan urban forest park was polluted by PM2.5 rather than by TSP. The PM2.5 and TSP in the forest park exhibited seasonal patterns with significantly higher contents in the dry season compared with the rainy season. The metals Al, Zn, Pb were the most abundant, while Hg was the lowest metals in the aerosols. The ratios of PM2.5/TSP ratio indicated that the metals were predominant in the finer particles (PM2.5). The crustal enrichment factors indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn in the aerosols originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al and Mn were mainly of crustal origin. The principal component analysis implied that industrial activities, traffic-related emissions, and soil dust were the main possible sources of the metals in both PM2.5 and TSP in Dafushan forest park. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; TSP; metals; source identification; urban forest park PM2.5; TSP; metals; source identification; urban forest park
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, Y.-H.; Liu, S.-R.; Tong, F.-C.; Kuang, Y.-W.; Chen, B.-F.; Guo, Y.-D. Characteristics and Sources of Metals in TSP and PM2.5 in an Urban Forest Park at Guangzhou. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 775-787.

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