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Vet. Sci., Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2014), Pages 1-76

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Veterinary Sciences—A Forum for One Medicine, One Health
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010001
Received: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
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Abstract
The study of the pathophysiology and treatment of diseases of domestic animals and wildlife has much to offer to biomedical research as a whole. More importantly, it has great potential to contribute to the health and well-being of all species on the planet.
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The study of the pathophysiology and treatment of diseases of domestic animals and wildlife has much to offer to biomedical research as a whole. More importantly, it has great potential to contribute to the health and well-being of all species on the planet. Integrated thinking about animal and human health has been promulgated for centuries. However, although sometimes credited to physician, William Osler, the term “One Medicine” was coined in modern vernacular by Calvin Schwabe, who noted the interaction of humans and animals for nutrition, livelihood and health [1]. More generally, the term emphasizes that there are no fundamental differences between veterinary and human medical principles, and that each contributes knowledge to the other. “One Health” is often considered a broader term as it includes the consideration of ecosystem health, and often represents the overlap of domestic and wild animal health with human public health [2]. [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Animal Models and Better Understanding of “One Medicine”
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 3-4; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010003
Received: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
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Abstract
Medical science has long been informed by the study of animal physiology and pathophysiology, both spontaneous and induced. Physiologist Claude Bernard studied dogs to better understand pancreatic, hepatic and cardiovascular homeostasis [1,2]. Best and Banting uncovered the function of insulin through studies in
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Medical science has long been informed by the study of animal physiology and pathophysiology, both spontaneous and induced. Physiologist Claude Bernard studied dogs to better understand pancreatic, hepatic and cardiovascular homeostasis [1,2]. Best and Banting uncovered the function of insulin through studies in experimental dogs [3]. More recent studies of obesity in cats have found similarities and interesting differences in the manifestation of the adverse effects of overnutrition between cats and humans [4]. The complete sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, and deep sequencing of pig, cattle, dog and cat have opened up the opportunity to systematically compare genetic similarities and differences [5,6]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from Southern Connecticut
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 5-15; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010005
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
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Abstract
It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and
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It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also demonstrated that infection rate of these filarial nematode in Ixodes ticks is relatively high (about 22% and 30% in nymphal and adult Ixodes ticks, respectively). In summary, the results from our studies demonstrated that filarial nematode infection was found in Ixodes ticks similar to what has been found in Amblyomma americanum ticks. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 16-39; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010016
Received: 29 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
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Abstract
Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are
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Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 40-62; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010040
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
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Abstract
Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in
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Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessReview Respiratory Animal Models in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 63-76; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010063
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus
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Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are small non-human primates (NHPs) that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys). The marmoset has the size of a rat (350–450 g), is easier to handle, and the husbandry, care, and management of colonies is much easier compared to OWMs. In contrast to rodents, marmosets provide a high homology to humans, which become especially visible in lung architecture and branching pattern. Features of inflammatory (e.g., COPD) pulmonary diseases can be modeled in marmosets as well the species is used to study bacterial and viral infection. Models for human melioidosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, as well as infections with SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), influenza A virus and adenovirus are already established. Toxicological studies often use marmoset monkeys for the advantage of immunological identical twins that are produced by a Callitrichinae-specific placentation type, which ultimately causes blood chimerism. Relatively new approaches in gene therapy use marmosets for respiratory disease research. In this review we will give an overview of existing respiratory marmoset models and their impact on biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

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