Next Article in Journal
Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis
Previous Article in Journal
Animal Models and Better Understanding of “One Medicine”
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(1), 5-15; doi:10.3390/vetsci1010005

Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from Southern Connecticut

Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [801 KB, uploaded 12 May 2014]   |   Browse Figures


It was recently demonstrated that the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum could harbor filarial nematodes within the genus Acanthocheilonema. In this study, Ixodes scapularis (deer) ticks collected from Southern Connecticut were evaluated for their potential to harbor filarial nematodes. Non-engorged nymphal and adult stage Ixodes scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the standard drag method. In situ hybridization with filarial nematode specific sequences demonstrated the presence of filarial nematodes in Ixodes ticks. Filarial nematode specific DNA sequences were amplified and confirmed by direct sequencing in Ixodes nymphal and adult ticks using either general filarial nematode or Onchocercidae family specific PCR primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the 12S rDNA gene sequence indicated that the filarial nematode infecting Ixodes scapularis ticks is most closely related to the species found in Amblyoma americanum ticks and belongs to the genus of Acanthocheilonema. Our data also demonstrated that infection rate of these filarial nematode in Ixodes ticks is relatively high (about 22% and 30% in nymphal and adult Ixodes ticks, respectively). In summary, the results from our studies demonstrated that filarial nematode infection was found in Ixodes ticks similar to what has been found in Amblyomma americanum ticks.
Keywords: Ixodes scapularis; hard ticks; Onchocercidae family; mtDNA marker Ixodes scapularis; hard ticks; Onchocercidae family; mtDNA marker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Namrata, P.; Miller, J.M.; Shilpa, M.; Reddy, P.R.; Bandoski, C.; Rossi, M.J.; Sapi, E. Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from Southern Connecticut. Vet. Sci. 2014, 1, 5-15.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics


[Return to top]
Vet. Sci. EISSN 2306-7381 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert