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Vet. Sci., Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2014), Pages 77-135

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Changes in Pain Sensitivity in an Animal Model of Social Anxiety
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 77-95; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020077
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
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Abstract
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several
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Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10). SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure), increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia) was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce emotional changes associated with a stressful/traumatic event. In addition, they indicate that variations in the nociceptive threshold might represent a physiological marker of both short- and long-term effects of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)
Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of a Standardized Novel Animal Model for Cervical Vertebral Augmentation in Sheep Using a PTH Derivate Bioactive Material
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 96-120; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020096
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
Prophylactic local treatment involving percutaneous vertebral augmentation using bioactive materials is a new treatment strategy in spine surgery in humans for vertebral bodies at risk. Standardized animal models for this procedure are almost non-existent. The purpose of this study was to: (i) prove
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Prophylactic local treatment involving percutaneous vertebral augmentation using bioactive materials is a new treatment strategy in spine surgery in humans for vertebral bodies at risk. Standardized animal models for this procedure are almost non-existent. The purpose of this study was to: (i) prove the efficacy of PTH derivate bioactive materials for new bone formation; and (ii) create a new, highly standardized cervical vertebral augmentation model in sheep. Three different concentrations of a modified form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) covalently bound to a fibrin matrix containing strontium carbonate were used. The same matrix without PTH and shams were used as controls. The bioactive materials were locally injected. Using a ventral surgical approach, a pre-set amount of material was injected under fluoroscopic guidance into the intertrabecular space of three vertebral bodies. Intravital fluorescent dyes were used to demonstrate new bone formation. After an observation period of four months, the animals were sacrificed, and vertebral bodies were processed for µCT, histomorphometry, histology and sequential fluorescence evaluation. Enhanced localized bone activity and new bone formation in the injected area could be determined for all experimental groups in comparison to the matrix alone and sham with the highest values detected for the group with a medium concentration of PTH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

Review

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Open AccessReview Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes
Vet. Sci. 2014, 1(2), 121-135; doi:10.3390/vetsci1020121
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
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Abstract
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there
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Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control; however, insulin resistance alone is not a good indicator of progression to diabetes in people or pets. A loss of beta cell function is necessary to provide the link to impaired fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose. Increased endogenous glucose output by the liver is also a prerequisite for the increase in fasting blood glucose when non-diabetic obese humans and pets develop diabetes. This may be due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin concentrations, or a combination of both. While inflammation is a major link between obesity and diabetes in humans, there is little evidence that a similar phenomenon exists in cats. In dogs, more studies are needed to examine this important issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models of Disease)

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