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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of IJGI in 2016
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010011
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract The editors of IJGI would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Representativeness of Mobile Phone Location Data in Characterizing Human Mobility Indicators
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010007
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 January 2017 / Published: 6 January 2017
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Abstract
The advent of big data has aided understanding of the driving forces of human mobility, which is beneficial for many fields, such as mobility prediction, urban planning, and traffic management. However, the data sources used in many studies, such as mobile phone location
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The advent of big data has aided understanding of the driving forces of human mobility, which is beneficial for many fields, such as mobility prediction, urban planning, and traffic management. However, the data sources used in many studies, such as mobile phone location and geo-tagged social media data, are sparsely sampled in the temporal scale. An individual’s records can be distributed over a few hours a day, or a week, or over just a few hours a month. Thus, the representativeness of sparse mobile phone location data in characterizing human mobility requires analysis before using data to derive human mobility patterns. This paper investigates this important issue through an approach that uses subscriber mobile phone location data collected by a major carrier in Shenzhen, China. A dataset of over 5 million mobile phone subscribers that covers 24 h a day is used as a benchmark to test the representativeness of mobile phone location data on human mobility indicators, such as total travel distance, movement entropy, and radius of gyration. This study divides this dataset by hour, using 2- to 23-h segments to evaluate the representativeness due to the availability of mobile phone location data. The results show that different numbers of hourly segments affect estimations of human mobility indicators and can cause overestimations or underestimations from the individual perspective. On average, the total travel distance and movement entropy tend to be underestimated. The underestimation coefficient results for estimation of total travel distance are approximately linear, declining as the number of time segments increases, and the underestimation coefficient results for estimating movement entropy decline logarithmically as the time segments increase, whereas the radius of gyration tends to be more ambiguous due to the loss of isolated locations. This paper suggests that researchers should carefully interpret results derived from this type of sparse data in the era of big data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crustal and Upper Mantle Density Structure Beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Surrounding Areas Derived from EGM2008 Geoid Anomalies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010004
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
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Abstract
As the most active plateau on the Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP) has a complex crust–mantle structure. Knowledge of the distribution of such a structure provides information for understanding the underlying geodynamic processes. We obtain a three-dimensional model of the density of the
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As the most active plateau on the Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP) has a complex crust–mantle structure. Knowledge of the distribution of such a structure provides information for understanding the underlying geodynamic processes. We obtain a three-dimensional model of the density of the crust and the upper mantle beneath the TP and surrounding areas from height anomalies using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). We refine the estimated density in the model iteratively using an initial density contrast model. We confirm that the EGM2008 products can be used to constrain the crust–mantle density structures. Our major findings are: (1) At a depth of 300–400 km, high-D(ensity) anomalies terminate around the Jinsha River Suture (JRS) in the central TP, which suggests that the Indian Plate has reached across the Bangong Nujiang Suture (BNS) and almost reaches the JRS. (2) On the eastern TP, low-D(ensity) anomalies at a depth of 0–300 km and with high-D anomalies at 400–670 km further verified the current eastward subduction of the Indian Plate. The ongoing subduction process provides force that results in frequent earthquakes and volcanoes. (3) At a depth of 600 km, low-D anomalies inside the TP illustrate the presence of hot weak material beneath it, which contribute to the inward thrusting of external material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Detecting Road Intersections from GPS Traces Using Longest Common Subsequence Algorithm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010001
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract
Intersections are important components of road networks, which are critical to both route planning and path optimization. Most existing methods define the intersections as locations where the road users change their moving directions and identify the intersections from GPS traces through analyzing the
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Intersections are important components of road networks, which are critical to both route planning and path optimization. Most existing methods define the intersections as locations where the road users change their moving directions and identify the intersections from GPS traces through analyzing the road users’ turning behaviors. However, these methods suffer from finding an appropriate threshold for the moving direction change, leading to true intersections being undetected or spurious intersections being falsely detected. In this paper, the intersections are defined as locations that connect three or more road segments in different directions. We propose to detect the intersections under this definition by finding the common sub-tracks of the GPS traces. We first detect the Longest Common Subsequences (LCSS) between each pair of GPS traces using the dynamic programming approach. Second, we partition the longest nonconsecutive subsequences into consecutive sub-tracks. The starting and ending points of the common sub-tracks are collected as connecting points. At last, intersections are detected from the connecting points through Kernel Density Estimation (KDE). Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms the turning point-based methods in terms of the F-score. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kinematic Precise Point Positioning Using Multi-Constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010006
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
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Abstract
Multi-constellation global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) are expected to enhance the capability of precise point positioning (PPP) by improving the positioning accuracy and reducing the convergence time because more satellites will be available. This paper discusses the performance of multi-constellation kinematic PPP based
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Multi-constellation global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) are expected to enhance the capability of precise point positioning (PPP) by improving the positioning accuracy and reducing the convergence time because more satellites will be available. This paper discusses the performance of multi-constellation kinematic PPP based on a multi-constellation kinematic PPP model, Kalman filter and stochastic models. The experimental dataset was collected from the receivers on a vehicle and processed using self-developed software. A comparison of the multi-constellation kinematic PPP and real-time kinematic (RTK) results revealed that the availability, positioning accuracy and convergence performance of the multi-constellation kinematic PPP were all better than those of both global positioning system (GPS)-based PPP and dual-constellation PPP. Multi-constellation kinematic PPP can provide a positioning service with centimetre-level accuracy for dynamic users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle SSIEGNOS: A New Asian Single Site Tropospheric Correction Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 20; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010020
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes a new Asian single site tropospheric correction model called the Single Site Improved European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service model (SSIEGNOS) by refining the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) model at a single site. The performance of the SSIEGNOS model
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This paper proposes a new Asian single site tropospheric correction model called the Single Site Improved European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service model (SSIEGNOS) by refining the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) model at a single site. The performance of the SSIEGNOS model is analyzed. The results show that (1) the bias and root mean square (RMS) error of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) calculated from the EGNOS model are 0.12 cm and 5.87 cm, respectively; whereas those of the SSIEGNOS model are 0 cm and 2.52 cm, respectively. (2) The bias and RMS error show seasonal variation in the EGNOS model; however, little seasonal variation is observed in the SSIEGNOS model. (3) The RMS error decreases with increasing altitude or latitude in the two models; however, no such relationships were found in the bias. In addition, the annual predicted bias and RMS error in Asia are −0.08 cm and 3.14 cm for the SSIEGNOS model, respectively; however, the EGNOS and UNB3m (University of New Brunswick) models show comparable predicted results. Relative to the EGNOS model, the annual predicted bias and RMS error decreased by 55% and 48%, respectively, for the SSIEGNOS model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An On-Demand Retrieval Method Based on Hybrid NoSQL for Multi-Layer Image Tiles in Disaster Reduction Visualization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010008
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract
Monitoring, response, mitigation and damage assessment of disasters places a wide variety of demands on the spatial and temporal resolutions of remote sensing images. Images are divided into tile pyramids by data sources or resolutions and published as independent image services for visualization.
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Monitoring, response, mitigation and damage assessment of disasters places a wide variety of demands on the spatial and temporal resolutions of remote sensing images. Images are divided into tile pyramids by data sources or resolutions and published as independent image services for visualization. A disaster-affected area is commonly covered by multiple image layers to express hierarchical surface information, which generates a large amount of namesake tiles from different layers that overlay the same location. The traditional tile retrieval method for visualization cannot distinguish between distinct layers and traverses all image datasets for each tile query. This process produces redundant queries and invalid access that can seriously affect the visualization performance of clients, servers and network transmission. This paper proposes an on-demand retrieval method for multi-layer images and defines semantic annotations to enrich the description of each dataset. By matching visualization demands with the semantic information of datasets, this method automatically filters inappropriate layers and finds the most suitable layer for the final tile query. The design and implementation are based on a two-layer NoSQL database architecture that provides scheduling optimization and concurrent processing capability. The experimental results reflect the effectiveness and stability of the approach for multi-layer retrieval in disaster reduction visualization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combined Forecasting Method of Landslide Deformation Based on MEEMD, Approximate Entropy, and WLS-SVM
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010005
Received: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract
Given the chaotic characteristics of the time series of landslides, a new method based on modified ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD), approximate entropy and the weighted least square support vector machine (WLS-SVM) was proposed. The method mainly started from the chaotic sequence of
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Given the chaotic characteristics of the time series of landslides, a new method based on modified ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD), approximate entropy and the weighted least square support vector machine (WLS-SVM) was proposed. The method mainly started from the chaotic sequence of time-frequency analysis and improved the model performance as follows: first a deformation time series was decomposed into a series of subsequences with significantly different complexity using MEEMD. Then the approximate entropy method was used to generate a new subsequence for the combination of subsequences with similar complexity, which could effectively concentrate the component feature information and reduce the computational scale. Finally the WLS-SVM prediction model was established for each new subsequence. At the same time, phase space reconstruction theory and the grid search method were used to select the input dimension and the optimal parameters of the model, and then the superposition of each predicted value was the final forecasting result. Taking the landslide deformation data of Danba as an example, the experiments were carried out and compared with wavelet neural network, support vector machine, least square support vector machine and various combination schemes. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high prediction accuracy. It can ensure a better prediction effect even in landslide deformation periods of rapid fluctuation, and it can also better control the residual value and effectively reduce the error interval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Pattern of Spatial Distribution and Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Pollutants during 2013 in Shenzhen, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010002
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
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Abstract
Air pollution caused by atmospheric particulate and gaseous pollutants has drawn broad public concern globally. In this paper, the spatial-temporal distributions of major air pollutants in Shenzhen from March 2013 to February 2014 are discussed. In this study, ground-site monitoring data from 19
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Air pollution caused by atmospheric particulate and gaseous pollutants has drawn broad public concern globally. In this paper, the spatial-temporal distributions of major air pollutants in Shenzhen from March 2013 to February 2014 are discussed. In this study, ground-site monitoring data from 19 monitoring sites was used and spatial interpolation and spatial autocorrelation methods were applied to analyze both spatial and temporal characteristics of air pollutants in Shenzhen City. During the study period, the daily average concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) ranged from 16–189 μg/m3 and 10–136 μg/m3, respectively, with 13 and 44 over-limit days, indicating that particulate matter was the primary air pollutant in Shenzhen. The highest PM occupation in the polluted air was observed in winter, indicating that fine particulate pollution was most serious in winter. Meanwhile, seasonal agglomeration patterns for six kinds of air pollutants showed that Guangming, Baoan, Nanshan, and the northern part of Longgang were the most polluted areas and PMs were their primary air pollutants. In addition, wind scale and rainfall played an important role in dissipating air pollutant in Shenzhen. The wind direction impacted the air pollution level in Shenzhen in multiple ways: the highest concentrations for all air pollutants all occurred on days with a northeast wind; the second highest ones appeared on the days with no wind. The concentrations on days with north-related winds are higher on average than those of days with south-related winds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatiotemporal Computing for Sustainable Ecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle Terrain Extraction in Built-Up Areas from Satellite Stereo-Imagery-Derived Surface Models: A Stratified Object-Based Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010009
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
Very high spatial resolution (VHSR) stereo-imagery-derived digital surface models (DSM) can be used to generate digital elevation models (DEM). Filtering algorithms and triangular irregular network (TIN) densification are the most common approaches. Most filter-based techniques focus on image-smoothing. We propose a new approach
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Very high spatial resolution (VHSR) stereo-imagery-derived digital surface models (DSM) can be used to generate digital elevation models (DEM). Filtering algorithms and triangular irregular network (TIN) densification are the most common approaches. Most filter-based techniques focus on image-smoothing. We propose a new approach which makes use of integrated object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques. An initial land cover classification is followed by stratified land cover ground point sample detection, using object-specific features to enhance the sampling quality. The detected ground point samples serve as the basis for the interpolation of the DEM. A regional uncertainty index (RUI) is calculated to express the quality of the generated DEM in regard to the DSM, based on the number of samples per land cover object. The results of our approach are compared to a high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-DEM, and a high level of agreement is observed—especially for non-vegetated and scarcely-vegetated areas. Results show that the accuracy of the DEM is highly dependent on the quality of the initial DSM and—in accordance with the RUI—differs between the different land cover classes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy GML Modeling Based on Vague Soft Sets
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010010
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) explicitly represents geographical spatial knowledge in text mode. All kinds of fuzzy problems will inevitably be encountered in spatial knowledge expression. Especially for those expressions in text mode, this fuzziness will be broader. Describing
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The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) explicitly represents geographical spatial knowledge in text mode. All kinds of fuzzy problems will inevitably be encountered in spatial knowledge expression. Especially for those expressions in text mode, this fuzziness will be broader. Describing and representing fuzziness in GML seems necessary. Three kinds of fuzziness in GML can be found: element fuzziness, chain fuzziness, and attribute fuzziness. Both element fuzziness and chain fuzziness belong to the reflection of the fuzziness between GML elements and, then, the representation of chain fuzziness can be replaced by the representation of element fuzziness in GML. On the basis of vague soft set theory, two kinds of modeling, vague soft set GML Document Type Definition (DTD) modeling and vague soft set GML schema modeling, are proposed for fuzzy modeling in GML DTD and GML schema, respectively. Five elements or pairs, associated with vague soft sets, are introduced. Then, the DTDs and the schemas of the five elements are correspondingly designed and presented according to their different chains and different fuzzy data types. While the introduction of the five elements or pairs is the basis of vague soft set GML modeling, the corresponding DTD and schema modifications are key for implementation of modeling. The establishment of vague soft set GML enables GML to represent fuzziness and solves the problem of lack of fuzzy information expression in GML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Impact the Weekday Has on Near-Repeat Victimization: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Street Robberies in the City of Vienna, Austria
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010003
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 30 December 2016
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Abstract
The near-repeat phenomenon refers to the increased risk of repeat victimization not only at the same location but at nearby locations up to a certain distance and for a certain time period. In recent research, near-repeat victimization has been repeatedly confirmed for different
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The near-repeat phenomenon refers to the increased risk of repeat victimization not only at the same location but at nearby locations up to a certain distance and for a certain time period. In recent research, near-repeat victimization has been repeatedly confirmed for different crime types such as burglaries or shootings. In this article the near-repeat phenomenon is analyzed for each day of the week separately. That is, the near-repeat pattern is evaluated for all consecutive Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, etc. included in the dataset. These consecutive weekdays represent the fictive set of consecutive dates to allow for spatial and temporal analysis of crime patterns. Using these principles, it is hypothesized that street robberies cluster in space and time and by the same day of the week. This research analyzes street robberies from 2009 to 2013 in Vienna, Austria. The overall research goal investigates whether near-repeat patterns of robberies exist by weekdays and in an additional step by time of day, and whether these near-repeat patterns differ from each other and from purely spatial patterns. The results of this research confirm the existence of near-repeat patterns by weekday and especially by time of day. Distinctive locations have been identified that differ greatly per weekday and time of day. Based on this information, law enforcement agencies in Austria can optimize strategic planning of police resources in combating robberies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Spatial and Spatiotemporal Crime Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle A NoSQL–SQL Hybrid Organization and Management Approach for Real-Time Geospatial Data: A Case Study of Public Security Video Surveillance
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 21; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010021 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
With the widespread deployment of ground, air and space sensor sources (internet of things or IoT, social networks, sensor networks), the integrated applications of real-time geospatial data from ubiquitous sensors, especially in public security and smart city domains, are becoming challenging issues. The
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With the widespread deployment of ground, air and space sensor sources (internet of things or IoT, social networks, sensor networks), the integrated applications of real-time geospatial data from ubiquitous sensors, especially in public security and smart city domains, are becoming challenging issues. The traditional geographic information system (GIS) mostly manages time-discretized geospatial data by means of the Structured Query Language (SQL) database management system (DBMS) and emphasizes query and retrieval of massive historical geospatial data on disk. This limits its capability for on-the-fly access of real-time geospatial data for online analysis in real time. This paper proposes a hybrid database organization and management approach with SQL relational databases (RDB) and not only SQL (NoSQL) databases (including the main memory database, MMDB, and distributed files system, DFS). This hybrid approach makes full use of the advantages of NoSQL and SQL DBMS for the real-time access of input data and structured on-the-fly analysis results which can meet the requirements of increased spatio-temporal big data linking analysis. The MMDB facilitates real-time access of the latest input data such as the sensor web and IoT, and supports the real-time query for online geospatial analysis. The RDB stores change information such as multi-modal features and abnormal events extracted from real-time input data. The DFS on disk manages the massive geospatial data, and the extensible storage architecture and distributed scheduling of a NoSQL database satisfy the performance requirements of incremental storage and multi-user concurrent access. A case study of geographic video (GeoVideo) surveillance of public security is presented to prove the feasibility of this hybrid organization and management approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatiotemporal Computing for Sustainable Ecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle Towards a Common Framework for the Identification of Landforms on Terrain Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 12; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010012
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
A landform is a physical feature of the terrain with its own recognisable shape. Its definition is often qualitative and inherently vague. Hence, landforms are difficult to formalise in a logical model that can be implemented. We propose for that purpose a framework
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A landform is a physical feature of the terrain with its own recognisable shape. Its definition is often qualitative and inherently vague. Hence, landforms are difficult to formalise in a logical model that can be implemented. We propose for that purpose a framework where these qualitative and vague definitions are transformed successively during different phases to yield an implementable data structure. Our main consideration is that landforms are characterised by salient elements as perceived by users. Hence, a common prototype based on an object-oriented approach is defined that shall apply to all landforms. This framework shall facilitate the definition of conceptual models for other landforms and relies on the use of ontology design patterns to express common elements and structures. The model is illustrated on examples from the literature, showing that existing works undertaken separately can be developed under a common framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Semantics and Semantic Web)
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Open AccessArticle A Combinatorial Reasoning Mechanism with Topological and Metric Relations for Change Detection in River Planforms: An Application to GlobeLand30’s Water Bodies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 13; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010013
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
Changes in river plane shapes are called river planform changes (RPCs). Such changes can impact sustainable human development (e.g., human habitations, industrial and agricultural development, and national border security). RPCs can be identified through field surveys—a method that is highly precise but time-consuming,
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Changes in river plane shapes are called river planform changes (RPCs). Such changes can impact sustainable human development (e.g., human habitations, industrial and agricultural development, and national border security). RPCs can be identified through field surveys—a method that is highly precise but time-consuming, or through remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS), which are less precise but more efficient. Previous studies that have addressed RPCs often used RS, GIS, or digital elevation models (DEMs) and focused on only one or a few rivers in specific areas with the goal of identifying the reasons underlying these changes. In contrast, in this paper, we developed a combinatorial reasoning mechanism based on topological and metric relations that can be used to classify RPCs. This approach does not require DEMs and can eliminate most false-change information caused by varying river water levels. First, we present GIS models of river planforms based on their natural properties and, then, modify these models into simple GIS river planform models (SGRPMs) using straight lines rather than common lines to facilitate computational and human understanding. Second, we used double straight line 4-intersection models (DSL4IMs) and intersection and difference models (IDMs) of the regions to represent the topological relations between the SGRPMs and used double-start-point 8-distance models (DS8DMs) to express the metric relations between the SGRPMs. Then, we combined topological and metric relations to analyse the changes in the SGRPMs. Finally, to compensate for the complexity of common river planforms in nature, we proposed three segmentation rules to turn common river planforms into SGRPMs and used combinatorial reasoning mechanism tables (CRMTs) to describe the spatial relations among different river planforms. Based on our method, users can describe common river planforms and their changes in detail and confidently reject false changes. Future work should develop a method to automatically or semi-automatically adjust the segmentation rules and the combinatorial reasoning mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication sgdm: An R Package for Performing Sparse Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling with Tools for gdm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 23; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010023 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract
Global biodiversity change creates a need for standardized monitoring methods. Modelling and mapping spatial patterns of community composition using high-dimensional remotely sensed data requires adapted methods adequate to such datasets. Sparse generalized dissimilarity modelling is designed to deal with high dimensional datasets, such
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Global biodiversity change creates a need for standardized monitoring methods. Modelling and mapping spatial patterns of community composition using high-dimensional remotely sensed data requires adapted methods adequate to such datasets. Sparse generalized dissimilarity modelling is designed to deal with high dimensional datasets, such as time series or hyperspectral remote sensing data. In this manuscript we present sgdm, an R package for performing sparse generalized dissimilarity modelling (SGDM). The package includes some general tools that add functionality to both generalized dissimilarity modelling and sparse generalized dissimilarity modelling. It also includes an exemplary dataset that allows for the application of SGDM for mapping the spatial patterns of tree communities in a region of natural vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle UAV Low Altitude Photogrammetry for Power Line Inspection
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 14; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010014
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
When the distance between an obstacle and a power line is less than the discharge distance, a discharge arc can be generated, resulting in the interruption of power supplies. Therefore, regular safety inspections are necessary to ensure the safe operation of power grids.
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When the distance between an obstacle and a power line is less than the discharge distance, a discharge arc can be generated, resulting in the interruption of power supplies. Therefore, regular safety inspections are necessary to ensure the safe operation of power grids. Tall vegetation and buildings are the key factors threatening the safe operation of extra high voltage transmission lines within a power line corridor. Manual or laser intensity direction and ranging (LiDAR) based inspections are time consuming and expensive. To make safety inspections more efficient and flexible, a low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote-sensing platform, equipped with an optical digital camera, was used to inspect power line corridors. We propose a semi-patch matching algorithm based on epipolar constraints, using both the correlation coefficient (CC) and the shape of its curve to extract three dimensional (3D) point clouds for a power line corridor. We use a stereo image pair from inter-strip to improve power line measurement accuracy by transforming the power line direction to an approximately perpendicular to epipolar line. The distance between the power lines and the 3D point cloud is taken as a criterion for locating obstacles within the power line corridor automatically. Experimental results show that our proposed method is a reliable, cost effective, and applicable way for practical power line inspection and can locate obstacles within the power line corridor with accuracy better than ±0.5 m. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How They Move Reveals What Is Happening: Understanding the Dynamics of Big Events from Human Mobility Pattern
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 15; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010015
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract
The context in which a moving object moves contributes to the movement pattern observed. Likewise, the movement pattern reflects the properties of the movement context. In particular, big events influence human mobility depending on the dynamics of the events. However, this influence has
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The context in which a moving object moves contributes to the movement pattern observed. Likewise, the movement pattern reflects the properties of the movement context. In particular, big events influence human mobility depending on the dynamics of the events. However, this influence has not been explored to understand big events. In this paper, we propose a methodology for learning about big events from human mobility pattern. The methodology involves extracting and analysing the stopping, approaching, and moving-away interactions between public transportation vehicles and the geographic context. The analysis is carried out at two different temporal granularity levels to discover global and local patterns. The results of evaluating this methodology on bus trajectories demonstrate that it can discover occurrences of big events from mobility patterns, roughly estimate the event start and end time, and reveal the temporal patterns of arrival and departure of event attendees. This knowledge can be usefully applied in transportation and event planning and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Transport)
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Open AccessArticle Joint Modeling of Multiple Crimes: A Bayesian Spatial Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 16; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010016
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
A multivariate Bayesian spatial modeling approach was used to jointly model the counts of two types of crime, i.e., burglary and non-motor vehicle theft, and explore the geographic pattern of crime risks and relevant risk factors. In contrast to the univariate model, which
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A multivariate Bayesian spatial modeling approach was used to jointly model the counts of two types of crime, i.e., burglary and non-motor vehicle theft, and explore the geographic pattern of crime risks and relevant risk factors. In contrast to the univariate model, which assumes independence across outcomes, the multivariate approach takes into account potential correlations between crimes. Six independent variables are included in the model as potential risk factors. In order to fully present this method, both the multivariate model and its univariate counterpart are examined. We fitted the two models to the data and assessed them using the deviance information criterion. A comparison of the results from the two models indicates that the multivariate model was superior to the univariate model. Our results show that population density and bar density are clearly associated with both burglary and non-motor vehicle theft risks and indicate a close relationship between these two types of crime. The posterior means and 2.5% percentile of type-specific crime risks estimated by the multivariate model were mapped to uncover the geographic patterns. The implications, limitations and future work of the study are discussed in the concluding section. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 3D Space Shift from CityGML LoD3-Based Multiple Building Elements to a 3D Volumetric Object
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 17; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010017
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 15 January 2017
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Abstract
In contrast with photorealistic visualizations, urban landscape applications, and building information system (BIM), 3D volumetric presentations highlight specific calculations and applications of 3D building elements for 3D city planning and 3D cadastres. Knowing the precise volumetric quantities and the 3D boundary locations of
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In contrast with photorealistic visualizations, urban landscape applications, and building information system (BIM), 3D volumetric presentations highlight specific calculations and applications of 3D building elements for 3D city planning and 3D cadastres. Knowing the precise volumetric quantities and the 3D boundary locations of 3D building spaces is a vital index which must remain constant during data processing because the values are related to space occupation, tenure, taxes, and valuation. To meet these requirements, this paper presents a five-step algorithm for performing a 3D building space shift. This algorithm is used to convert multiple building elements into a single 3D volumetric building object while maintaining the precise volume of the 3D space and without changing the 3D locations or displacing the building boundaries. As examples, this study used input data and building elements based on City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) LoD3 models. This paper presents a method for 3D urban space and 3D property management with the goal of constructing a 3D volumetric object for an integral building using CityGML objects, by fusing the geometries of various building elements. The resulting objects possess true 3D geometry that can be represented by solid geometry and saved to a CityGML file for effective use in 3D urban planning and 3D cadastres. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Information Value Model Based on Gray Clustering for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 18; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010018
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
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Abstract
Landslides, as geological hazards, cause significant casualties and economic losses. Therefore, it is necessary to identify areas prone to landslides for prevention work. This paper proposes an improved information value model based on gray clustering (IVM-GC) for landslide susceptibility mapping. This method uses
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Landslides, as geological hazards, cause significant casualties and economic losses. Therefore, it is necessary to identify areas prone to landslides for prevention work. This paper proposes an improved information value model based on gray clustering (IVM-GC) for landslide susceptibility mapping. This method uses the information value derived from an information value model to achieve susceptibility classification and weight determination of landslide predisposing factors and, hence, obtain the landslide susceptibility of each study unit based on the clustering analysis. Using a landslide inventory of Chongqing, China, which contains 8435 landslides, three landslide susceptibility maps were generated based on the common information value model (IVM), an information value model improved by an analytic hierarchy process (IVM-AHP) and our new improved model. Approximately 70% (5905) of the inventory landslides were used to generate the susceptibility maps, while the remaining 30% (2530) were used to validate the results. The training accuracies of the IVM, IVM-AHP and IVM-GC were 81.8%, 78.7% and 85.2%, respectively, and the prediction accuracies were 82.0%, 78.7% and 85.4%, respectively. The results demonstrate that all three methods perform well in evaluating landslide susceptibility. Among them, IVM-GC has the best performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Graph-Based Min-# and Error-Optimal Trajectory Simplification Algorithm and Its Extension towards Online Services
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 19; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010019
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
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Abstract
Trajectory simplification has become a research hotspot since it plays a significant role in the data preprocessing, storage, and visualization of many offline and online applications, such as online maps, mobile health applications, and location-based services. Traditional heuristic-based algorithms utilize greedy strategy to
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Trajectory simplification has become a research hotspot since it plays a significant role in the data preprocessing, storage, and visualization of many offline and online applications, such as online maps, mobile health applications, and location-based services. Traditional heuristic-based algorithms utilize greedy strategy to reduce time cost, leading to high approximation error. An Optimal Trajectory Simplification Algorithm based on Graph Model (OPTTS) is proposed to obtain the optimal solution in this paper. Both min-# and min-ε problems are solved by the construction and regeneration of the breadth-first spanning tree and the shortest path search based on the directed acyclic graph (DAG). Although the proposed OPTTS algorithm can get optimal simplification results, it is difficult to apply in real-time services due to its high time cost. Thus, a new Online Trajectory Simplification Algorithm based on Directed Acyclic Graph (OLTS) is proposed to deal with trajectory stream. The algorithm dynamically constructs the breadth-first spanning tree, followed by real-time minimizing approximation error and real-time output. Experimental results show that OPTTS reduces the global approximation error by 82% compared to classical heuristic methods, while OLTS reduces the error by 77% and is 32% faster than the traditional online algorithm. Both OPTTS and OLTS have leading superiority and stable performance on different datasets. Full article
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Dubois, G., et al. Integrating Multiple Spatial Datasets to Assess Protected Areas: Lessons Learnt from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2016, 5, 242
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(1), 22; doi:10.3390/ijgi6010022 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract The editorial team of the journal IJGI would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [1]:[...] Full article

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