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Electronics, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial The Raspberry Pi: A Technology Disrupter, and the Enabler of Dreams
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 51; doi:10.3390/electronics6030051
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raspberry Pi Technology)
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Open AccessEditorial Two-Dimensional Electronics and Optoelectronics: Present and Future
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 53; doi:10.3390/electronics6030053
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Open AccessEditorial Radar and Radio Signal Processing
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 64; doi:10.3390/electronics6030064
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Radar is a technology used in many aspects of modern life, with many diverse civilian and military applications.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio and Radar Signal Processing)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Multidimensional-DSP Beamformers Using the ROACH-2 FPGA Platform
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 49; doi:10.3390/electronics6030049
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Antenna array-based multi-dimensional infinite-impulse response (IIR) digital beamformers are employed in a multitude of radio frequency (RF) applications ranging from electronically-scanned radar, radio telescopes, long-range detection and target tracking. A method to design 3D IIR beam filters using 2D IIR beam filters is
[...] Read more.
Antenna array-based multi-dimensional infinite-impulse response (IIR) digital beamformers are employed in a multitude of radio frequency (RF) applications ranging from electronically-scanned radar, radio telescopes, long-range detection and target tracking. A method to design 3D IIR beam filters using 2D IIR beam filters is described. A cascaded 2D IIR beam filter architecture is proposed based on systolic array architecture as an alternative for an existing radar application. Differential-form transfer function and polyphase structures are employed in the design to gain an increase in the speed of operation to gigahertz range. The feasibility of practical implementation of a 4-phase polyphase 2D IIR beam filter is explored. A digital hardware prototype is designed, implemented and tested using a ROACH-2 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform fitted with a Xilinx Virtex-6 SX475T FPGA chip and multi-input analog-to-digital converters (ADC) boards set to a maximum sampling rate of 960 MHz. The article describes a method to build a 3D IIR beamformer using polyphase structures. A comparison of technical specifications of an existing radar application based on phased-array and the proposed 3D IIR beamformer is also explained to illustrate the proposed method to be a better alternative for such applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Antennas and MIMO Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Analysis of the Future Implementation of a Safety Management System for Multiple RPAS Based on First Demonstration Flights
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 50; doi:10.3390/electronics6030050
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
The modern aeronautical scenario has welcomed the massive diffusion of new key elements, including the Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), initially used for military purposes only. The current decade has seen RPAS ready to become a new airspace user in a large variety
[...] Read more.
The modern aeronautical scenario has welcomed the massive diffusion of new key elements, including the Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), initially used for military purposes only. The current decade has seen RPAS ready to become a new airspace user in a large variety of civilian applications. Although RPAS can currently only be flown into segregated airspaces, due to national and international Flight Aviation Authorities′ (FAAs) constraints, they represent a remarkable potential growth in terms of development and economic investments for aviation. Full RPAS development will only happen when flight into non-segregated airspaces is authorized, as for manned civil and military aircraft. The preliminary requirement for disclosing the airspace to RPAS is the implementation of an ad hoc Safety Management System (SMS), as prescribed by ICAO, for every aeronautical operator. This issue arises in the context of the ongoing restructuring of airspaces management, according to SESAR-JU in Europe and NextGen in the USA (SESAR-JU has defined how RPAS research should be conducted in SESAR 2020, all in accordance with the 2015 European ATM Master Plan). This paper provides the basis to implement a risk model and general procedures/methodologies to investigate RPAS safety, according to the operational scenarios defined by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency). The study is based on results achieved by multiple-RPAS experimental flights, performed within the RAID (RPAS-ATM Integration Demonstration) project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Systems/Vehicles (UAS/V) and Drones)
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Open AccessArticle Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 52; doi:10.3390/electronics6030052
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them
[...] Read more.
Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures) capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory). Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS) such systems are designed to provide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Embedded Systems)
Open AccessArticle A Data Compression Hardware Accelerator Enabling Long-Term Biosignal Monitoring Based on Ultra-Low Power IoT Platforms
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 54; doi:10.3390/electronics6030054
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
For highly demanding scenarios such as continuous bio-signal monitoring, transmitting excessive volumes of data wirelessly comprises one of the most critical challenges. This is due to the resource limitations posed by typical hardware and communication technologies. Driven by such shortcomings, this paper aims
[...] Read more.
For highly demanding scenarios such as continuous bio-signal monitoring, transmitting excessive volumes of data wirelessly comprises one of the most critical challenges. This is due to the resource limitations posed by typical hardware and communication technologies. Driven by such shortcomings, this paper aims at addressing the respective deficiencies. The main axes of this work include (a) data compression, and (b) the presentation of a complete, efficient and practical hardware accelerator design able to be integrated in any Internet of Things (IoT) platform for addressing critical challenges of data compression. On one hand, the developed algorithm is presented and evaluated on software, exhibiting significant benefits compared to respective competition. On the other hand, the algorithm is fully implemented on hardware providing a further proof of concept regarding the implementation feasibility with respect to state-of-the art hardware design approaches. Finally, system-level performance benefits, regarding data transmission delay and energy saving, are highlighted, taking into consideration the characteristics of prominent IoT platforms. Concluding, this paper presents a holistic approach based on data compression that is able to drastically enhance an IoT platform’s performance and tackle efficiently a notorious challenge of highly demanding IoT applications such as real-time bio-signal monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Embedded Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A New Type of Explosive Chemical Detector Based on an Organic Photovoltaic Cell
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 55; doi:10.3390/electronics6030055
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
A new type of chemical sensor to detect explosive related compounds has been designed and fabricated with an organic photovoltaic cell as the active element. The detection of chemical molecules is performed by optically exciting the cell while its photovoltaic open-circuit voltage is
[...] Read more.
A new type of chemical sensor to detect explosive related compounds has been designed and fabricated with an organic photovoltaic cell as the active element. The detection of chemical molecules is performed by optically exciting the cell while its photovoltaic open-circuit voltage is continuously sampled. Upon exposure to compounds like nitroaromatics, the sensors exhibit a significant increase in open-circuit voltage. This indicates an efficient internal energy transfer between the explosive chemicals and the organic thin film surface. It is quite unique that the organic chemical sensors directly use the open-circuit voltage as a detection indicator, while the vast majority of conventional chemical sensors are based on the change in resistance. Since the open-circuit voltage can be measured without current and can also be directly sampled or amplified in the circuits, this new type of chemical sensor is very attractive for low-power application and sensor networks for the future Internet of Things. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antenna Arrays for Line-of-Sight Massive MIMO: Half Wavelength Is Not Enough
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 57; doi:10.3390/electronics6030057
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze the array synthesis for 5 G massive MIMO systems in the line-of-sight working condition. The main result of the numerical investigation performed is that non-uniform arrays are the natural choice in this kind of application.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the array synthesis for 5 G massive MIMO systems in the line-of-sight working condition. The main result of the numerical investigation performed is that non-uniform arrays are the natural choice in this kind of application. In particular, by using non-equispaced arrays, we show that it is possible to achieve a better average condition number of the channel matrix and a significantly higher spectral efficiency. Furthermore, we verify that increasing the array size is beneficial also for circular arrays, and we provide some useful rules-of-thumb for antenna array design for massive MIMO applications. These results are in contrast to the widely-accepted idea in the 5 G massive MIMO literature, in which the half-wavelength linear uniform array is universally adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reconfigurable Antennas)
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Open AccessArticle A Formally Reliable Cognitive Middleware for the Security of Industrial Control Systems
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 58; doi:10.3390/electronics6030058
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we present our results on the formal reliability analysis of the behavioral correctness of our cognitive middleware ARMET. The formally assured behavioral correctness of a software system is a fundamental prerequisite for the system’s security. Therefore, the goal of this
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we present our results on the formal reliability analysis of the behavioral correctness of our cognitive middleware ARMET. The formally assured behavioral correctness of a software system is a fundamental prerequisite for the system’s security. Therefore, the goal of this study is to, first, formalize the behavioral semantics of the middleware and, second, to prove its behavioral correctness. In this study, we focus only on the core and critical component of the middleware: the execution monitor. The execution monitor identifies inconsistencies between runtime observations of an industrial control system (ICS) application and predictions of the specification of the application. As a starting point, we have defined the formal (denotational) semantics of the observations (produced by the application at run-time), and predictions (produced by the executable specification of the application). Then, based on the formal semantices, we have formalized the behavior of the execution monitor. Finally, based on the semantics, we have proved soundness (absence of false alarms) and completeness (detection of arbitrary attacks) to assure the behavioral correctness of the monitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Embedded Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Space Debris Detection in Low Earth Orbit with the Sardinia Radio Telescope
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 59; doi:10.3390/electronics6030059
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Space debris are orbiting objects that represent a major threat for space operations. The most used countermeasure to face this threat is, by far, collision avoidance, namely the set of maneuvers that allow to avoid a collision with the space debris. Since collision
[...] Read more.
Space debris are orbiting objects that represent a major threat for space operations. The most used countermeasure to face this threat is, by far, collision avoidance, namely the set of maneuvers that allow to avoid a collision with the space debris. Since collision avoidance is tightly related to the knowledge of the debris state (position and speed), the observation of the orbital debris is the key of the problem. In this work a bistatic radar configuration named BIRALET (BIstatic RAdar for LEO Tracking) is used to detect a set of space debris at 410 MHz, using the Sardinia Radio Telescope as the receiver antenna. The signal-to-noise ratio, the Doppler shift and the frequency spectrum for each debris are reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mixed-Signal Hardware Security: Attacks and Countermeasures for ΔΣ ADC
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 60; doi:10.3390/electronics6030060
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs) play an eminent and critical role in design and development of the embedded systems leveraged within smart weapons and military systems. These ICs can be a golden target for adversaries to compromise in order to function maliciously. In this
[...] Read more.
Mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs) play an eminent and critical role in design and development of the embedded systems leveraged within smart weapons and military systems. These ICs can be a golden target for adversaries to compromise in order to function maliciously. In this work, we study the security aspects of a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)-based first-order one-bit delta-sigma ( Δ Σ ) analog to digital converter (ADC) through proposing four attack and one defense models. The first attack manipulates the input signal to the Δ Σ modulator. The second attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by the noise signal. The third attack manipulates the modulator output bit and has a controllable trigger mechanism. The fourth attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by a victim capacitance within the chip. For the defense, a number of signal processing filters are used in order to purge the analog version of the modulator output bit for elimination of the malicious unwanted features, introduced by the attacks. According to the simulation results, the second threat model displays the strongest attack. Derived from the countermeasure evaluation, the best filter to confront the threat models is the robust regression using the least absolute residual computing method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Technique for Posture Identification in Smart Prayer Mat
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 61; doi:10.3390/electronics6030061
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Smart praying mats are essential to help old and forgetful Muslims perform their religious needs. Due to the binary representation of pressure sensors embedded into the mat for posture identification, existing smart praying systems either use large sensing arrays, thus becoming expensive and
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Smart praying mats are essential to help old and forgetful Muslims perform their religious needs. Due to the binary representation of pressure sensors embedded into the mat for posture identification, existing smart praying systems either use large sensing arrays, thus becoming expensive and bulky, or utilize only a limited number of sensors, minimizing the cost of posture recognition accuracy. This article presents a new technique for detecting human postures and counting posture cycles by a smart mat. Unlike related solutions, the proposed technique identifies postures by voltage levels observed from five sensors only. The technique has been implemented in a prototype smart mat and experimentally evaluated by 30 Islam worshipers. The results show that it provides unobtrusive and robust (100%) recognition of all six postures of the Muslim praying cycle and reliable cycle counting. The implementation is inexpensive, easy to use and quite helpful for users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies and Services for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Gate-Length Scaling on Microwave MOSFET Performance
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 62; doi:10.3390/electronics6030062
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the extraction of an accurate small-signal equivalent circuit for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). An analytical modeling approach was developed and successfully validated through the comparison between measured and simulated scattering parameters. The extraction of the equivalent circuit elements allowed
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the extraction of an accurate small-signal equivalent circuit for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). An analytical modeling approach was developed and successfully validated through the comparison between measured and simulated scattering parameters. The extraction of the equivalent circuit elements allowed for the estimation of the intrinsic unity current-gain cutoff frequency, which is a crucial figure of merit for assessing the high-frequency performance. The experimental data show that the cutoff frequency of the tested devices exhibits a nearly ideal scaling behavior with decreasing gate length. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Wearable Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensors: A Revolution in Diabetes Treatment
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 65; doi:10.3390/electronics6030065
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Worldwide, the number of people affected by diabetes is rapidly increasing due to aging populations and sedentary lifestyles, with the prospect of exceeding 500 million cases in 2030, resulting in one of the most challenging socio-health emergencies of the third millennium. Daily management
[...] Read more.
Worldwide, the number of people affected by diabetes is rapidly increasing due to aging populations and sedentary lifestyles, with the prospect of exceeding 500 million cases in 2030, resulting in one of the most challenging socio-health emergencies of the third millennium. Daily management of diabetes by patients relies on the capability of correctly measuring glucose concentration levels in the blood by using suitable sensors. In recent years, glucose monitoring has been revolutionized by the development of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) sensors, wearable non/minimally-invasive devices that measure glucose concentration by exploiting different physical principles, e.g., glucose-oxidase, fluorescence, or skin dielectric properties, and provide real-time measurements every 1–5 min. CGM opened new challenges in different disciplines, e.g., medicine, physics, electronics, chemistry, ergonomics, data/signal processing, and software development to mention but a few. This paper first makes an overview of wearable CGM sensor technologies, covering both commercial devices and research prototypes. Then, the role of CGM in the actual evolution of decision support systems for diabetes therapy is discussed. Finally, the paper presents new possible horizons for wearable CGM sensor applications and perspectives in terms of big data analytics for personalized and proactive medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Processing and Wearable Systems for Effective Human Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Differential-Phase OFDM Systems over Selective Multipath Fading Channels
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 66; doi:10.3390/electronics6030066
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper investigates the performance of differential-phase Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) over frequency-selective multipath Nakagami-m radio fading channels. A closed form for the average signal to noise/interference ratio in the presence of the selective multipath fading channel and additive white Gaussian
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This paper investigates the performance of differential-phase Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) over frequency-selective multipath Nakagami-m radio fading channels. A closed form for the average signal to noise/interference ratio in the presence of the selective multipath fading channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is derived. The results reveal that the system performance is impacted by the interference between the adjacent OFDM frames in two successive signaling intervals which is called Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI). In addition, the system will possibly be distorted when the orthogonality between the adjacent subcarriers is ceased, creating Inter-Channel-Interference (ICI). This paper also studies the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the differential-phase OFDM system over the Nakagami-m channel in the presence of AWGN, ISI, and ICI under different conditions and parameters. Moreover, the effect of adding the guard period and the number of subchannels on the probability of error is analyzed. The IEEE 802.11a standard parameters with 64 subcarriers and a decaying exponential power delay profile with root-mean-square value of 129 ns are used in this study. The system performance is also simulated at different guard intervals, number of OFDM subcarriers, Nakagami severity parameter values, and different numbers of possible differential phases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Modelling of a Bidirectional Front-End for Resonating Sensors Based on Pseudo Floating Gate Amplifier
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 68; doi:10.3390/electronics6030068
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we characterize and model a bidirectional front-end based on pseudo-floating gate amplifier (PFGA) for actuation and read-out of resonating sensors. The basic idea consists of swapping the power supply of the PFGA in order to change the directionality of the
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In this paper, we characterize and model a bidirectional front-end based on pseudo-floating gate amplifier (PFGA) for actuation and read-out of resonating sensors. The basic idea consists of swapping the power supply of the PFGA in order to change the directionality of the front-end. A detailed description of the system has been discussed in this paper and supported by simulations and measurement results. A prototype has been fabricated using discrete components and tested with a real transducer (Murata MA40S4) and a Butterworth Van Dyke (BvD) load, which has proved to be proved to be a well approximated model for resonant sensors. The bidirectional amplifier has been implemented with the integrated circuit CD4007UB, which is a commercial discrete component containing low leakage MOSFET. The values chosen for the BvD load are R b = 330 Ω , L m = 60 mH, C s = 450 pF, C E = 2 . 2 nF, which are approximately the same values of the lumped parameters reported in the data-sheet of the real sensor. This transducer is characterized by a nominal resonant frequency of 40 kHz. Measurement results show good fitting with the models developed in this work and the possibility to predict the sensor response by using the BvD load. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Logic Locking Using Hybrid CMOS and Emerging SiNW FETs
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 69; doi:10.3390/electronics6030069
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The outsourcing of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication services to overseas manufacturing foundry has raised security and privacy concerns with regard to intellectual property (IP) protection as well as the integrity maintenance of the fabricated chips. One way to protect ICs from malicious attacks
[...] Read more.
The outsourcing of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication services to overseas manufacturing foundry has raised security and privacy concerns with regard to intellectual property (IP) protection as well as the integrity maintenance of the fabricated chips. One way to protect ICs from malicious attacks is to encrypt and obfuscate the IP design by incorporating additional key gates, namely logic encryption or logic locking. The state-of-the-art logic encryption techniques certainly incur considerable performance overhead upon the genuine IP design. The focus of this paper is to leverage the unique property of emerging transistor technology on reducing the performance overhead as well as preserving the robustness of logic locking technique. We design the polymorphic logic gate using silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FETs) to replace the conventional Exclusive-OR (XOR)-based logic cone. We then evaluate the proposed technique based on security metric and performance overhead. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanomechanical Sensor: Theoretical Analysis of Mechanical and Vibrational Properties
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 56; doi:10.3390/electronics6030056
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper reviews the recent research of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used as nanomechanical sensing elements based mainly on theoretical models. CNTs have demonstrated considerable potential as nanomechanical mass sensor and atomic force microscope (AFM) tips. The mechanical and vibrational characteristics of CNTs are
[...] Read more.
This paper reviews the recent research of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used as nanomechanical sensing elements based mainly on theoretical models. CNTs have demonstrated considerable potential as nanomechanical mass sensor and atomic force microscope (AFM) tips. The mechanical and vibrational characteristics of CNTs are introduced to the readers. The effects of main parameters of CNTs, such as dimensions, layer number, and boundary conditions on the performance characteristics are investigated and discussed. It is hoped that this review provides knowledge on the application of CNTs as nanomechanical sensors and computational methods for predicting their properties. Their theoretical studies based on the mechanical properties such as buckling strength and vibration frequency would give a useful reference for designing CNTs as nanomechanical mass sensor and AFM probes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Massive MIMO Wireless Networks: An Overview
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 63; doi:10.3390/electronics6030063
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems use few hundred antennas to simultaneously serve large number of wireless broadband terminals. It has been incorporated into standards like long term evolution (LTE) and IEEE802.11 (Wi-Fi). Basically, the more the antennas, the better shall be the performance. Massive
[...] Read more.
Massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems use few hundred antennas to simultaneously serve large number of wireless broadband terminals. It has been incorporated into standards like long term evolution (LTE) and IEEE802.11 (Wi-Fi). Basically, the more the antennas, the better shall be the performance. Massive MIMO systems envision accurate beamforming and decoding with simpler and possibly linear algorithms. However, efficient signal processing techniques have to be used at both ends to overcome the signaling overhead complexity. There are few fundamental issues about massive MIMO networks that need to be better understood before their successful deployment. In this paper, we present a detailed review of massive MIMO homogeneous, and heterogeneous systems, highlighting key system components, pros, cons, and research directions. In addition, we emphasize the advantage of employing millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency in the beamforming, and precoding operations in single, and multi-tier massive MIMO systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Antennas and MIMO Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Ultra-Low-Power Design and Hardware Security Using Emerging Technologies for Internet of Things
Electronics 2017, 6(3), 67; doi:10.3390/electronics6030067
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
In this review article for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, important low-power design techniques for digital and mixed-signal analog–digital converter (ADC) circuits are presented. Emerging low voltage logic devices and non-volatile memories (NVMs) beyond CMOS are illustrated. In addition, energy-constrained hardware security issues
[...] Read more.
In this review article for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, important low-power design techniques for digital and mixed-signal analog–digital converter (ADC) circuits are presented. Emerging low voltage logic devices and non-volatile memories (NVMs) beyond CMOS are illustrated. In addition, energy-constrained hardware security issues are reviewed. Specifically, light-weight encryption-based correlational power analysis, successive approximation register (SAR) ADC security using tunnel field effect transistors (FETs), logic obfuscation using silicon nanowire FETs, and all-spin logic devices are highlighted. Furthermore, a novel ultra-low power design using bio-inspired neuromorphic computing and spiking neural network security are discussed. Full article
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