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Cosmetics, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2015), Pages 196-312

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Method for Quantification of Penetration of Nanoparticles through Skin Layers Using Near-Infrared Optical Imaging
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 225-235; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030225
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm) and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin
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Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm) and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin and incubated either for three or 24 h post-application, skin tissue was clipped between glass slides prior to imaging for signal intensity across the skin thickness using an optical imaging system. The data show that nanoparticles penetrate through all the layers of the skin but there is almost an exponential decay in the signal intensity from epidermis to dermis. Depending upon the incubation time, about 55%–59% of the total signal was seen in the epidermis and the remaining through dermis and hypodermis. The advantage of the method is that it allows quantitative analysis of the extent of penetration of nanoparticles through different layers of the skin without interference of any background signal from skin tissue, and without requiring extensive tissue processing. Our method could potentially be used to study the effect of nanoparticle properties and/or the use of different formulation additives on penetration of nanoparticles through different skin layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Behavior and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in Cosmetic Emulsions
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 248-258; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030248
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
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Abstract
Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was
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Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG)/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC) were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
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Open AccessArticle Portable EDXRF for Quality Assurance of Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 277-285; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030277
Received: 25 April 2015 / Revised: 25 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
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Abstract
Portable Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence is a viable, cost and time effective analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a wide range of samples. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for quantification of nail polishes, eye shadows, lipsticks
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Portable Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence is a viable, cost and time effective analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a wide range of samples. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for quantification of nail polishes, eye shadows, lipsticks and lip gloss using thin film geometry. The samples were applied over thin films, simulating its use on face and nails. It was possible to quantify S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Bi. The methodology is viable and could be useful to forensic science, quality control on industry of raw materials or final products and supervision by regulatory agencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Open AccessArticle Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 302-312; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030302
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
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Abstract
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect
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The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID), was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001) in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33) in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)

Review

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Open AccessReview Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Imaging Technologies for Cosmetic and Skin Care Products
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 196-210; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030196
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
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Abstract
The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of
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The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of nanoparticles within cosmetic and skin care formulations. More importantly, imaging technology holds tremendous promise for understanding how formulated nanoparticles interact with our skin. Imaging technologies can be broken into two major groups that include those that require invasive sample collection and processing (e.g., electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy) and those that can be used in non-invasive data collection settings. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography fall into the latter category and are the focus of this review in the context of skin care product and cosmetics testing. Cosmetic and skin care product testing is most informative when carried out in volunteers. This makes invasive or disruptive analysis techniques unfeasible and supports the use of non-invasive imaging technologies. The combination of non-invasive imaging and minimally invasive microbiopsy sampling for combined imaging and molecular data is the future of skin care product testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
Open AccessReview Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 211-224; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030211
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
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Abstract
Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order
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Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
Open AccessReview GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 236-247; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030236
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth,
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The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 259-276; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030259
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape
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The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 286-301; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030286
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired
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Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired electrons, ROS are free radicals that are highly reactive and can attack other metabolites. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, it is possible to measure paramagnetic substances such as free radicals. Therefore the dermal antioxidant activity can be determined by applying semi-stable radicals onto the skin and measuring the antioxidant-induced radical scavenging activity in the skin. In recent years, EPR has been developed as a spectroscopic method for determining the antioxidant status in vivo. Several studies have shown that an additional uptake of dietary supplements, such as carotenoids or vitamin C in physiological concentrations, provide a protective effect against free radicals. Using the EPR technique it could be demonstrated that the radical production in stress situations, such as irradiation with infrared and visible light, was reduced with time. However, not only the oral uptake of antioxidants, but also the topical application of antioxidants, e.g., a hyperforin-rich cream, is very useful against the development of oxidative stress. Regular application of a hyperforin-rich cream reduced radical formation. The skin lipids, which are very important for the barrier function of the skin, were also stabilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)

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