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Cosmetics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 48-195

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 66-81; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020066
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to
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Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 93-109; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020093
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it
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Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal), aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 127-135; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020127
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 5 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
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Abstract
The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL
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The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF), alcohol (E) and non-ionic emulsifier (P) were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF) 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol) 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85) 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 105 cm1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Significant Reduction of Body Odor in Older People with a pH 4.0 Emulsion
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 136-145; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020136
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
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Abstract
The impact of increasing age on body odor has become an important issue as our understanding of underlying skin changes in older people has increased. Therefore, cosmetic skin products especially for the needs of the elderly are of growing importance. This randomized single-blind
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The impact of increasing age on body odor has become an important issue as our understanding of underlying skin changes in older people has increased. Therefore, cosmetic skin products especially for the needs of the elderly are of growing importance. This randomized single-blind crossover study assessed the deodorizing efficacy of two cosmetic products with different pH values on the age-specific odor of an elderly female subject panel (≥60 years). The two test products, adjusted to pH 4.0 and pH 5.8 were applied to the axillae once daily for three consecutive days after standardized washing of the axillae. The untreated axilla was used as a control. Six odor judges evaluated the efficacy of both products. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity was investigated with in vitro microbiologic tests. The pH 4.0 water in oil (W/O) emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor in 44 elderly subjects at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with controls (untreated axillae) (p < 0.001 after 8 and 24 h), whereas pH 5.8 emulsion had no effect (p = 0.441 after 8 h; p = 0.425 after 24 h). Moreover, the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced axillary malodor at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with the pH 5.8 emulsion just narrowly missing statistical significance (p = 0.078 after 8 h; p = 0.053 after 24 h). Microbiologic in vitro tests showed that the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced the levels of odor-producing bacteria S. epidermidis and C. minutissimum after 1 h (2.98 log and 4.25 log). After 24 h, levels of S. aureus (>5.50 log), P. acnes (>5.30 log) and E. coli (>5.46 log) were further reduced whereas no effect was observed for pH 5.8. A pH 4.0 emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor for up to 24 h after application in females aged at least 60 years. This reduction in malodor is very likely due to a reduction of odor-producing bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Do You Know about Cosmetics?)
Open AccessArticle Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 146-161; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020146
Received: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
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Abstract
In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide
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In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives), through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels) and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally), III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessArticle Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 162-176; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020162
Received: 11 April 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on
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Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Quality Control of Cosmetics)
Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 187-195; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020187
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA)
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The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 48-65; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020048
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
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Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand. Full article
Open AccessReview New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 82-92; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020082
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse
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In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Cosmetic Ingredients)
Open AccessReview Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 110-126; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020110
Received: 18 February 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition
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Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations. Full article
Open AccessReview Nanotechnology, Inflammation and the Skin Barrier: Innovative Approaches for Skin Health and Cosmesis
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 177-186; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020177
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The
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Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of new approaches to preserving skin cosmesis in the face of inflammation. In this article, we review the architecture and physiology of the epidermal barrier, describe the pathological and aesthetic effects of inflammation, and report recent advances in the development of nanomaterials to offset the aesthetic impact of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)

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