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Coatings, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 95-209

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Cellulose Nanofibre Mesh for Use in Dental Materials
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 120-137; doi:10.3390/coatings2030120
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to produce a 3D mesh of defect free electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibres and to use this to produce a prototype composite resin containing nanofibre fillers. This might find use as an aesthetic orthodontic bracket material or composite
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The aim of this study was to produce a 3D mesh of defect free electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibres and to use this to produce a prototype composite resin containing nanofibre fillers. This might find use as an aesthetic orthodontic bracket material or composite veneer for restorative dentistry. In this laboratory based study cellulose acetate was dissolved in an acetone and dimethylacetamide solvent solution and electrospun. The spinning parameters were optimised and lithium chloride added to the solution to produce a self supporting nanofibre mesh. This mesh was then silane coated and infiltrated with either epoxy resin or an unfilled Bis-GMA resin. The flexural strength of the produced samples was measured and compared to that of unfilled resin samples. Using this method cellulose acetate nanofibres were successfully electrospun in the 286 nm range. However, resin infiltration of this mesh resulted in samples with a flexural strength less than that of the unfilled control samples. Air inclusion during preparation and incomplete wetting of the nanofibre mesh was thought to cause this reduction in flexural strength. Further work is required to reduce the air inclusions before the true effect of resin reinforcement with a 3D mesh of cellulose acetate nanofibres can be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dental Biomaterials and Coatings)
Open AccessArticle Nano-Impact (Fatigue) Characterization of As-Deposited Amorphous Nitinol Thin Film
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 195-209; doi:10.3390/coatings2030195
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 8 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents nano-impact (low cycle fatigue) behavior of as-deposited amorphous nitinol (TiNi) thin film deposited on Si wafer. The nitinol film was 3.5 µm thick and was deposited by the sputtering process. Nano-impact tests were conducted to comprehend the localized fatigue performance
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This paper presents nano-impact (low cycle fatigue) behavior of as-deposited amorphous nitinol (TiNi) thin film deposited on Si wafer. The nitinol film was 3.5 µm thick and was deposited by the sputtering process. Nano-impact tests were conducted to comprehend the localized fatigue performance and failure modes of thin film using a calibrated nano-indenter NanoTest™, equipped with standard diamond Berkovich and conical indenter in the load range of 0.5 mN to 100 mN. Each nano-impact test was conducted for a total of 1000 fatigue cycles. Depth sensing approach was adapted to understand the mechanisms of film failure. Based on the depth-time data and surface observations of films using atomic force microscope, it is concluded that the shape of the indenter test probe is critical in inducing the localized indentation stress and film failure. The measurement technique proposed in this paper can be used to optimize the design of nitinol thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multifunctional Coatings for Next Generation Applications)

Review

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Open AccessReview Surface Engineering for Bone Implants: A Trend from Passive to Active Surfaces
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 95-119; doi:10.3390/coatings2030095
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanical and biological properties of bone implants need to be optimal to form a quick and firm connection with the surrounding environment in load bearing applications. Bone is a connective tissue composed of an organic collagenous matrix, a fine dispersion of reinforcing
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The mechanical and biological properties of bone implants need to be optimal to form a quick and firm connection with the surrounding environment in load bearing applications. Bone is a connective tissue composed of an organic collagenous matrix, a fine dispersion of reinforcing inorganic (calcium phosphate) nanocrystals, and bone-forming and -degrading cells. These different components have a synergistic and hierarchical structure that renders bone tissue properties unique in terms of hardness, flexibility and regenerative capacity. Metallic and polymeric materials offer mechanical strength and/or resilience that are required to simulate bone tissue in load-bearing applications in terms of maximum load, bending and fatigue strength. Nevertheless, the interaction between devices and the surrounding tissue at the implant interface is essential for success or failure of implants. In that respect, coatings can be applied to facilitate the process of bone healing and obtain a continuous transition from living tissue to the synthetic implant. Compounds that are inspired by inorganic (e.g., hydroxyapatite crystals) or organic (e.g., collagen, extracellular matrix components, enzymes) components of bone tissue, are the most obvious candidates for application as implant coating to improve the performance of bone implants. This review provides an overview of recent trends and strategies in surface engineering that are currently investigated to improve the biological performance of bone implants in terms of functionality and biological efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Organic Coatings)
Open AccessReview Coatings in Dentistry—A Review of Some Basic Principles
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 138-159; doi:10.3390/coatings2030138
Received: 8 May 2012 / Revised: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different coatings are used in dentistry in an attempt to prevent caries, improve bonding of restorative materials to tooth tissues, and coat implant surfaces in efforts to speed up osseointegration. These are just a few of the many coating applications used in dentistry.
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Different coatings are used in dentistry in an attempt to prevent caries, improve bonding of restorative materials to tooth tissues, and coat implant surfaces in efforts to speed up osseointegration. These are just a few of the many coating applications used in dentistry. The intention of this review is not to cover the entire field of different coatings used in dentistry, because that topic is just too big to be covered in one single paper. Therefore, this review aims to highlight some fundamental coating principles and present these principles to an audience consisting mainly of dentists. To do so, this review will focus on the fundamental principles of coatings, namely surface properties/adhesives in general, since these topics form the foundation for most coating procedures used in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dental Biomaterials and Coatings)
Open AccessReview Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 160-178; doi:10.3390/coatings2030160
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been
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Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dental Biomaterials and Coatings)
Open AccessReview Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry
Coatings 2012, 2(3), 179-194; doi:10.3390/coatings2030179
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 5 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was
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Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dental Biomaterials and Coatings)

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