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Biosensors, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-89

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Biosensors in 2013
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 45-46; doi:10.3390/bios4010045
Received: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Biosensors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Microfluidic Platform for the Elastic Characterization of Mouse Submandibular Glands by Atomic Force Microscopy
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 18-27; doi:10.3390/bios4010018
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to characterize the microscale mechanical properties of biological materials has the potential for great utility in the field of tissue engineering. The development and morphogenesis of mammalian tissues are known to be guided in part by mechanical stimuli received from [...] Read more.
The ability to characterize the microscale mechanical properties of biological materials has the potential for great utility in the field of tissue engineering. The development and morphogenesis of mammalian tissues are known to be guided in part by mechanical stimuli received from the local environment, and tissues frequently develop to match the physical characteristics (i.e., elasticity) of their environment. Quantification of these material properties at the microscale may provide valuable information to guide researchers. Presented here is a microfluidic platform for the non-destructive ex vivo microscale mechanical characterization of mammalian tissue samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The device was designed to physically hold a tissue sample in a dynamically controllable fluid environment while allowing access by an AFM probe operating in force spectroscopy mode to perform mechanical testing. Results of measurements performed on mouse submandibular gland samples demonstrate the ability of the analysis platform to quantify sample elasticity at the microscale, and observe chemically-induced changes in elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Analytics for Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Micropatterning of 3D Microenvironments for Living Biosensor Applications
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 28-44; doi:10.3390/bios4010028
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro-scale printing and patterning of living cells has multiple applications including tissue engineering, cell signaling assays, and the fabrication of cell-based biosensors. In this work, a molecular printing instrument, the Bioforce Nano eNabler, was modified to enable micron-scale “quill-pen” based printing of [...] Read more.
Micro-scale printing and patterning of living cells has multiple applications including tissue engineering, cell signaling assays, and the fabrication of cell-based biosensors. In this work, a molecular printing instrument, the Bioforce Nano eNabler, was modified to enable micron-scale “quill-pen” based printing of mammalian cells in a 3D hyaluronan/gelatin based hydrogel. Specifically, photo-initiated “thiol-ene” click chemistry was used to couple the thiol groups of thiolated hyaluronan/thiolated gelatin to the alkene groups of 4-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG)-norbornene molecules. Rapid photopolymerization enabled direct printing and controlled curing of living cells within the hydrogel matrix. The resulting hydrogels were biocompatible with human adipose-derived stem cells, NIH-3T3 cells, and mouse embryonic stem cells. The utility of this printing approach was also explored for cell-based biosensors. Micro-printed cells expressing a redox sensitive variant of the green fluorescent protein (roGFP-R12) showed a measurable fluorescent response to addition of oxidizing and then reducing agents. This work represents a novel approach to micron-scale cell patterning, and its potential for living, cell-based biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Analytics for Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Microstructured Block Copolymer Surfaces for Control of Microbe Adhesion and Aggregation
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 63-75; doi:10.3390/bios4010063
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The attachment and arrangement of microbes onto a substrate is influenced by both the biochemical and physical surface properties. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the [...] Read more.
The attachment and arrangement of microbes onto a substrate is influenced by both the biochemical and physical surface properties. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe immobilization. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line arrays or square grid patterns with 5 μm wide features and varied pitch. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates immobilized was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Films patterned as parallel lines or square grids with a pitch of 10 μm or less led to the immobilization of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates. Both geometries allowed for incremental increases in aggregate size distribution with each increase in pitch. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based capture to control the extent of microbe adhesion and aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Analytics for Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR) Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 76-89; doi:10.3390/bios4010076
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic [...] Read more.
We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Biosensors)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Application of a Nitric Oxide Sensor in Biomedicine
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/bios4010001
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 4 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we describe the biochemical properties and effects of nitric oxide (NO) in intact and dysfunctional arterial and venous endothelium. Application of the NO electrochemical sensor in vivo and in vitro in erythrocytes of healthy subjects and patients with [...] Read more.
In the present study, we describe the biochemical properties and effects of nitric oxide (NO) in intact and dysfunctional arterial and venous endothelium. Application of the NO electrochemical sensor in vivo and in vitro in erythrocytes of healthy subjects and patients with vascular disease are reviewed. The electrochemical NO sensor device applied to human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the description of others NO types of sensors are also mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Analytics for Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering)
Open AccessReview Sensing a Sensor: Identifying the Mechanosensory Function of Primary Cilia
Biosensors 2014, 4(1), 47-62; doi:10.3390/bios4010047
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past decade, primary cilia have emerged as the premier means by which cells sense and transduce mechanical stimuli. Primary cilia are sensory organelles that have been shown to be vitally involved in the mechanosensation of urine in the renal nephron, [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, primary cilia have emerged as the premier means by which cells sense and transduce mechanical stimuli. Primary cilia are sensory organelles that have been shown to be vitally involved in the mechanosensation of urine in the renal nephron, bile in the hepatic biliary system, digestive fluid in the pancreatic duct, dentin in dental pulp, lacunocanalicular fluid in bone and cartilage, and blood in vasculature. The prevalence of primary cilia among mammalian cell types is matched by the tremendously varied disease states caused by both structural and functional defects in cilia. In the process of delineating the mechanisms behind these disease states, calcium fluorimetry has been widely utilized as a means of quantifying ciliary function to both fluid flow and pharmacological agents. In this review, we will discuss the approaches used in associating calcium levels to cilia function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Analytics for Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering)
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