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Societies, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessErratum Erratum: On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance. Societies 2015, 5, 627
Societies 2018, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020044
Received: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The author wishes to make the following correction to the above-mentioned published paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Youth Unemployment and Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Embodiment
Societies 2018, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020043
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: This study investigates the association between forms of capital and mental health among unemployed youth, with a specific focus on the mediating role of feelings of deprivation and self-esteem as “mechanisms of embodiment”. Methods: The study is based on a primary data
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Background: This study investigates the association between forms of capital and mental health among unemployed youth, with a specific focus on the mediating role of feelings of deprivation and self-esteem as “mechanisms of embodiment”. Methods: The study is based on a primary data collection among unemployed Brussels youth in the transition from education to employment (2015; 18- to 29-year-olds; N = 1151). Multi-group Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to explore the association between forms of capital, mechanisms of embodiment and mental health. Results: Our results show that different forms of capital are related to the mental health of unemployed youth. These associations are partly mediated by feelings of deprivation and self-esteem. Clear gender differences in these relations are found. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the mental health situation during the transition from education to employment, by showing how “subjective mechanisms” are explaining the relations between “objective resources” and mental health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Perceptions of Police-Black Civilian Deadly Encounters in North America among Black Immigrants in a Western Canadian City
Societies 2018, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020042
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
This study investigates black immigrants’ perceptions of police-black civilian deadly encounters in North America. Twenty semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted among black immigrants in Edmonton, western Canada. The respondents perceived racism, police brutality, black criminality, gun violence and police perception of black people
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This study investigates black immigrants’ perceptions of police-black civilian deadly encounters in North America. Twenty semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted among black immigrants in Edmonton, western Canada. The respondents perceived racism, police brutality, black criminality, gun violence and police perception of black people as ‘violent’ as the causal factors in deadly encounters. There was also the perception of criminal injustice and conspiracy among the agents of the criminal justice system (CJS) in the treatment of victims and suspects. This study suggests that personal and media experiences can influence how people de/re/construct deadly encounters and the treatment of victims and suspects by the CJS. Findings also reveal that when members of a racial (immigrant) minority perceive themselves as the target of a discriminatory CJS, they may adopt cautious and cooperative actions rather than aggressive or deviant behaviour to avoid criminalization and victimization. The study concludes that the perception of criminal injustice in police deadly violence against black (minority) civilians could influence: (i) where (black) immigrants locate themselves within the CJS in North America, and (ii) how (black) immigrants perceive and respond to the agents of the CJS, such as the police, when they encounter them. Full article
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Disability Policies and Legislation towards Effective Exercise of Rights to Equality and Inclusive Access for Persons with Disabilities: The Case of the Quebec Model
Societies 2018, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020041
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
Quebec’s government established a mechanism to monitor its progress towards achieving the right to equality for people with disabilities. With the goal of strengthening the accountability of public actors, this mechanism is based on legal provisions and inclusive political guidelines. In 2009, the
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Quebec’s government established a mechanism to monitor its progress towards achieving the right to equality for people with disabilities. With the goal of strengthening the accountability of public actors, this mechanism is based on legal provisions and inclusive political guidelines. In 2009, the provincial government adopted a policy entitled “Equals in Every Respect: Because Rights Are Meant to Be Exercised” along with other legal dispositions aimed at significantly increasing the social participation of people with disabilities. The Disability Creation Process, a conceptual reference model also known as the Quebec Model, proposes that public actors should be able to identify and act upon environmental obstacles within their respective competences to transform them into facilitators. The challenge facing inclusive policy-monitoring mechanisms is to acquire quantitative and qualitative information-collecting tools and strategies that link the quality of access of the components of the physical and social environment to the quality of the social participation for the various segments of the population with or without disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
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Open AccessArticle Web Accessibility for People with Disabilities in the European Union: Paving the Road to Social Inclusion
Societies 2018, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020040
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
Despite the drawbacks and the challenges highlighted by several scholars, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), in particular the World Wide Web, has the potential to foster social inclusion of people with disabilities. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD),
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Despite the drawbacks and the challenges highlighted by several scholars, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), in particular the World Wide Web, has the potential to foster social inclusion of people with disabilities. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), which entered into force in 2008, has illuminated the role technology can play as a tool to promote the human rights of people with disabilities, and their participation and inclusion in society. The UNCRPD has also conceptualized ICT accessibility as a precondition for the enjoyment of rights, prompting a series of reforms in domestic legal frameworks globally and in the European Union (EU). Against this background, this article aims to address the role played by the EU in fostering “digital inclusion”, and critically evaluates relevant EU policies and legal rules, locating them within the broader realm of the implementation of the UNCRPD. It pays particular attention to Directive 2016/2102 on the accessibility of the websites and mobile applications of public sector bodies, as well as on the proposal for a European Accessibility Act (EAA). It attempts to show that, while the EU has thus far played an extremely important role in fostering web accessibility, many remaining obstacles must be eradicated to fully ensure access to the web to people with disabilities. This article adopts a doctrinal legal research methodology and is primarily concerned with the analysis of relevant legal rules and related scholarship. In addition, it is informed by a socially-oriented understanding of disability and builds upon the multifaceted and multidisciplinary literature on disability and technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Correlates of Hopelessness among Turkish Elderly People Living with Family or in Nursing Homes
Societies 2018, 8(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020039
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the current study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of hopelessness among Turkish elderly people. A convenience sample of 100 elderly people (51 women, 49 men) living in a city in the central Black Sea region of Turkey
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The aim of the current study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of hopelessness among Turkish elderly people. A convenience sample of 100 elderly people (51 women, 49 men) living in a city in the central Black Sea region of Turkey completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale and a data collection instrument to identify their socio-demographic information. The data was analyzed using Chi-Square, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The study results revealed that 81% of the elderly, or approximately eight out of 10 elderly people, experience hopelessness, ranging from mild to severe levels, and that severe hopelessness is more prevalent among elderly people living in nursing homes. No gender differences were found in terms of the severity of hopelessness among the elderly. The results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis also showed that hopelessness scores were positively associated with living in a nursing home, being widowed/a widower, and having a low monthly income. Considering the fact that hopelessness levels are correlated with suicidal thoughts, depression, and adverse health conditions, the mental health professionals who aim to increase the well-being of the elderly should conduct screening studies to determine hopelessness levels among this population. Mental health support is also recommended to increase hope among elderly Turkish people, specifically those living in nursing homes and those who are widowed/widowers and low-income individuals. Full article
Open AccessEssay Managing the Planet: The Anthropocene, Good Stewardship, and the Empty Promise of a Solution to Ecological Crisis
Societies 2018, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020038
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The Anthropocene has emerged as the dominant conceptualization of the current geological epoch and, more significantly, of Humanity’s relation to nature. By its proponents the Anthropocene is espoused as a “solution formulation”, an analytical tool that clarifies Humanity’s multifarious impacts on nature and
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The Anthropocene has emerged as the dominant conceptualization of the current geological epoch and, more significantly, of Humanity’s relation to nature. By its proponents the Anthropocene is espoused as a “solution formulation”, an analytical tool that clarifies Humanity’s multifarious impacts on nature and nature’s subsequent crises, and further as a conceptual apparatus from which to launch mitigation and adaption strategies, promising deliverance from or at least engagement with ecological crises. However, the Anthropocene is not a neutral concept, merely illuminating transition within ecological conditions and connections between human activities and nature; rather, it is a particular prism from which to understand humanity’s relation to nature. And, as the Anthropocene becomes ascendant both analytically and politically, it becomes vital to question its imaginary, how it constructs nature and Humanity, how it influences and constrains responses to ecological crises, and what the long-term implications of operating within this imaginary are. I argue that the Anthropocene as a political/analytical prism rests upon flawed conceptions of nature, history, and humanity, rending it an impotent construct from which to respond to ecological crises; offering only partial and presumptive “solutions” in the form of intensified governmental regulation and the application of manifold technological “fixes” through the geoengineering of Earth’s systems in an attempt to address isolated aspects of ecological destruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Justice at the End of Our World)
Open AccessArticle Collaboration Vouchers: A Policy to Increase Population Wellbeing
Societies 2018, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020037
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
Abstract: While economic liberalism has delivered national wealth, substantial portions of the population have been left behind. The precariously and unemployed experience reduced wellbeing that may be remedied by their greater involvement in egalitarian, purposive collaborative groups. Policy to achieve this objective
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Abstract: While economic liberalism has delivered national wealth, substantial portions of the population have been left behind. The precariously and unemployed experience reduced wellbeing that may be remedied by their greater involvement in egalitarian, purposive collaborative groups. Policy to achieve this objective may be assisted by an understanding of how positive psychology interacts with social psychology. The PILAR model of collaboration is postulated to translate between an individual’s psychological capital (PsyCap) and their meeting of basic psychological needs (BPN). In a proposed cyclical model, a collaborating individual will meet BPN, thereby experience enhanced wellbeing, which bolsters PsyCap, and hence promotes further collaboration. Given collaboration is amenable to incentivisation, a policy of collaboration vouchers might cost-effectively promote individual wellbeing throughout society, whilst having complementary effects such as social cohesion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Canadian Disability Policies in a World of Inequalities
Societies 2018, 8(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020036
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Canadian disability-related policies are shaped within a global system of inequalities, including colonialism and neoliberalism. Using a critical theory framework, this article examines the complicated material inequalities experienced by people with disabilities and evident in the intersections of disability, gender, Indigenousness, race, and
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Canadian disability-related policies are shaped within a global system of inequalities, including colonialism and neoliberalism. Using a critical theory framework, this article examines the complicated material inequalities experienced by people with disabilities and evident in the intersections of disability, gender, Indigenousness, race, and age. The collectively held ideas that give context to disability policies are at odds. Human rights protections are found in the foundational documents of Canadian society and part of its international commitments, yet these commitments often become window-dressing for a pervasive logic that it is better to be dead than disabled, and medical assistance in dying legislation supports this choice. While human rights protections are essential, they are not sufficient for decolonizing inclusion. Constructive actions between Indigenous peoples and settlers may help to find new ways of addressing disability and inclusion in Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
Open AccessArticle Eluding National Boundaries: A Case Study of Commodified Citizenship and the Transnational Capitalist Class
Societies 2018, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020035
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Commodified citizenship—pay x number of dollars and you can have all the rights of citizenship without any of the traditional duties and obligations—has been on the rise in developing countries since the early 1990s. This article is a case study of such a
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Commodified citizenship—pay x number of dollars and you can have all the rights of citizenship without any of the traditional duties and obligations—has been on the rise in developing countries since the early 1990s. This article is a case study of such a program on the island nation of Dominica. Ostensibly established as a means to aid the country in its efforts to move away from a monoagricultural economy, this article demonstrates that in reality, the government has become fully dependent on the commodified citizenship program, which has become its primary source of quick liquid revenue. Furthermore, we argue that the program can be an excellent tool for the transnational capitalist class which needs to work around political restrictions on their cross-border movements. With a growing effort to impede movement across countries and re-entrenchment of national border across the world, efforts to penetrate national border boundaries and established systems of exclusions through the visa processes have prompted creative and alternative routes for cross-border mobility. The contention here is that commodified citizenship is just one such creative alternative route and is especially ingenious as it is fully legal and uses the very institutions that seek to hinder mobility. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Scaffolding Rubrics to Improve Student Writing: Preliminary Results of Using Rubrics in a Sociology Program to Enhance Learning and Mechanical Writing Skills
Societies 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020034
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 27 May 2018
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Abstract
In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through
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In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through the use of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy, scaffolding within the course can be used to aid in the accomplishment of the course learning outcomes. Scaffolding within the course curriculum can move students through Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy levels toward the mastery of specific skills. Writing is a major area of assessment as an indication of learning across disciplines. Scaffolding rubrics were used within sociology courses to specifically address both student learning and mechanical writing skills. Preliminary results of using rubrics to enhance student learning and scaffolding in eight courses (one 100-level, one 200-level, two 300-level, and four 400-level sociology courses) will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Models and Practices in Sociology)
Open AccessArticle The Role of Parental Maltreatment and Parental Social Control on Self-Reported Violent Offending in Indonesia and the U.S.: Does Gender Make a Difference?
Societies 2018, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020033
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
In this article, we examine the role of parental maltreatment and parental social control in violent delinquency in two different countries: Indonesia and the U.S. but we go further by asking if gender makes a difference. We use a sample of Indonesian and
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In this article, we examine the role of parental maltreatment and parental social control in violent delinquency in two different countries: Indonesia and the U.S. but we go further by asking if gender makes a difference. We use a sample of Indonesian and U.S. youths from ISRD3 data, a self-reported survey instrument administered across multiple countries. We use logistic regressions to examine the associations between parental maltreatment, parental social control and self-reported violent delinquency and test whether gender and country modifies these associations. We find that both gender and country are significant predictors of violent delinquency. Further, there are differences between Indonesian and U.S. youths in terms of the predictors that are associated with violent delinquent offending. Specifically, parental maltreatment in the form of direct exposure to parental violence is a significant predictor for U.S. youths but not Indonesian youths whereas parental supervision is a significant deterrent of violent offending for both. We also find that girls are more likely to report violent offending than males when indirectly exposed to violence. Thus, our findings reiterate that both gender and context matter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Visual Representations of Radiation Risk and the Question of Public (Mis-)Trust in Post-Fukushima Japan
Societies 2018, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020032
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
In the aftermath of the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, an estimated 150,000 residents of Fukushima Prefecture were displaced because of both real and perceived risks of radioactive contamination. While previous research has provided ample insight into the causes and effects
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In the aftermath of the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, an estimated 150,000 residents of Fukushima Prefecture were displaced because of both real and perceived risks of radioactive contamination. While previous research has provided ample insight into the causes and effects of the disaster, there is a lack of analysis of the production of visual representations of radiation risk. This article aims to fill this gap by exploring the question of what different cartographic representations of the types and levels of radioactive radiation are available; what information is released and how people get informed; how certain areas are considered ‘safe’; and how arbitrarily government organizations draw and remove spatial boundaries of ‘safe areas’. Due to the particular concern of children, who have a comparatively low-threshold radiation tolerance, the focus is on child care facilities and elementary schools. The article identifies different sources of public mistrust in the context of information seeking and sharing and addresses this issue as part of the larger question of institutionalized information processes in Japan. This also includes a prudent assessment of the increasing importance of citizen science in Japan, a society of traditionally technocratic, paternalistic, top-down approaches to public policy making. The paper concludes that because of the growing mistrust of the general public in Japan’s elites, civic engagement should focus on gaining more influence on the political discourse, agenda-setting and collaborative planning and policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Perceptions to Start up Business as a Career Choice among Saudi Female Higher Education Students
Societies 2018, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020031
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
This study explored factors inspiring female university students in Saudi Arabia to choose entrepreneurship as their career choice. This explorative empirical study sought to explore this phenomenon in the context of a culture of socialization strongly attached to religion and steeped in tradition.
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This study explored factors inspiring female university students in Saudi Arabia to choose entrepreneurship as their career choice. This explorative empirical study sought to explore this phenomenon in the context of a culture of socialization strongly attached to religion and steeped in tradition. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire survey administered to female university students. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify influencing factors. The results mostly support previous study findings on perceptions about the drivers of females’ aspirations in venture creation. Entrepreneurship and business-related courses and media roles are recognized as the most influential factors explaining reasons for the choice of occupation and career. However, this study found only mixed support for these variables. Interestingly, this study found that social learning theory was negatively and significantly related to the decision of female university students to start up a business as a career choice, opposite to previous findings. The findings will assist relevant authorities in facilitating an increase in female entrepreneurship to contribute to the national Vision 2030. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ‘You Feel It in Your Body’: Narratives of Embodied Well-Being and Control among Women Who Use Complementary and Alternative Medicine during Pregnancy
Societies 2018, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020030
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
In Western societies, women’s use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) during pregnancy and labor is increasingly ubiquitous, yet there have been few in-depth explorations of the lived experience of women who use CAM and little critical analysis of CAM’s contribution to women’s
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In Western societies, women’s use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) during pregnancy and labor is increasingly ubiquitous, yet there have been few in-depth explorations of the lived experience of women who use CAM and little critical analysis of CAM’s contribution to women’s overall experience of pregnancy and childbirth. This paper explores women’s narrative accounts of CAM use during pregnancy and childbirth to help uncover the meanings they attribute to CAM use. A qualitative narrative methodology was selected for this study, as it gives prominence to meanings that individuals assign to life events. A purposive sample of 14 women who were familiar with using a range of CAM modalities during pregnancy and childbirth took part in the study. This paper highlights different ways the women engaged with CAM, and how their embodied experiences became the mechanism by which CAM use, value, and safety were judged. CAM use in relation to embodiment became one way the women could reorder their world during pregnancy and childbirth. Moreover, CAM use among pregnant women may lead to the perception of more control and agency, but it also reinforces essentialist and naturalist conceptions of women’s identities and bodies. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper How ‘Fake News’ Affects Autism Policy
Societies 2018, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020029
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Since autism was first recognised, prevalence has increased rapidly. The growing economic as well as social cost to families and society can only be mitigated by effective interventions and supports. It is, therefore, not surprising that there is much heated debate and most
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Since autism was first recognised, prevalence has increased rapidly. The growing economic as well as social cost to families and society can only be mitigated by effective interventions and supports. It is, therefore, not surprising that there is much heated debate and most governments have developed public policies to address the management of autism. This paper describes how well-known ‘propaganda’ techniques, that have become prevalent in the helping professions have been used to influence autism policies by spreading ‘fake news’ about the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). Over the past 40–50 years, meaningful evidence has accrued showing that interventions based on ABA can help people with autism reach their potential. In view of this, nearly all of North America has laws to mandate that ABA-based interventions are available through their health care systems. In contrast, across Europe there are no such laws. In fact, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the body guiding health and social policy in the UK, concluded that it could not find any evidence to support ABA, and therefore could not recommend it. This paper addresses the reasons for these diametrically opposed perspectives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Adequacy of Protection Afforded by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in Situations of Armed Conflict
Societies 2018, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020028
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
This essay aims to describe the contrasting approaches to disability described by international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL) with the aim of pointing out the approaches/models of disability underpinning two legal regimes. The limits of those approaches/models in the
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This essay aims to describe the contrasting approaches to disability described by international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL) with the aim of pointing out the approaches/models of disability underpinning two legal regimes. The limits of those approaches/models in the treatment and protection of persons with disabilities shall be investigated and established. Ultimately, the paper considers the possibility of recommending a unified approach/model that should underpin both IHL and IHRL in addressing aspects of disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
Open AccessArticle A Brave New World of Work through the Lens of Disability
Societies 2018, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020027
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
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Abstract
Work and paid employment has become a central aspect of social identity in our contemporary work societies. The assumed positive aspects of wage labour and employment on individual well-being are hardly questioned. It is instead claimed that work offers the individual a sense
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Work and paid employment has become a central aspect of social identity in our contemporary work societies. The assumed positive aspects of wage labour and employment on individual well-being are hardly questioned. It is instead claimed that work offers the individual a sense of purposefulness, a possibility to contribute to the collective good and a daily structure. Since its late emergence in the 1960s, the disability rights movement has put an emphasis on exclusion from work and employment. Nevertheless, all over the world, people with disabilities still belong to the most marginalised groups in the labour market. Using disability rights monitoring as a method, this paper explores what role the disability rights framework plays in shaping and transforming our present work society. Based on a German context, it is outlined how the international human rights framework has influenced the social policies that support the inclusion of disabled people in work and employment. Including the narratives of disabled people, it is outlined that despite comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, the German labour market remains exclusionary and discriminatory against people with disabilities. Recently introduced measures, however, point to a new direction and aim to create a more equal and just world of work that acknowledges embodied differences and the needs and capabilities of disabled and non-disabled workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
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Open AccessArticle Racial Variation in the Association between Educational Attainment and Self-Rated Health
Societies 2018, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020026
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return theory can be defined as the systematically smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on the health and well-being of minority populations compared to Whites. To test whether Minorities’ Diminished Return theory holds for self-rated health (SRH), we investigated
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Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return theory can be defined as the systematically smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on the health and well-being of minority populations compared to Whites. To test whether Minorities’ Diminished Return theory holds for self-rated health (SRH), we investigated Black–White differences in the effects of education and income on SRH. Methods: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 was used. HINTS 2017 (n = 3217) is a nationally cross-sectional survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks (n = 409; 18%). Education and income were the independent variables. Poor/fair SRH was the dependent variable. Covariates included age, gender, obesity, and health behaviors (smoking and exercise). Race was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regressions in the overall sample, with and without race by SES (education and income) interactions. Results: Higher education was associated with lower risk of poor/fair SRH in the pooled sample. We found an interaction between race and education, but not race and income, in relation to SRH, suggesting a stronger association for Whites than Blacks. Conclusions: Minorities’ Diminished Return theory is also relevant to the effects of educational attainment on SRH. The relative disadvantage of Blacks compared to Whites in gaining SRH from educational attainment may reflect structural racism that systemically hinders Blacks. There is a need for additional research on specific societal barriers that minimize Blacks’ health gain from their SES resources. Policies and programs should help Black individuals leverage their SES resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Supported Decision-Making from Theory to Practice: Implementing the Right to Enjoy Legal Capacity
Societies 2018, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020025
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
The right to equal recognition before the law, protected by Article 12 of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), mandates the use of supported decision-making practices to enable disabled people, particularly those with intellectual and/or psychosocial
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The right to equal recognition before the law, protected by Article 12 of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), mandates the use of supported decision-making practices to enable disabled people, particularly those with intellectual and/or psychosocial disabilities, to enjoy their legal capacity. Finding ways to translate this theoretical mandate into practice poses a number of particularly challenging socio-legal issues, which this research seeks to address. The English Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) sets out a right to support with decision-making (s.1(3)), underpinned by a presumption of capacity (s.1(2)). Qualitative interviews with intellectually disabled people, their supporters, and care and support professionals were undertaken to explore how disabled people make decisions in their everyday lives, the kinds of support they need, and the strategies for supported decision-making used in practice. Analysis of these interviews suggests that a range of supported decision-making techniques have been developed in practice and are effective in supporting everyday preferences and some life choices. Paradoxically, it appears that as decisions become more complex, the support available to disabled people reduces. Specifically, much less support is available for more difficult decisions around finances, healthcare and legal matters. We argue that the reasons for this are due to a web of regulatory, social and policy issues. We conclude that implementing the right to enjoy legal capacity through supported decision-making will require a combination of regulatory reform, social change and policy amendment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Human Rights)
Open AccessArticle Social Determinants of Physical Self-Rated Health among Asian Americans; Comparison of Six Ethnic Groups
Societies 2018, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020024
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH). Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from
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Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH). Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from the National Asian American Survey (NAAS), 2008, with 4977 non-U.S. born Asian Americans, including Asian Indian (n = 1150), Chinese (n = 1350), Filipino (n = 603), Japanese (n = 541), Korean (n = 614), and Vietnamese (n = 719) Americans. Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; education, employment, income, and marital status), and physical SRH were measured. Ethnic-specific logistic regressions were applied for data analysis where physical SRH was the outcome and demographic and social determinants were predictors. Results: According to logistic regressions, no social determinant was consistently associated with physical SRH across all ethnic groups. Being married was associated with better physical SRH in Asian Indians and worse SRH in the Filipino group. Education was associated with better SRH in Asian Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. High income was associated with better SRH in Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans. Employment was associated with better SRH in Filipino Americans. Conclusion: Social determinants of physical SRH vary across ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Different ethnic groups are differently vulnerable to various social determinants of health. Application of single item SRH measures may be a source of bias in studies of health with ethnically diverse populations. Policy makers should be aware that the same change in social determinants may not result in similar change in the health of ethnic groups. Full article
Open AccessEditorial Transmodern War Contexts in English Literature
Societies 2018, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020023
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Representations of Transmodern War Contexts in English Literature)
Open AccessArticle A Qualitative Study Exploring the Psychosocial Needs of Male Undocumented Afghan Migrants in Istanbul, Turkey
Societies 2018, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020022
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Refugees and asylum-seekers from Afghanistan have been shown to be highly distressed as a result of pre- and post-resettlement traumas. However, little is known about the challenges that Afghan migrants endure while residing in Turkey, a population that has grown at
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(1) Background: Refugees and asylum-seekers from Afghanistan have been shown to be highly distressed as a result of pre- and post-resettlement traumas. However, little is known about the challenges that Afghan migrants endure while residing in Turkey, a population that has grown at unprecedented rates in recent years, and largely deemed illegal by Turkish asylum and settlement laws; (2) Methods: We conducted interviews with 15 Afghan males residing in Istanbul, Turkey in late 2015. A qualitative content analysis technique informed by Qualitative Description was used to analyze the data; (3) Results: Narratives revealed that motives for migrating to Turkey are driven by both a humanitarian need for protection against persecution and economic deprivation. While they are in transit, we observed that Afghan migrants are victimized, exposed to multiple traumas; and, in Turkey experience poverty, unemployment, and exploitation while living in poor conditions and receive no social assistance. Lastly, interviews revealed that their hopes reflect their motives for migrating, that is, to have a stable life and to support their families back home where ever they end up resettling; and (4) Conclusions: Our qualitative interviews clarified the harrowing and demoralizing transit experiences and the depth of exploitation and precarious living conditions that Afghans currently face. Findings have implications for asylum policies, and for delivering culturally-competent interventions that promote the overall well-being of Afghans in Turkey. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transitions to Adulthood and Generational Change in Portugal
Societies 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020021
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Much of the research on contemporary youth in Western societies has shown that transitions to adulthood are being postponed, protracted, and becoming more complex (i.e., less likely to follow a predictable and “orderly” sequence as in earlier generations). Extended schooling periods, changes in
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Much of the research on contemporary youth in Western societies has shown that transitions to adulthood are being postponed, protracted, and becoming more complex (i.e., less likely to follow a predictable and “orderly” sequence as in earlier generations). Extended schooling periods, changes in the labor market and challenges to obtaining autonomous housing are some of the top drivers for such change. Demographers interpret such developments as a sign of a second demographic transition, whereas sociologists stress that they are a consequence of the broader process of social individualization, by which individuals are assuming an increasingly central role in the organization of their lives. While in younger cohorts the evidence base is strong concerning transitions to adulthood, in some national contexts comparisons with the past rely on impressionistic accounts or to easily assume that some social, economic, and cultural factors were present. Drawing on data from the “Family Trajectories and Social Networks: The life course in an intergenerational perspective” research project, this paper re-examines the transitions to adulthood of three Portuguese cohorts (born in 1935–1940, 1950–1955 and 1970–1975), namely in what concerns their timing, duration, and sequence. This is achieved by looking at their life-calendars across different domains (namely family and intimate relations, school, and work). Analysis of the results allows us to discuss critically to what extent current transitions to adulthood are different and to assess cohort heterogeneity according to class and gender. Additionally, it enables us to frame discussions on generational and structural change more adequately in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Studies: Values, Practices and Discourses on Generations)
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Open AccessArticle Human Development and Social Support for State Authority in Brazil
Societies 2018, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020020
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have observed a syndrome of shifting values within different cultures over the past five decades. This work investigates whether these cultural changes have been followed by changes in individual attitudes regarding state authority in Brazil. Using data from the World Values
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Several studies have observed a syndrome of shifting values within different cultures over the past five decades. This work investigates whether these cultural changes have been followed by changes in individual attitudes regarding state authority in Brazil. Using data from the World Values Survey, we tested the hypotheses proposed by Ronald Inglehart that the increasing prevalence of self-expression and secular-rational values has been followed by an increasing societal emphasis on civic autonomy over state authority. The results do not provide evidence to support this hypothesis for Brazil. Instead, the study shows a stable pattern of support for state authority in the past three decades despite the increasing level of self-expression values. The study suggests that these attitudes are related to long-lasting characteristics of the political culture and public expectations regarding the role of the state in reducing social inequality in Brazil. Full article
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