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Insects, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2011), Pages 435-583

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessCommunication Density-Dependent Effects of Amphibian Prey on the Growth and Survival of an Endangered Giant Water Bug
Insects 2011, 2(4), 435-446; doi:10.3390/insects2040435
Received: 7 September 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 30 September 2011
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Abstract
Amphibian predator–insect prey relationships are common in terrestrial habitats, but amphibian larvae are preyed upon by a variety of aquatic hemipterans in aquatic habitats. This paper suggests that the survival of the nymphs of the endangered aquatic hemipteran Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Belostomatidae: [...] Read more.
Amphibian predator–insect prey relationships are common in terrestrial habitats, but amphibian larvae are preyed upon by a variety of aquatic hemipterans in aquatic habitats. This paper suggests that the survival of the nymphs of the endangered aquatic hemipteran Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Belostomatidae: Heteroptera) is directly and indirectly affected by the abundance of their amphibian larval prey (tadpoles). Young nymphs of K. deyrolli mainly feed on tadpoles, regardless of differences in prey availability. Nymphs provided with tadpoles grow faster than nymphs provided with invertebrate prey. Therefore, tadpole consumption seems to be required to allow the nymphs to complete their larval development. In addition, the survival of K. deyrolli nymphs was greater during the period of highest tadpole density (June) than during a period of low tadpole density (July). Higher tadpole density moderates predation pressure from the water scorpion Laccotrephes japonensis (Nepidae: Heteroptera) on K. deyrolli nymphs; i.e., it has a density-mediated indirect effect. These results suggest that an abundance of tadpoles in June provides food for K. deyrolli nymphs (a direct bottom-up effect) and moderates the predation pressure from L. japonensis (an indirect bottom-up effect). An abundance of amphibian prey is indispensable for the conservation of this endangered giant water bug species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trophic Interactions of Insects and Amphibians)
Open AccessArticle Termite Resistant Properties of Sisal Fiberboards
Insects 2011, 2(4), 462-468; doi:10.3390/insects2040462
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
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Abstract
A study was carried out to test sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) fiberboards properties as building materials against Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Evaluation was in the laboratory according to the JWPA Standard-TW-S.1-1992. To improve mechanical properties of fiberboards made from [...] Read more.
A study was carried out to test sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) fiberboards properties as building materials against Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Evaluation was in the laboratory according to the JWPA Standard-TW-S.1-1992. To improve mechanical properties of fiberboards made from sisal fibers, the boards were overlaid by rubber veneer, betung bamboo matting or formica. Result showed that the formica-overlaid sisal fiberboards performed better than other overlaid fiberboards against C. gestroi. Full article
Open AccessArticle Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang
Insects 2011, 2(4), 469-474; doi:10.3390/insects2040469
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 4 October 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
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Abstract
A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected [...] Read more.
A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
Insects 2011, 2(4), 475-485; doi:10.3390/insects2040475
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
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Abstract
Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of [...] Read more.
Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009). Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers); and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10) were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Organo-Complex-Based Wood Preservative Formula Against Dry-Wood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light
Insects 2011, 2(4), 491-498; doi:10.3390/insects2040491
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
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Abstract
The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15) [1] [...] Read more.
The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15) [1] that is adopted in wood packaging protection in Europe is not suitable for tropical countries like Indonesia. Therefore, the treatment by Organo-Complex-based wood preservation, which consists of copper chromium combined with natural organic compounds, is proposed for effective treatment at a lower cost. The bioassay test was subjected to dry wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. The result showed that wood materials treated by 10 ppm Organo-Complex formula gave good results which were indicated by the low consumption and the fast termination of the termites. The toxicity analysis of C-C organic compound solution is classified as grade IV (WHO, 2003) [2], or not harmful. Analysis of the residual content four weeks after the spraying treatment showed a significant reduction in the inorganic content (copper chromate complex), in the range of 35%, and in extracts of natural materials (natural extracts), above 80%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) among Three Commercial Wood Species
Insects 2011, 2(4), 499-508; doi:10.3390/insects2040499
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
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Abstract
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the [...] Read more.
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009) to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Inhibition of Melanization by a Parasitoid Serine Protease Homolog Venom Protein Requires Both the Clip and the Non-Catalytic Protease-Like Domains
Insects 2011, 2(4), 509-514; doi:10.3390/insects2040509
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 10 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
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Abstract
Endoparasitoid wasps inject a variety of components into their host hemocoel at oviposition to facilitate successful development of their progeny. Among these are venom proteins which have been shown to play crucial roles in host regulation. A serine protease homolog (SPH)-like venom [...] Read more.
Endoparasitoid wasps inject a variety of components into their host hemocoel at oviposition to facilitate successful development of their progeny. Among these are venom proteins which have been shown to play crucial roles in host regulation. A serine protease homolog (SPH)-like venom protein from Cotesia rubecula was previously shown to inhibit melanization in the host hemolymph by blocking activation of prophenoloxidase to phenoloxidase, a key enzyme in melanin formation. Similar to other SPHs, Vn50 consists of a clip and a protease-like (SPL) domain. Protein modeling demonstrated that Vn50 has a very similar structure to known SPHs and functional analysis of Vn50 domains expressed in insect cells indicated that neither of the domains on its own has an inhibitory effect on melanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symbiosis: A Source of Evolutionary Innovation in Insects)
Open AccessArticle Use of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Regions to Examine Symbiont Divergence and as a Diagnostic Tool for Sodalis-Related Bacteria
Insects 2011, 2(4), 515-531; doi:10.3390/insects2040515
Received: 21 September 2011 / Revised: 15 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 30 November 2011
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Abstract
Bacteria excel in most ecological niches, including insect symbioses. A cluster of bacterial symbionts, established within a broad range of insects, share high 16S rRNA similarities with the secondary symbiont of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae), Sodalis glossinidius. Although 16S rRNA [...] Read more.
Bacteria excel in most ecological niches, including insect symbioses. A cluster of bacterial symbionts, established within a broad range of insects, share high 16S rRNA similarities with the secondary symbiont of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae), Sodalis glossinidius. Although 16S rRNA has proven informative towards characterization of this clade, the gene is insufficient for examining recent divergence due to selective constraints. Here, we assess the application of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, specifically the ITSglu and ITSala,ile, used in conjunction with 16S rRNA to enhance the phylogenetic resolution of Sodalis-allied bacteria. The 16S rRNA + ITS regions of Sodalis and allied bacteria demonstrated significant divergence and were robust towards phylogenetic resolution. A monophyletic clade of Sodalis isolates from tsetse species, distinct from other Enterobacteriaceae, was consistently observed suggesting diversification due to host adaptation. In contrast, the phylogenetic distribution of symbionts isolated from hippoboscid flies and various Hemiptera and Coleoptera were intertwined suggesting either horizontal transfer or a recent establishment from an environmental source. Lineage splitting of Sodalis-allied bacteria into symbiotic and free-living sister groups was also observed. Additionally, we propose an ITS region as a diagnostic marker for the identification of additional Sodalis-allied symbionts in the field. These results expand our knowledge of informative genome regions to assess genetic divergence since splitting from the last common ancestor, of this versatile insect symbiont clade that have become increasingly recognized as valuable towards our understanding of the evolution of symbiosis. These facultative and recently associated symbionts may provide a novel source of traits adaptable to the dynamic ecologies encountered by diverse host backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symbiosis: A Source of Evolutionary Innovation in Insects)
Open AccessArticle Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water—How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae)
Insects 2011, 2(4), 540-554; doi:10.3390/insects2040540
Received: 28 October 2011 / Revised: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 25 November 2011 / Published: 9 December 2011
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Abstract
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being [...] Read more.
The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symbiosis: A Source of Evolutionary Innovation in Insects)
Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Daily Patterns in Activity of the Western Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen)
Insects 2011, 2(4), 555-563; doi:10.3390/insects2040555
Received: 29 October 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 12 December 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE) technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient [...] Read more.
Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE) technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient conditions in a small wooden structure maintained at the University of California Richmond Field Station. AE, temperature, and humidity data were measured in 3-minute increments. Termite activity was greater during the warmer summer months compared to the cooler winter months. Termites in all five logs displayed a similar daily cycle of activity, peaking in the late afternoon. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in termite activity were significantly associated with temperature, whereas humidity did not appear to have a noticeable effect on termite activity. Possible mechanisms that drive the seasonal and daily cycles in termite activity, as measured by AE technology, and the possible implications for inspections and post-treatment analysis are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer
Insects 2011, 2(4), 564-583; doi:10.3390/insects2040564
Received: 24 October 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
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Abstract
During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The [...] Read more.
During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects in Pop Culture, Art, and Music)

Review

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Open AccessReview Aquatic Insects in Eastern Australia: A Window on Ecology and Evolution of Dispersal in Streams
Insects 2011, 2(4), 447-461; doi:10.3390/insects2040447
Received: 21 September 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
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Abstract
Studies of connectivity of natural populations are often conducted at different timescales. Studies that focus on contemporary timescales ask questions about dispersal abilities and dispersal behavior of their study species. In contrast, studies conducted at historical timescales are usually more focused on [...] Read more.
Studies of connectivity of natural populations are often conducted at different timescales. Studies that focus on contemporary timescales ask questions about dispersal abilities and dispersal behavior of their study species. In contrast, studies conducted at historical timescales are usually more focused on evolutionary or biogeographic questions. In this paper we present a synthesis of connectivity studies that have addressed both these timescales in Australian Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. We conclude that: (1) For both groups, the major mechanism of dispersal is by adult flight, with larval drift playing a very minor role and with unusual patterns of genetic structure at fine scales explained by the “patchy recruitment hypothesis”; (2) There is some evidence presented to suggest that at slightly larger spatial scales (~100 km) caddisflies may be slightly more connected than mayflies; (3) Examinations of three species at historical timescales showed that, in southeast Queensland Australia, despite there being no significant glaciation during the Pleistocene, there are clear impacts of Pleistocene climate changes on their genetic structure; and (4) The use of mitochondrial DNA sequence data has uncovered a number of cryptic species complexes in both trichopterans and ephemeropterans. We conclude with a number of suggestions for further work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand
Insects 2011, 2(4), 532-539; doi:10.3390/insects2040532
Received: 3 October 2011 / Revised: 29 October 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and [...] Read more.
With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and development of pyrethroid resistance in some pests have been cited as common shortcomings of pyrethroids. To overcome these pyrethroid problems such as high fish toxicity, Katsuda and fellow scientists invented silafluofen by introducing a silicone atom into the pyrethroidal chemical structure in 1984. In addition to the high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity, this compound features low fish toxicity, chemical stability under sunlight, in the soil and under alkaline environments. These features make silafluofen unique among pyrethroids. In Japan, silafluofen has been used as an agricultural insecticide for 15 years since 1995 for various plants, especially useful for paddy rice protection because of its low fish toxicity. Over the last 20 years, silafluofen-based termiticides including emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and oil formulations have been widely used in Japan for soil treatment and timber treatments. Additional silafluofen product lines include anti-termitic plastic sheets which are laid under buildings. In this paper, literature on the development of silafluofen and its use in Japan are reviewed. On the other hand, in Thailand, we proceeded with development works of silafluofen-based termiticides from 2005 by starting laboratory efficacy tests and field efficacy tests in Phuket. Both laboratory and field tests showed good efficacy as a soil termiticide, suggesting that the material will perform well for commercial use in high biological hazard environments such as Thailand and can be used in environments close to water where fish toxicity might be a concern with other pyrethroids. Full article

Other

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Open AccessProduct Review A Preliminary Study on Elimination of Colonies of the Mound Building Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) Using a Chlorfluazuron Termite Bait in the Philippines
Insects 2011, 2(4), 486-490; doi:10.3390/insects2040486
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. Four In-Ground Stations (IGS) were installed around each mound. Interception occurred almost immediately in all the stations, which were subsequently baited. The control mound was fed a bait matrix lacking the active ingredient. Stations were re-baited every 2 weeks for 10–12 weeks until bait consumption ceased in the test mounds. The mounds were left undisturbed for four more weeks before being destructively sampled. The desiccated remains of workers, soldiers, late instars and queen were found upon sampling the treated mounds. A few live termites were located in one treated mound but were darkly pigmented indicating bait consumption. The control mound remained healthy and did not show any visible sign of negative impact. The bait successfully suppressed or eliminated both M. gilvus colonies within 16 weeks from commencement of feeding. Full article

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