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Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand
Dainihon Jochugiku Co., Ltd., 1-11, 1-Chome, Daikoku-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 561-0827, Japan
Royal Forest Department, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2011; in revised form: 29 October 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Abstract: With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and development of pyrethroid resistance in some pests have been cited as common shortcomings of pyrethroids. To overcome these pyrethroid problems such as high fish toxicity, Katsuda and fellow scientists invented silafluofen by introducing a silicone atom into the pyrethroidal chemical structure in 1984. In addition to the high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity, this compound features low fish toxicity, chemical stability under sunlight, in the soil and under alkaline environments. These features make silafluofen unique among pyrethroids. In Japan, silafluofen has been used as an agricultural insecticide for 15 years since 1995 for various plants, especially useful for paddy rice protection because of its low fish toxicity. Over the last 20 years, silafluofen-based termiticides including emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and oil formulations have been widely used in Japan for soil treatment and timber treatments. Additional silafluofen product lines include anti-termitic plastic sheets which are laid under buildings. In this paper, literature on the development of silafluofen and its use in Japan are reviewed. On the other hand, in Thailand, we proceeded with development works of silafluofen-based termiticides from 2005 by starting laboratory efficacy tests and field efficacy tests in Phuket. Both laboratory and field tests showed good efficacy as a soil termiticide, suggesting that the material will perform well for commercial use in high biological hazard environments such as Thailand and can be used in environments close to water where fish toxicity might be a concern with other pyrethroids.
Keywords: pyrethroid; silafluofen; termiticide; fish toxicity
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Katsuda, Y.; Minamite, Y.; Vongkaluang, C. Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand. Insects 2011, 2, 532-539.
Katsuda Y, Minamite Y, Vongkaluang C. Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand. Insects. 2011; 2(4):532-539.
Katsuda, Yoshio; Minamite, Yoshihiro; Vongkaluang, Charunee. 2011. "Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand." Insects 2, no. 4: 532-539.