Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Water, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2010), Pages 1-119

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-5
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands
Water 2010, 2(1), 1-27; doi:10.3390/w2010001
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1727 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies [...] Read more.
Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece
Water 2010, 2(1), 75-84; doi:10.3390/w2010075
Received: 9 December 2009 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 16 February 2010 / Published: 17 February 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage [...] Read more.
The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Socio-Technical Aspects of Water Management: Emerging Trends at Grass Roots Level in Uzbekistan
Water 2010, 2(1), 85-100; doi:10.3390/w2010085
Received: 20 November 2009 / Revised: 19 February 2010 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 24 February 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Soviet times, water management was presented generally as a technical issue to be taken care of by the state water bureaucracy. Due to structural changes in agriculture in the two decades post-independence, irrigation water management has become an explicitly political and [...] Read more.
In Soviet times, water management was presented generally as a technical issue to be taken care of by the state water bureaucracy. Due to structural changes in agriculture in the two decades post-independence, irrigation water management has become an explicitly political and social issue in Central Asia. With the state still heavily present in the regulation of agricultural production, the situation in Uzbekistan differs from other post-communist states. Water management strategies are still strongly ‘Soviet’ in approach, regarded by state actors as purely ‘technical’, because other dimensions – economic, social and political – are ‘fixed’ through strong state regulation. However, new mechanisms are appearing in this authoritarian and technocratic framework. The application of a framework for socio-technical analysis in some selected Water Users’ Associations (WUAs) in northwest Uzbekistan’s Khorezm region shows that the WUAs are becoming arenas of interaction for different interest groups involved in water management. The socio-technical analysis of Khorezm’s water management highlights growing social differences at grass root level in the study of WUAs. The process of social differentiation is in its early phases, but is still able to express itself fully due to the strict state control of agriculture and social life in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT
Water 2010, 2(1), 101-119; doi:10.3390/w2010101
Received: 2 February 2010 / Revised: 24 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research describes the feasibility of applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of concentrated black (toilet) water at 25 °C. On average 78% of the influent load of COD at an HRT of 8.7 days was removed. Produced methane can be [...] Read more.
This research describes the feasibility of applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of concentrated black (toilet) water at 25 °C. On average 78% of the influent load of COD at an HRT of 8.7 days was removed. Produced methane can be converted to 56 MJ/p/y as electricity and 84 MJ/p/y as heat by combined heat and power (CHP). Minimum reactor volume at full scale was calculated to be 63L per person (for black water containing 16 gCOD/L produced at 5 L/p/d) and this is more than two times smaller than other type of reactors for anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water. Full article
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Sonochemical Treatment of Water Polluted by Chlorinated Organocompounds. A Review
Water 2010, 2(1), 28-74; doi:10.3390/w2010028
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 29 January 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As one of several types of pollutants in water, chlorinated compounds have been routinely subjected to sonochemical analysis to check the environmental applications of this technology. In this review, an extensive study of the influence of the initial concentration, ultrasonic intensity and [...] Read more.
As one of several types of pollutants in water, chlorinated compounds have been routinely subjected to sonochemical analysis to check the environmental applications of this technology. In this review, an extensive study of the influence of the initial concentration, ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the kinetics, degradation efficiency and mechanism has been analyzed. The sonochemical degradation follows a radical mechanism which yields a very wide range of chlorinated compounds in very low concentrations. Special attention has been paid to the mass balance comparing the results from several analytical techniques. As a conclusion, sonochemical degradation alone is not an efficient treatment to reduce the organic pollutant level in waste water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Water Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
water@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Water
Back to Top