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Catalysts, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story Fine chemistry products such as agro-chemicals or pharmaceuticals require ketones and/or aldehydes [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Reforming Catalysts
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 334; doi:10.3390/catal7110334
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Steam and dry reforming of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane or propane), alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol or glycerol) or bio-compounds is one of the most promising and effective routes to enhanced hydrogen production and for the production of synthesis gas likewise.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reforming Catalysts)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Anodes of Microbial Fuel Cells When Carbon Brushes Are Preheated at Different Temperatures
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 312; doi:10.3390/catal7110312
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
The anode electrode is one of the most important components in all microbial electrochemical technologies (METs). Anode materials pretreatment and modification have been shown to be an effective method of improving anode performance. According to mass loss analysis during carbon fiber heating, five
[...] Read more.
The anode electrode is one of the most important components in all microbial electrochemical technologies (METs). Anode materials pretreatment and modification have been shown to be an effective method of improving anode performance. According to mass loss analysis during carbon fiber heating, five temperatures (300, 450, 500, 600, and 750 °C) were selected as the pre-heating temperatures of carbon fiber brush anodes. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactors built up with these pre-heated carbon brush anodes performed with different power densities and Coulombic efficiencies (CEs). Two kinds of measuring methods for power density were applied, and the numerical values of maximum power densities diverged greatly. Reactors with 450 °C anodes, using both methods, had the highest power densities, and the highest CEs were found using 500 °C anode reactors. The surface elements of heat-treated carbon fibers were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and C, O, and N were the main constituents of the carbon fiber. There were four forms of N1s at the surface of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber, and their concentrations were different at different temperature samples. The microbial community of the anode surface was analyzed, and microbial species on anodes from every sample were similar. The differences in anode performance may be caused by mass loss and by the surface elements. For carbon brush anodes used in MFCs or other BESs, 450–500 °C preheating was the most suitable temperature range in terms of the power densities and CEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Photoactive Hybrid Film Photocatalyst of Polyethersulfone-ZnO for the Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye: Kinetic Study and Operational Parameters
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 313; doi:10.3390/catal7110313
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
A facile and effective technique to immobilize photocatalyst nanoparticles by incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) into polyethersulfone polymeric films by means of a phase inversion technique is reported. The degradation study of methyl orange (MO) dye was performed using a series of ZnO-embedded polymer
[...] Read more.
A facile and effective technique to immobilize photocatalyst nanoparticles by incorporating zinc oxide (ZnO) into polyethersulfone polymeric films by means of a phase inversion technique is reported. The degradation study of methyl orange (MO) dye was performed using a series of ZnO-embedded polymer hybrid systems. The photoactivity of the films increased in parallel with increased ZnO loading up to 17 wt%. The photodegradation process followed a pseudo first-order kinetics with an achievement of almost 100% MO removal in original conditions. The PZ-17 film demonstrated an excellent and comparable degradation performance up to five cycles, signifying the reliability of the film photocatalyst against ultraviolet irradiation and degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Silver-Catalyzed Protodecarboxylation and Decarboxylative Iodination of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 314; doi:10.3390/catal7110314
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives are readily available from both natural and synthetic sources. Apart from being used as direct substrates in the functional transformation, aryl carboxylic acids have found more applications in aromatic functionalization, especially in decarboxylation coupling reactions. Microwave-assisted protodecarboxylation and
[...] Read more.
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives are readily available from both natural and synthetic sources. Apart from being used as direct substrates in the functional transformation, aryl carboxylic acids have found more applications in aromatic functionalization, especially in decarboxylation coupling reactions. Microwave-assisted protodecarboxylation and decarboxylative iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids were achieved with excellent yields in the presence of Ag2CO3 catalyst and K2S2O8. These reactions will be helpful for better understanding of decarboxylation-related coupling reactions and also have the potential of being used as a practical labeling method to synthesize regioselective deuterium and iodine-labelled compounds for chemical, biological, and medicinal research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Degradation of Aqueous Carbamazepine by Bismuth Oxybromide-Activated Peroxide Oxidation
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 315; doi:10.3390/catal7110315
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Bismuth oxyhalide, usually employed as a photocatalyst, has not been tested as an activator of peroxide for water purification. This work explores the potential application of bismuth oxyhalide (BiOX, X = Cl, Br, I)-activated peroxide (H2O2; peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and
[...] Read more.
Bismuth oxyhalide, usually employed as a photocatalyst, has not been tested as an activator of peroxide for water purification. This work explores the potential application of bismuth oxyhalide (BiOX, X = Cl, Br, I)-activated peroxide (H2O2; peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate) systems for the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) in water destined for drinking water. BiOBr showed the highest activity toward the peroxides investigated, especially toward PMS. The most efficient combination, BiOBr/PMS, was selected to further research predominant species responsible for CBZ degradation and toxicity of transformation products. With repeated use of BiOBr, low bismuth-leaching and subtle changes in crystallinity and activity were observed. CBZ degradation was primarily (67.3%) attributable to attack by sulfate radical. Toxicity test and identification of the oxidation products indicated some toxic intermediates may be produced. A possible degradation pathway is proposed. Besides substitution of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of the catalyst particles, PMS’s complexation with the lattice Bi(III) through ion exchange with interlayer bromide ion was involved in the decomposition of PMS. The Bi(III)−Bi(V)−Bi(III) redox cycle contributed to the efficient generation of sulfate radicals from the PMS. Our findings provide a simple and efficient process to produce powerful radicals from PMS for refractory pollutant removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homogeneous Catalysis and Mechanisms in Water and Biphasic Media)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Production of 4-Ene-3-ketosteroids in Corynebacterium glutamicum
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 316; doi:10.3390/catal7110316
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Corynebacterium glutamicum has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and many value-added chemicals; however, it has not been exploited for the production of steroids. Using C. glutamicum as a cellular biocatalyst we have expressed the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase MSMEG_5228 from
[...] Read more.
Corynebacterium glutamicum has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and many value-added chemicals; however, it has not been exploited for the production of steroids. Using C. glutamicum as a cellular biocatalyst we have expressed the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase MSMEG_5228 from Mycobacterium smegmatis to demonstrate that the resulting recombinant strain is able to oxidize in vivo C19 and C21 3-OH-steroids to their corresponding keto-derivatives. This new approach constitutes a proof of concept of a biotechnological process for producing value-added intermediates such as 4-pregnen-16α,17α-epoxy-16β-methyl-3,20-dione. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis and Biotransformations)
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Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(ethylene 2,5-furanoate) Powders and Amorphous Films
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 318; doi:10.3390/catal7110318
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Poly(ethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PEF) is arousing great interest as a biobased alternative to plastics like poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) due to its wide range of potential applications, such as food and beverage packaging, clothing, and in the car industry. In the present study, the hydrolysis
[...] Read more.
Poly(ethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PEF) is arousing great interest as a biobased alternative to plastics like poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) due to its wide range of potential applications, such as food and beverage packaging, clothing, and in the car industry. In the present study, the hydrolysis of PEF powders of different molecular masses (Mn = 55, Mw = 104 kg/mol and Mn = 18, Mw = 29 kg/mol) and various particle sizes (180 < d and 180 < d < 425 µm) using cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_cut1) was studied. Thereby, the effects of molecular mass, particle size and crystallinity on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The results show that particles with lower molecular mass are hydrolyzed faster than those with higher masses, and that the higher the molecular mass, the lower the influence of the particle size on the hydrolysis. Furthermore, cutinases from Humicola insolens (HiC) and Thc_cut1 were compared with regard to their hydrolytic activity on amorphous PEF films (measured as release of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and weight loss) in different reaction media (1 M KPO pH 8, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7) and at different temperatures (50 °C and 65 °C). A 100% hydrolysis of the PEF films was achieved after only 72 h of incubation with a HiC in 1 M KPO pH 8 at 65 °C. Moreover, the hydrolysis reaction was monitored by LC/TOF-MS analysis of the released reaction products and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination of the polymer surfaces. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PEF with Thc_cut1 and HiC has potential for use in surface functionalization and recycling purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Macro-Mesoporous Aluminosilicates for Catalytic Steam Gasification of Heavy Oil Fractions for On-Site Upgrading
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 319; doi:10.3390/catal7110319
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO) fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized
[...] Read more.
Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO) fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized by chemical composition through X-ray Fluorescence, surface area, and pore size distribution through N2 adsorption/desorption, catalyst acidity by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and metal dispersion by pulse H2 chemisorption. Batch adsorption experiments and catalytic steam gasification of adsorbed heavy fractions was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis and were performed with heavy oil model solutions of asphaltenes and resins (R–A) in toluene. Effective activation energy estimation was used to determine the catalytic effect of the catalyst in steam gasification of Colombian EHO. Additionally, R–A decomposition under inert atmosphere was conducted for the evaluation of oil components reactions with active phases and steam atmosphere. The presence of a bimetallic active phase Inc.reases the decomposition of the heavy compounds at low temperature by an increase in the aliphatic chains decomposition and the dissociation of heteroatoms bonds. Also, coke formation after steam gasification process is reduced by the application of the bimetallic catalyst yielding a conversion greater than 93%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Challenges for Catalytic and Photocatalytic Reactors)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Isoquinolinones via Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Activation/Annulation
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 320; doi:10.3390/catal7110320
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
The isoquinoline motif and its derivatives are of significant interest due to their important biological activities. The effective synthesis of substituted isoquinoline compounds has historically been a significant challenge. A new palladium-catalyzed C–H activation/annulation of N-methoxy benzamides and 2,3-allenoic acid esters is
[...] Read more.
The isoquinoline motif and its derivatives are of significant interest due to their important biological activities. The effective synthesis of substituted isoquinoline compounds has historically been a significant challenge. A new palladium-catalyzed C–H activation/annulation of N-methoxy benzamides and 2,3-allenoic acid esters is described. For the first time, 2,3-allenoic acid esters are employed for the syntheses of 3,4-substituted hydroisoquinolones, the heteroannulation of allenes proceeded smoothly and afforded the products with good yields and excellent regioselectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Highly Selective Catalytic Properties of HZSM-5 Zeolite in the Synthesis of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate by the Acetylation of Triethyl Citrate with Acetic Anhydride
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 321; doi:10.3390/catal7110321
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
The catalytic activities of acid catalysts for the acetylation of triethyl citrate with acetic anhydride in the preparation of acetyl triethyl citrate were evaluated. Microporous zeolites such as HZSM-5 and HY zeolites catalysts were introduced as heterogeneous acid catalysts. HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts showed
[...] Read more.
The catalytic activities of acid catalysts for the acetylation of triethyl citrate with acetic anhydride in the preparation of acetyl triethyl citrate were evaluated. Microporous zeolites such as HZSM-5 and HY zeolites catalysts were introduced as heterogeneous acid catalysts. HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts showed a high conversion of triethyl citrate and excellent selectivity of acetyl triethyl citrate. The catalytic activities of HZSM-5 zeolites were superior to those of the HY zeolites. In particular, the selectivity of acetyl triethyl citrate on HZSM-5 zeolites exceeded 95%. The moderate acid strength of HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 75) zeolite led to the highest catalytic activities among the HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts, which have various acid strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zeolites and Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Enzymatically-Mediated Co-Production of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Fermentable Sugars
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 322; doi:10.3390/catal7110322
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can be extracted from cellulosic materials through the degradation of non-crystalline cellulose domains in the feedstock via acid hydrolysis. However, the sugars released from the hydrolysis process cannot be easily recovered from the acid waste stream. In this study, cellulases
[...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) can be extracted from cellulosic materials through the degradation of non-crystalline cellulose domains in the feedstock via acid hydrolysis. However, the sugars released from the hydrolysis process cannot be easily recovered from the acid waste stream. In this study, cellulases were used to preferentially degrade non-crystalline domains with the objectives of recovering sugars and generating a feedstock with concentrated CNC precursors for a more efficient acid hydrolysis process. Filter paper and wood pulp substrates were enzyme-treated for 2–10 h to recover 20–40 wt % glucose. Substantial xylose yield (6–12 wt %) was generated from wood pulp. CNC yields from acid hydrolysis of cellulases-treated filter paper, and wood pulp improved by 8–18% and 58–86%, respectively, when compared with the original substrate. It was thought that CNC precursors accumulated in the cellulases-treated feedstock due to enzymatic digestion of the more accessible non-crystalline celluloses. Therefore, acid hydrolysis from enzyme-treated feedstock will require proportionally less water and reagents resulting in increased efficiency and productivity in downstream processes. This study demonstrates that an enzymatically-mediated process allows recovery of fermentable sugars and improves acid hydrolysis efficiency for CNC production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Styrene Oxidation to Valuable Compounds over Nanosized FeCo-Based Catalysts: Effect of the Third Metal Addition
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 323; doi:10.3390/catal7110323
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Nanosized FeCo-based solids were prepared via distinct preparation procedures. The catalytic performances of the solids for styrene oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide were evaluated. The addition of promoters in FeCo such as Sn, Mo, or Cu was also investigated. The catalysts
[...] Read more.
Nanosized FeCo-based solids were prepared via distinct preparation procedures. The catalytic performances of the solids for styrene oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide were evaluated. The addition of promoters in FeCo such as Sn, Mo, or Cu was also investigated. The catalysts were characterized with XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, chemical analyses, EPR and SEM-EDS. Of these solids obtained via four different methods, the catalyst prepared via the NC and CM procedures enabled a partial incorporation of the Sn into the FeCo matrix forming a very active phase, namely the Heusler alloy. This was ascribed to the high initial dispersion of Sn as a promoter into the FeCo matrix, which led to available FeCoSn (FCS) particles well dispersed and stable on the catalyst surface. In the case of incorporating Mo or Cu to the nanosized FeCo catalyst, a poor stability towards leaching was observed when operating under the same reaction conditions. Cu was much less active than both Sn and Mo, mainly leading to acetophenone, ethylbenzene, 2-phenyl ethanol, 2-phenyl acetic acid, and 2-phenyl acetaldehyde products. The best catalytic results under the optimized reaction conditions, especially at 50 °C and styrene/H2O2 molar ratio of 1 were achieved with nanosized FCS. This solid had a conversion of ca. 70% and selectivity for aldehydes of ca. 27%, and the selectivity for the condensation products was 29%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Applications in Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Production via Water Dissociation Using Pt–TiO2 Photocatalysts: An Oxidation–Reduction Network
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 324; doi:10.3390/catal7110324
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Several TiO2 based semiconductors with different Pt loadings are prepared using incipient impregnation, wet impregnation and the sol-gel method. These photocatalysts are evaluated in the Photo-CREC-Water II Photoreactor for hydrogen production via water dissociation, using an organic renewable scavenger (ethanol). Results obtained
[...] Read more.
Several TiO2 based semiconductors with different Pt loadings are prepared using incipient impregnation, wet impregnation and the sol-gel method. These photocatalysts are evaluated in the Photo-CREC-Water II Photoreactor for hydrogen production via water dissociation, using an organic renewable scavenger (ethanol). Results obtained show the influence of the photocatalyst preparation in the production of hydrogen and in the observed quantum yields. Furthermore, it is established that the reaction networks leading to hydrogen production, using various photocatalysts, share common features. This analysis is developed by both identifying and quantifying different chemical species and their changes with irradiation time. Key species in this oxidation–reduction network are hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, methane, ethane, acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. On this basis, it is shown that under an inert gas atmosphere, ethanol consumption is sub-stoichiometric. This points towards simultaneous ethanol consumption and the formation of the ethanol scavenger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Water Splitting)
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Open AccessArticle Consideration of the Role of Plasma in a Plasma-Coupled Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides with a Hydrocarbon Reducing Agent
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 325; doi:10.3390/catal7110325
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explain how plasma improves the performance of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with a hydrocarbon reducing agent. In the plasma-coupled SCR process, NOx reduction was performed with n-heptane as a
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The purpose of this study is to explain how plasma improves the performance of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with a hydrocarbon reducing agent. In the plasma-coupled SCR process, NOx reduction was performed with n-heptane as a reducing agent over Ag/γ-Al2O3 as a catalyst. We found that the plasma decomposes n-heptane into several oxygen-containing products such as acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde, which are more reactive than the parent molecule n-heptane in the SCR process. Separate sets of experiments using acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde, one by one, as a reductant in the absence of plasma, have clearly shown that the presence of these partially oxidized compounds greatly enhanced the NOx conversion. The higher the discharge voltage, the more the amounts of such partially oxidized products. The oxidative species produced by the plasma easily converted NO into NO2, but the increase of the NO2 fraction was found to decrease the NOx conversion. Consequently, it can be concluded that the main role of plasma in the SCR process is to produce partially oxidized compounds (aldehydes), having better reducing power. The catalyst-alone NOx removal efficiency with n-heptane at 250 °C was measured to be less than 8%, but it increased to 99% in the presence of acetaldehyde at the same temperature. The NOx removal efficiency with the aldehyde reducing agent was higher as the number of carbons in the aldehyde was more; for example, the NOx removal efficiencies at 200 °C with butyraldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured to be 83.5%, 58.0% and 61.5%, respectively, which were far above the value (3%) obtained with n-heptane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Phase Pure Hexagonal YFeO3 Perovskite as Efficient Visible Light Active Photocatalyst
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 326; doi:10.3390/catal7110326
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
Hexagonal perovskite YFeO3 was synthesized by a complex-assisted sol-gel technique allowing crystallization at calcination temperatures below 700 °C. As determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Tauc plots, the hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a lower optical band gap (1.81 eV) than the
[...] Read more.
Hexagonal perovskite YFeO3 was synthesized by a complex-assisted sol-gel technique allowing crystallization at calcination temperatures below 700 °C. As determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Tauc plots, the hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a lower optical band gap (1.81 eV) than the orthorhombic structure (about 2.1 eV or even higher) being typically obtained at elevated temperatures (>700 °C), and thus enables higher visible light photocatalysis activity. Structure and morphology of the synthesized YFeO3 perovskites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption, proving that significantly smaller crystallite sizes and higher surface areas are obtained for YFeO3 with a hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of the different YFeO3 phases was deduced via the degradation of the model pollutants methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol. Experiments under illumination with light of different wavelengths, in the presence of different trapping elements, as well as photoelectrochemical tests allow conclusions regarding band positions of YFeO3 and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very thin layer of Y2O3 might support the photocatalysis by improving the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication In-Situ Self-Assembly of Zinc/Adenine Hybrid Nanomaterials for Enzyme Immobilization
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 327; doi:10.3390/catal7110327
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a one-step and facile immobilization of enzymes by self-assembly of zinc ions and adenine in aqueous solution with mild conditions was reported. Enzymes, such as glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), could be efficiently encapsulated in Zn/adenine coordination polymers
[...] Read more.
In this study, a one-step and facile immobilization of enzymes by self-assembly of zinc ions and adenine in aqueous solution with mild conditions was reported. Enzymes, such as glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), could be efficiently encapsulated in Zn/adenine coordination polymers (CPs) with high loading capacity over 90%. When the enzyme was immobilized by CPs, it displayed high catalytic efficiency, high selectivity and enhanced stability due to the protecting effect of the rigid framework. As a result, the relative activity of Zn/adenine nano-CP-immobilized GOx increased by 1.5-fold at pH 3 and 4-fold at 70 to 90 °C, compared to free GOx. The immobilized GOx had excellent reusability (more than 90% relative activity after being reused eight times). Furthermore, the use of this system as a glucose biosensor was also demonstrated by co-immobilization of two enzymes, detecting glucose down to 1.84 µM with excellent selectivity. The above work indicated that in-situ self-assembly of Zn/adenine CPs could be a simple and efficient method for biocatalyst immobilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immobilized Biocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Synergetic Effect of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 Physical Mixture in Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 329; doi:10.3390/catal7110329
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, which was prepared by in situ temperature-programmed reduction and in the mixture with the inert (SiC, SiO2) or acidic (γ-Al2O3) material was studied in methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Methyl palmitate HDO
[...] Read more.
The Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, which was prepared by in situ temperature-programmed reduction and in the mixture with the inert (SiC, SiO2) or acidic (γ-Al2O3) material was studied in methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Methyl palmitate HDO was carried out at temperatures of 270–330 °C, H2/feed volume ratio of 600 Nm3/m3, and H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, diluted with γ-Al2O3 showed a higher activity than Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst diluted with SiC or SiO2. The conversion of methyl palmitate increased significantly in the presence of γ-Al2O3 most probably due to the acceleration of the acid-catalyzed reaction of ester hydrolysis. The synergism of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 in methyl palmitate HDO can be explained by the cooperation of the metal sites of Ni2P/SiO2 and the acid sites of γ-Al2O3 in consecutive metal-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed reactions of HDO. The obtained results let us conclude that the balancing of metal and acid sites plays an important role in the development of the efficient catalyst for the HDO of fatty acid esters over supported phosphide catalysts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Non-Precious Metal Promoting the Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 330; doi:10.3390/catal7110330
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
In this work, a new kind of catalyst was prepared for synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Copper ions were incorporated into manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (K-OMS-2). The catalysts Cu-K-OMS-2 were characterized by measuring FTIR spectra, scanning electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction patterns, and temperature-programmed
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In this work, a new kind of catalyst was prepared for synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Copper ions were incorporated into manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (K-OMS-2). The catalysts Cu-K-OMS-2 were characterized by measuring FTIR spectra, scanning electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction patterns, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) profiles. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the stability of Cu-K-OMS-2 is almost the same as that of K-OMS-2. XRD patterns showed that introducing copper ions did not change the structure of K-OMS-2, but copper ions had an effect on the morphology of K-OMS-2 as illustrated by SEM images. TPD profiles demonstrated that both K-OMS-2 and Cu-K-OMS-2 possess basic and acidic sites, and Cu-K-OMS-2 has weak acidic sites. One-pot synthesis of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) from fructose was investigated under the catalysis of Cu-K-OMS-2 together with a commercial catalyst Amberlyst 15. The effect of reaction time and temperature on the DFF yield was investigated, and reaction temperature had an effect on the DFF yield. The effect of atomic ratio of Cu to Mn of Cu-K-OMS-2 on the DFF yield was also investigated. The DFF yield was improved 34.7% by Cu-K-OMS-2 in comparison to K-OMS-2, indicating the promotion effect of copper on the DFF yield. Consecutive use of Cu-K-OMS-2 demonstrated that after 6 cycles, the loss of DFF yield was 6.3%, indicating a good reusability of Cu-K-OMS-2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Ni-Ce-Zr/Al2O3 Cellular Structure for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 331; doi:10.3390/catal7110331
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
A novel γ-alumina-supported Ni-Ce-Zr catalyst with cellular structure was developed for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE). First, powdered samples were synthesized to study the effect of both the total metal content and the Ce/Zr ratio on the physicochemical properties and performance of these
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A novel γ-alumina-supported Ni-Ce-Zr catalyst with cellular structure was developed for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE). First, powdered samples were synthesized to study the effect of both the total metal content and the Ce/Zr ratio on the physicochemical properties and performance of these catalysts. All synthesized powdered samples were highly active and selective for ODHE with a maximum ethylene productivity of 6.94 µmolethylene gact cat−1 s−1. According to the results, cerium addition increased the most reducible nickel species population, which would benefit ethane conversion, whereas zirconium incorporation would enhance ethylene selectivity through the generation of higher amounts of the least reducible nickel species. Therefore, the modification of active site properties by addition of both promoters synergistically increases the productivity of the Ni-based catalysts. The most efficient formulation, in terms of ethylene productivity per active phase amount, contained 15 wt% of the mixed oxide with Ni0.85Ce0.075Zr0.075 composition. This formulation was selected to synthesize a Ni-Ce-Zr/Al2O3 structured body by deposition of the active phase onto a homemade γ-alumina monolith. The structured support was manufactured by extrusion of boehmite-containing dough. The main properties of the Ni0.85Ce0.075Zr0.075 powder were successfully preserved after the shaping procedure. In addition, the catalytic performance of the monolithic sample was comparable in terms of ethylene productivity to that of the powdered counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structured and Micro-Structured Catalysts and Reactors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of an Efficient Methanol Production Process for Direct CO2 Hydrogenation over a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalyst
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 332; doi:10.3390/catal7110332
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Carbon capture and utilization as a raw material for methanol production are options for addressing energy problems and global warming. However, the commercial methanol synthesis catalyst offers a poor efficiency in CO2 feedstock because of a low conversion of CO2 and
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Carbon capture and utilization as a raw material for methanol production are options for addressing energy problems and global warming. However, the commercial methanol synthesis catalyst offers a poor efficiency in CO2 feedstock because of a low conversion of CO2 and its deactivation resulting from high water production during the process. To overcome these barriers, an efficient process consisting of three stage heat exchanger reactors was proposed for CO2 hydrogenation. The catalyst volume in the conventional methanol reactor (CR) is divided into three sections to load reactors. The product stream of each reactor is conveyed to a flash drum to remove methanol and water from the unreacted gases (H2, CO and CO2). Then, the gaseous stream enters the top of the next reactor as the inlet feed. This novel configuration increases CO2 conversion almost twice compared to one stage reactor. Also to reduce water production, a water permselective membrane was assisted in each reactor to remove water from the reaction side. The proposed process was compared with one stage reactor and CR from coal and natural gas. Methanol is produced 288, 305, 586 and 569 ton/day in CR, one-stage, three-stage and three-stage membrane reactors (MR), respectively. Although methanol production rate in three-stage MR is a bit lower than three stage reactors, the produced water, as the cause of catalyst poisoning, is notably reduced in this configuration. Results show that the proposed process is a strongly feasible way to produce methanol that can competitive with a traditional synthesis process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Catalytic Deoxygenation of Hexadecyl Palmitate as a Model Compound of Euglena Oil in H2 and N2 Atmospheres
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 333; doi:10.3390/catal7110333
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Hexadecyl palmitate (C15H31COOC16H33, used as a model compound for Euglena oil) was deoxygenated to hydrocarbons over various solid catalysts in autoclave reactors. In a H2 atmosphere, 1 wt.% of Pd/Mg(Al)O catalyst, derived from a
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Hexadecyl palmitate (C15H31COOC16H33, used as a model compound for Euglena oil) was deoxygenated to hydrocarbons over various solid catalysts in autoclave reactors. In a H2 atmosphere, 1 wt.% of Pd/Mg(Al)O catalyst, derived from a hydrotalcite precursor, yielded a C15H31COOC16H33 conversion close to 100%, and a C10‒C16 (aviation fuel range) hydrocarbon yield of 90.2% for the deoxygenation of C15H31COOC16H33 at 300 °C for 2 h. In a N2 atmosphere, 1 wt.% of Pd/Mg(Al)O catalyst yielded a C10‒C16 hydrocarbon yield of 63.5%, which was much higher than those obtained with Mg(Al)O (15.1%), H-ZSM-5 (8.3%), and 1 wt.% Pd/C (26.2%) for the deoxygenation of C15H31COOC16H33 at 300 °C for 2 h. The Pd metal site and the solid base site in Mg(Al)O had a synergetic effect on the deoxygenation of C15H31COOC16H33 in N2 atmosphere over the Pd/Mg(Al)O catalyst. By prolonging the reaction time to 5 h for reaction at 300 °C in N2 atmosphere, the yield of C10‒C16 hydrocarbons increased to 80.4% with a C15H31COOC16H33 conversion of 99.1% over the 1 wt.% Pd/Mg(Al)O catalyst. Full article
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Open AccessArticle First-Row-Transition Ion Metals(II)-EDTA Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Solvent-Free Microwave-Induced Oxidation of Alcohols
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 335; doi:10.3390/catal7110335
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
A series of first-row transition-metals combined with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), as metal-based N,O-chelating ligands, at the surface of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Those EDTA functionalized MNPs with general formula Fe3O4
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A series of first-row transition-metals combined with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), as metal-based N,O-chelating ligands, at the surface of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Those EDTA functionalized MNPs with general formula Fe3O4@EDTA-M2+ [M = Mn2+ (1), Fe2+ (2), Co2+ (3), Ni2+ (4), Cu2+ (5) or Zn2+ (6)] were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy, powder XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometer), VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) and TGA (Thermal Gravity Analysis). The application of the magnetic NPs towards the microwave-assisted oxidation of several alcohol substrates in a solvent-free medium was evaluated. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, time, type of oxidant, and presence of organic radicals was investigated. This study demonstrates that these MNPs can act as efficient catalysts for the conversion of alcohols to the corresponding ketones or aldehydes with high selectivity and yields up to 99% after 2 h of reaction at 110 °C using t-BuOOH as oxidant. Moreover, they have the advantage of being magnetically recoverable catalysts that can be easily recycled in following runs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Visible-Light Photocatalytic E to Z Isomerization of Activated Olefins and Its Application for the Syntheses of Coumarins
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 337; doi:10.3390/catal7110337
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Photocatalytic isomerization of thermodynamically stable E-alkene to less stable Z-alkene has been the subject of numerous studies, being successfully achieved mainly under UV irradiation. Recent development of visible light photoredox catalysis has witnessed it emerging as a powerful tool for the
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Photocatalytic isomerization of thermodynamically stable E-alkene to less stable Z-alkene has been the subject of numerous studies, being successfully achieved mainly under UV irradiation. Recent development of visible light photoredox catalysis has witnessed it emerging as a powerful tool for the access of new structural complexity and many challenging targets. Herein, we report a visible light-promoted E to Z isomerization of cinnamates. When E-isomer of cinnamates was irradiated with blue light in the presence of an organo-photocatalyst, fac-Ir(ppy)3, Z-isomer was exclusively obtained in high yields and with good selectivity. The mild, convenient reaction condition has made this protocol an effective synthetic methodology, which was subsequently implemented in an efficient synthesis of coumarins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Terpyridine-Containing Imine-Rich Graphene for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 338; doi:10.3390/catal7110338
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
We report a facile synthetic method for the preparation of a terpyridine-containing imine-rich graphene (IrGO-Tpy) using an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and 4′-(aminophenyl)-2,2′:6′2″-terpyridine. Owing to the presence of terpyridine ligands, cobalt ions (Co2+) were readily incorporated into the
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We report a facile synthetic method for the preparation of a terpyridine-containing imine-rich graphene (IrGO-Tpy) using an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and 4′-(aminophenyl)-2,2′:6′2″-terpyridine. Owing to the presence of terpyridine ligands, cobalt ions (Co2+) were readily incorporated into the IrGO-Tpy structures, affording a metal complex, denoted IrGo-Tpy-Co. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry measurements confirm the noticeable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of the IrGo-Tpy and IrGo-Tpy-Co electroacatalysts in alkaline electrolytes, along with the additional merits of high selectivity, excellent long-term durability, and good resistance to methanol crossover. In addition, a remarkable improvement in the ORR performance was observed for IrGO-Tpy-Co compared with that of IrGo-Tpy, arising from the significant contribution of the cobalt-terpyridine complex in facilitating the ORR process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Intrinsic Activity of MnOx-CeO2 Catalysts in Ethanol Oxidation
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 339; doi:10.3390/catal7110339
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
MnOx-CeO2 mixed oxides are considered efficient oxidation catalysts superior to the corresponding single oxides. Although these oxides have been the subject of numerous studies, their fundamental performance indicators, such as turnover frequency (TOF) or specific activity, are scarcely reported. The
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MnOx-CeO2 mixed oxides are considered efficient oxidation catalysts superior to the corresponding single oxides. Although these oxides have been the subject of numerous studies, their fundamental performance indicators, such as turnover frequency (TOF) or specific activity, are scarcely reported. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effect of catalyst composition on the concentration of active sites and intrinsic activity in ethanol oxidation by the employment of temperature-programmed desorption and oxidation of isotopically-labelled ethanol, 12CH313CH2OH. The transformation pathways of preadsorbed ethanol in the absence of gaseous oxygen refer to dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde followed by its dissociation combined with oxidation by lattice oxygen. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, lattice oxygen is rapidly restored and the main products are acetaldehyde, CO2, and water. CO2 forms less easily on mixed oxides than on pure MnOx. The TOF of ethanol oxidation has been calculated assuming that the amount of adsorbed ethanol and CO2 produced during temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) is a reliable indicator of the concentration of the active sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceria-based Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle YCl3-Catalyzed Highly Selective Ring Opening of Epoxides by Amines at Room Temperature and under Solvent-Free Conditions
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 340; doi:10.3390/catal7110340
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very
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A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very effective, with several aromatic and aliphatic oxiranes and amines. A mere 1 mol % concentration of YCl3 is enough to deliver β-amino alcohols in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Synthesis of Ultraviolet Absorber 2-Ethylhexyl Salicylate: Experimental Design and Artificial Neural Network Modeling
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 342; doi:10.3390/catal7110342
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, an ultraviolet filter, is widely used to protect skin against sunlight-induced harmful effects in the cosmetic industry. In this study, the green synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate using immobilized lipase through a solvent-free and reduced pressure evaporation system was investigated. A Box–Behnken
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2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, an ultraviolet filter, is widely used to protect skin against sunlight-induced harmful effects in the cosmetic industry. In this study, the green synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate using immobilized lipase through a solvent-free and reduced pressure evaporation system was investigated. A Box–Behnken design was employed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The parameters for an optimal architecture of an ANN were set out: a quick propagation algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent transfer function, 10,000 iterations, and six nodes within the hidden layer. The best-fitting performance of the ANN was determined by the coefficient of determination and the root-mean-square error between the correlation of predicted and experimental data, indicating that the ANN displayed excellent data-fitting properties. Finally, the experimental conditions of synthesis were well established with the optimal parameters to obtain a high conversion of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. In conclusion, this study efficiently replaces the traditional solvents with a green process for the synthesis of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate to avoid environmental contamination, and this process is well-modeled by a methodological ANN for optimization, which might be a benefit for industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocatalysis and Biotransformations)
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Open AccessArticle Fine-Tuning Synthesis and Characterization of Mono-Sized H-Beta Zeolite-Supported Palladium-Iridium Nanoparticles and Application in the Selective Hydrogenation of Acetylene
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 343; doi:10.3390/catal7110343
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
In this research, a mono-sized Beta zeolite support synthesized by the solvothermal method was used in the selective acetylene to ethylene hydrogenation reaction with minimum coke build up on the catalyst surface. Tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH), tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPABr), n-butylamine, and morpholine were
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In this research, a mono-sized Beta zeolite support synthesized by the solvothermal method was used in the selective acetylene to ethylene hydrogenation reaction with minimum coke build up on the catalyst surface. Tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH), tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPABr), n-butylamine, and morpholine were used as structure direct agents (SDA) in the support to obtain various shapes. The characterization results show that although the Si/(Al+SDA) ratio has no effect on the phase purity of support, it has a remarkable effect on porosity, crystal size, shape, and structure of micropores. After comparing characterization results, the developed support, based on TPAOH, was selected and modified by different metals (Ce, Ir, Ag, and Pd) using the incipient wetness co-impregnation method. Since there is an interaction between selectivity and conversion, the optimum metal content in the synthesized catalysts and reaction condition were determined to achieve the desired acetylene conversion and ethylene selectivity. The physicochemical transformation of the developed optimum catalysts was determined using different techniques. Based on the characterization and cata-test results, the catalyst which contains 0.29% Ir and 0.08% Pd presents a better performance and higher stability compared to the other catalysts due to the moderate size and mono layer dispersion of the metals on the support. The experimental results show that acetylene conversion and ethylene selectivity approach 97% and 92% at 55 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zeolites and Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Fe-Doped TiO2 Supported on HY Zeolite for Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Dye Pollutants
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 344; doi:10.3390/catal7110344
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Zeolite-supported TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2/zeolite photocatalysts were synthesized, aiming at improving the adsorption properties of the microporous support towards polluting dyes and the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in the treatment of the adsorbed organics. The TiO2/HY zeolite
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Zeolite-supported TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2/zeolite photocatalysts were synthesized, aiming at improving the adsorption properties of the microporous support towards polluting dyes and the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in the treatment of the adsorbed organics. The TiO2/HY zeolite catalyst exhibited the best performance in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, MB, over 10 wt% TiO2/HY under UV light at 254 nm. The addition of Fe species in the synthesis mixture led to Fe-TiO2/HY catalyst. The combination of adequate zeolite, good titanium dioxide dispersion, and Fe doping led to a remarkable performance in the degradation of the model dye. Over a 10 wt% Fe-doped TiO2/HY catalyst a total removal of MB (>98%) was achieved after 60 min under very mild conditions and simple visible light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Heterogeneous Partial Oxidation Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Degradation of Refractory Organics Using Sulfate Radicals Generated Directly from WO3 Photoelectrode and the Catalytic Reaction of Sulfate
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 346; doi:10.3390/catal7110346
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
An environment-friendly method of efficiently degrading refractory organics using SO4• generated directly from a WO3 photoelectrode and a catalytic reaction of sulfate was proposed, in which the cycling process of SO42− → SO4• →
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An environment-friendly method of efficiently degrading refractory organics using SO4• generated directly from a WO3 photoelectrode and a catalytic reaction of sulfate was proposed, in which the cycling process of SO42− → SO4• → SO42− was achieved in the treatment of organic pollutants without any other activator and without the continuous addition of sulfate. The results show that the removal efficiency for a typical refractory organics of methyl orange (MO) with 5 mg/L was up to 95% within 80 min, and merely 3% by photolysis and 19% by photocatalysis, respectively, under similar conditions. The rate constant for the disposal of MO at pH 2, in which SO4• instead of HO• is the main oxidizer confirmed by radical scavenger experiment, is up to 5.21 × 10−4 s−1, which was ~6.6 times that (7.89 × 10−5 s−1) under neutral condition, in which HO• is the main oxidizer. The concentration of active persulfate (S2O82−, SO52−, and SO4•) species at pH 2 was up to 0.38 mM, which was ~16-fold as much as that (0.023 mM) in neutral conditions. The method provides a new approach for the treatment and resource utilization of sulfate wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrocatalysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid over a Homogeneous Ru-TPPTS Catalyst: Unwanted CO Production and Its Successful Removal by PROX
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 348; doi:10.3390/catal7110348
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Formic acid (FA) is considered as a potential durable energy carrier. It contains ~4.4 wt % of hydrogen (or 53 g/L) which can be catalytically released and converted to electricity using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Although various catalysts have been
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Formic acid (FA) is considered as a potential durable energy carrier. It contains ~4.4 wt % of hydrogen (or 53 g/L) which can be catalytically released and converted to electricity using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Although various catalysts have been reported to be very selective towards FA dehydrogenation (resulting in H2 and CO2), a side-production of CO and H2O (FA dehydration) should also be considered, because most PEM hydrogen fuel cells are poisoned by CO. In this research, a highly active aqueous catalytic system containing Ru(III) chloride and meta-trisulfonated triphenylphosphine (mTPPTS) as a ligand was applied for FA dehydrogenation in a continuous mode. CO concentration (8–70 ppm) in the resulting H2 + CO2 gas stream was measured using a wide range of reactor operating conditions. The CO concentration was found to be independent on the reactor temperature but increased with increasing FA feed. It was concluded that unwanted CO concentration in the H2 + CO2 gas stream was dependent on the current FA concentration in the reactor which was in turn dependent on the reaction design. Next, preferential oxidation (PROX) on a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst was applied to remove CO traces from the H2 + CO2 stream. It was demonstrated that CO concentration in the stream could be reduced to a level tolerable for PEM fuel cells (~3 ppm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homogeneous Catalysis and Mechanisms in Water and Biphasic Media)
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Open AccessArticle Synergistic Enhancement in Catalytic Performance of Superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Bacilus subtilis as Recyclable Fenton-Like Catalyst
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 349; doi:10.3390/catal7110349
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Novel well-defined superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Bacilus subtilis composite (Fe3O4@B. subtilis SPMC) was synthesized through a facile electrostatic attraction method and used as a recyclable heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. With the presence of H2O2
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Novel well-defined superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Bacilus subtilis composite (Fe3O4@B. subtilis SPMC) was synthesized through a facile electrostatic attraction method and used as a recyclable heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. With the presence of H2O2, Fe3O4@B. subtilis SPMC can remove nearly 87% of the doxycycline at the initial concentration of 50 mg L−1, exhibiting enhanced Fenton-like catalytic performance than pristine Fe3O4. The mechanism study demonstrates the synergistic effect between Bacilus subtilis adsorption and Fenton-like ability of Fe3O4 dominates the enhancement for Fenton-like catalytic efficiency of Fe3O4@B. subtilis SPMC. The obtained composite shows excellent recycling ability, reusability, and stability, which pave a new way for future design on highly efficient Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of NixFe1−xOy Electrocatalyst on Hematite as Photoanode for Solar Hydrogen Production
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 350; doi:10.3390/catal7110350
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
The use of hematite as the photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production by solar energy has been actively studied due to its abundance, stability, and adequate optical properties. Deposition of an electrocatalyst overlayer on the hematite may increase kinetics and lower the onset potential
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The use of hematite as the photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production by solar energy has been actively studied due to its abundance, stability, and adequate optical properties. Deposition of an electrocatalyst overlayer on the hematite may increase kinetics and lower the onset potential for water splitting. NixFe1−xOy is one of the most effective electrocatalysts reported for this purpose. However, the condition and results of the previous reports vary significantly, and a comprehensive model for NixFe1−xOy/hematite is lacking. Here, we report a simple and novel chemical bath deposition method for depositing low-onset-potential NixFe1−xOy electrocatalyst on hematite. With a Ni percentage of 80% and an immersion time of 2 min, the as-prepared NixFe1−xOy overlayer raised the photovoltage from 0.2 V to 0.7 V, leading to a cathodic shift of the onset potential by 400 mV, while maintaining the same level of current density. The dependence of the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the photoanode on the condition of the electrocatalyst was studied systematically and explained based on energy level diagrams and kinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Amidoalkyl Naphthols and Benzopyrans Using Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Acidic Ionic Liquid as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Catalyst
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 351; doi:10.3390/catal7110351
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
An efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthol and tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives has been developed through a one-pot three-component condensation of aldehydes with 2-naphthol and amides, or with malononitrile and dimedone in the presence of magnetic nanoparticle supported acidic ionic
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An efficient and eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthol and tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives has been developed through a one-pot three-component condensation of aldehydes with 2-naphthol and amides, or with malononitrile and dimedone in the presence of magnetic nanoparticle supported acidic ionic liquid (AIL@MNP) as a novel heterogeneous catalyst under solvent-free conditions. This new procedure offers several advantages such as short reaction time, excellent yields, operational simplicity and without any tedious work-up for catalyst recovery or product purification. Moreover, the catalyst could be simply separated by an external magnet and reused six times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organocatalysis in Ionic Liquids)
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Open AccessArticle Polyelectrolyte Complex Beads by Novel Two-Step Process for Improved Performance of Viable Whole-Cell Baeyer-Villiger Monoxygenase by Immobilization
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 353; doi:10.3390/catal7110353
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
A novel immobilization matrix for the entrapment of viable whole-cell Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase was developed. Viable recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase were entrapped in polyelectrolyte complex beads prepared by a two-step reaction of oppositely-charged polymers including highly defined cellulose sulphate. Immobilized cells
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A novel immobilization matrix for the entrapment of viable whole-cell Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase was developed. Viable recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase were entrapped in polyelectrolyte complex beads prepared by a two-step reaction of oppositely-charged polymers including highly defined cellulose sulphate. Immobilized cells exhibited higher operational stability than free cells during 10 repeated cycles of Baeyer–Villiger biooxidations of rac-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to the corresponding lactones (1R,5S)-3-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one and (1S,5R)-2-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one. The morphology of polyelectrolyte complex beads was characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy; the spatial distribution of polymers in the beads and cell viability were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the texture was characterised by the mechanical resistance measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immobilized Biocatalysts)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview On the Origin of Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Copper-Modified Titania in the Oxidative Reaction Systems
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 317; doi:10.3390/catal7110317
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Modification of titania with copper is a promising way to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. The enhancement means the significant retardation of charge carriers’ recombination ratio and the introduction of visible light activity. This review focuses on two main ways
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Modification of titania with copper is a promising way to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. The enhancement means the significant retardation of charge carriers’ recombination ratio and the introduction of visible light activity. This review focuses on two main ways of performance enhancement by copper species—i.e., originated from plasmonic properties of zero-valent copper (plasmonic photocatalysis) and heterojunctions between semiconductors (titania and copper oxides). The photocatalytic performance of copper-modified titania is discussed for oxidative reaction systems due to their importance for prospective applications in environmental purification. The review consists of the correlation between copper species and corresponding variants of photocatalytic mechanisms including novel systems of cascade heterojunctions. The problem of stability of copper species on titania, and the methods of its improvement are also discussed as important factors for future applications. As a new trend in the preparation of copper-modified titania photocatalyst, the role of particle morphology (faceted particles, core-shell structures) is also described. Finally, in the conclusion section, perspectives, challenges and recommendations for future research on copper-modified titania are formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Metal-Catalyzed Intra- and Intermolecular Addition of Carboxylic Acids to Alkynes in Aqueous Media: A Review
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 328; doi:10.3390/catal7110328
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The metal-catalyzed addition of carboxylic acids to alkynes is a very effective tool for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized olefinic compounds in an atom-economical manner. Thus, a large variety of synthetically useful lactones and enol-esters can be accessed through the intra- or intermolecular versions
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The metal-catalyzed addition of carboxylic acids to alkynes is a very effective tool for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized olefinic compounds in an atom-economical manner. Thus, a large variety of synthetically useful lactones and enol-esters can be accessed through the intra- or intermolecular versions of this process. In order to reduce the environmental impact of these reactions, considerable efforts have been devoted in recent years to the development of catalytic systems able to operate in aqueous media, which represent a real challenge taking into account the tendency of alkynes to undergo hydration in the presence of transition metals. Despite this, different Pd, Pt, Au, Cu and Ru catalysts capable of promoting the intra- and intermolecular addition of carboxylic acids to alkynes in a selective manner in aqueous environments have appeared in the literature. In this review article, an overview of this chemistry is provided. The synthesis of β-oxo esters by catalytic addition of carboxylic acids to terminal propargylic alcohols in water is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homogeneous Catalysis and Mechanisms in Water and Biphasic Media)
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Open AccessReview Ultrasonic Monitoring of Biocatalysis in Solutions and Complex Dispersions
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 336; doi:10.3390/catal7110336
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
The rapidly growing field of chemical catalysis is dependent on analytical methods for non-destructive real-time monitoring of chemical reactions in complex systems such as emulsions, suspensions and gels, where most analytical techniques are limited in their applicability, especially if the media is opaque,
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The rapidly growing field of chemical catalysis is dependent on analytical methods for non-destructive real-time monitoring of chemical reactions in complex systems such as emulsions, suspensions and gels, where most analytical techniques are limited in their applicability, especially if the media is opaque, or if the reactants/products do not possess optical activity. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy is one of the novel technologies based on measurements of parameters of ultrasonic waves propagating through analyzed samples, which can be utilized for real-time non-invasive monitoring of chemical reactions. It does not require optical transparency, optical markers and is applicable for monitoring of reactions in continuous media and in micro/nano bioreactors (e.g., nanodroplets of microemulsions). The technology enables measurements of concentrations of substrates and products over the whole course of reaction, analysis of time profiles of the degree of polymerization and molar mass of polymers and oligomers, evolutions of reaction rates, evaluation of kinetic mechanisms, measurements of kinetic and equilibrium constants and reaction Gibbs energy. It also provides tools for assessments of various aspects of performance of catalysts/enzymes including inhibition effects, reversible and irreversible thermal deactivation. In addition, ultrasonic scattering effects in dispersions allow real-time monitoring of structural changes in the medium accompanying chemical reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homogeneous Catalysis and Mechanisms in Water and Biphasic Media)
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Open AccessReview Heterogeneous Catalysis on Metal Oxides
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 341; doi:10.3390/catal7110341
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
This review article contains a reminder of the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis and a description of the main domains of heterogeneous catalysis and main families of metal oxide catalysts, which cover acid-base reactions, selective partial oxidation reactions, total oxidation reactions, depollution, biomass conversion,
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This review article contains a reminder of the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis and a description of the main domains of heterogeneous catalysis and main families of metal oxide catalysts, which cover acid-base reactions, selective partial oxidation reactions, total oxidation reactions, depollution, biomass conversion, green chemistry and photocatalysis. Metal oxide catalysts are essential components in most refining and petrochemical processes. These catalysts are also critical to improving environmental quality. This paper attempts to review the major current industrial applications of supported and unsupported metal oxide catalysts. Viewpoints for understanding the catalysts’ action are given, while applications and several case studies from academia and industry are given. Emphases are on catalyst description from synthesis to reaction conditions, on main industrial applications in the different domains and on views for the future, mainly regulated by environmental issues. Following a review of the major types of metal oxide catalysts and the processes that use these catalysts, this paper considers current and prospective major applications, where recent advances in the science of metal oxide catalysts have major economic and environmental impacts. Full article
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Open AccessReview Base Catalysis by Mono- and Polyoxometalates
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 345; doi:10.3390/catal7110345
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
In sharp contrast with acid-, photo-, and oxidation-catalysis by polyoxometalates, base catalysis by polyoxometalates has scarcely been investigated. The use of polyoxometalates as base catalysts have very recently received much attention and has been extensively investigated. Numerous mono- and polyoxometalate base catalyst systems
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In sharp contrast with acid-, photo-, and oxidation-catalysis by polyoxometalates, base catalysis by polyoxometalates has scarcely been investigated. The use of polyoxometalates as base catalysts have very recently received much attention and has been extensively investigated. Numerous mono- and polyoxometalate base catalyst systems effective for the chemical fixation of CO2, cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds, and C–C bond forming reactions have been developed. Mono- and polyoxometalate base catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures: (a) monomeric metalates; (b) isopolyoxometalates; (c) heteropolyoxometalates; and (d) transition-metal-substituted polyoxometalates. This review article focuses on the relationship among the molecular structures, the basic properties, and the unique base catalysis of polyoxometalates on the basis of groups (a)–(d). In addition, reaction mechanisms including the specific activation of substrates and/or reagents such as the abstraction of protons, nucleophilic action toward substrates, and bifunctional action in combination with metal catalysts are comprehensively summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Polyoxometalate-Catalyzed Reactions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview On the Structure of Chiral Dirhodium(II) Carboxylate Catalysts: Stereoselectivity Relevance and Insights
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 347; doi:10.3390/catal7110347
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Modern experiments have offered alternative interpretations on the symmetry of chiral dirhodium(II) carboxylate complexes and its relationship to their level of enantioselectivity. So, this contribution is to provide an insight on how the knowledge around the structure of these catalysts has evolved with
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Modern experiments have offered alternative interpretations on the symmetry of chiral dirhodium(II) carboxylate complexes and its relationship to their level of enantioselectivity. So, this contribution is to provide an insight on how the knowledge around the structure of these catalysts has evolved with a particular emphasis on the impact of this knowledge on enantioselectivity prediction and catalyst design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Catalysis in Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Advances in Base-Free Oxidation of Bio-Based Compounds on Supported Gold Catalysts
Catalysts 2017, 7(11), 352; doi:10.3390/catal7110352
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
The oxidation of bio-based molecules in general, and of carbohydrates and furanics in particular, is a highly attractive process. The catalytic conversion of renewable compounds is of high importance. Acids and other chemical intermediates issued from oxidation processes have many applications related, especially,
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The oxidation of bio-based molecules in general, and of carbohydrates and furanics in particular, is a highly attractive process. The catalytic conversion of renewable compounds is of high importance. Acids and other chemical intermediates issued from oxidation processes have many applications related, especially, to food and detergents, as well as to pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and the chemical industry. Until now, the oxidation of sugars, furfural, or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural has been mainly conducted through biochemical processes or with strong inorganic oxidants. The use of these processes very often presents many disadvantages, especially regarding products separation and selectivity control. Generally, the oxidation is performed in batch conditions using an appropriate catalyst and a basic aqueous solution (pH 7–9), while bubbling oxygen or air through the slurry. However, there is a renewed interest in working in base-free conditions to avoid the production of salts. Actually, this gives direct access to different acids or diacids without laborious product purification steps. This review focuses on processes applying gold-based catalysts, and on the catalytic properties of these systems in the base-free oxidation of important compounds: C5–C6 sugars, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts and of the operating conditions applied in the oxidation reactions is essential. For this reason, in this review we put emphasis on these most impacting factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Sustainable Processes in Biorefineries)
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