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Catalysts, Volume 6, Issue 8 (August 2016)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Zeolite Catalysis
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 118; doi:10.3390/catal6080118
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
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Abstract
The Special Issue “Zeolite Catalysis” published in the online journal Catalysts was recently successfully completed.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zeolite Catalysis) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Promotional Effect of Ce on Iron-Based Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 112; doi:10.3390/catal6080112
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
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Abstract
A series of Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts were prepared via co-precipitation method to investigate the effect of doping Ce into Fe–Ti catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3. The NO conversion over Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts was considerably improved after Ce doping compared
[...] Read more.
A series of Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts were prepared via co-precipitation method to investigate the effect of doping Ce into Fe–Ti catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3. The NO conversion over Fe–Ce–Ti catalysts was considerably improved after Ce doping compared to that of Fe–Ti catalysts. The Fe(0.2)–Ce(0.4)–Ti catalysts exhibited superior catalytic activity to that of Fe(0.2)–Ti catalysts. The obtained catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data showed that the introduction of Ce results in higher surface area and better dispersion of active components on the catalyst surface and enhances the amount of surface acid sites. The interactions between Fe and Ce species were found to improve the redox ability of the catalyst, which promotes catalytic performance at low temperature. The XPS results revealed that Fe3+/Fe2+ and Ce4+/Ce3+ coexisted on the catalyst surface and that Ti was in 4+ oxidation state on catalyst surface. Ce doping increased the atomic ratio of Fe/Ti and Ce/Ti and enhanced the surface adsorbed oxygen species. In addition, Fe(0.2)–Ce(0.4)–Ti catalyst also showed better tolerance to H2O and SO2 and up to 92% NO conversion at 270 °C with 200 ppm SO2 added over 25 h, which suggests that it is a promising industrial catalyst for mid-low temperature NH3–selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Hierarchically Porous Reduced Graphene Oxide/SnIn4S8 Composites by a Low-Temperature Co-Precipitation Strategy and Their Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Mineralization Performance
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 113; doi:10.3390/catal6080113
Received: 11 June 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hierarchically porous reduced graphene oxide/SnIn4S8 (RGO/SnIn4S8) composites with visible-light response and strong mineralization ability were first successfully prepared by a facile low-temperature co-precipitation method, and were characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM),
[...] Read more.
Hierarchically porous reduced graphene oxide/SnIn4S8 (RGO/SnIn4S8) composites with visible-light response and strong mineralization ability were first successfully prepared by a facile low-temperature co-precipitation method, and were characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Raman spectra and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques. RGO/SnIn4S8 composite exhibits strong absorption in UV and visible-light range. The optimized 5% RGO/SnIn4S8 possesses the optimal photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the best mineralization performance with complete degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) within 70 min and 73.17% mineralization yield within 160 min under visible-light irradiation, which is much higher than that of pure SnIn4S8. The main reactive species, which play crucial roles in the degradation and mineralization of RhB, follow the order of h+ > ·O2 > ·OH. The intermediate products of RhB degradation were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and the possible degradation pathways and mechanism were proposed. Moreover, 5% RGO/SnIn4S8 exhibits excellent reusability and stability without an obvious decrease in photocatalytic activity after four consecutive photocatalytic degradation-regeneration experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle A Highly Efficient Dual Rotating Disks Photocatalytic Fuel Cell with Wedged Surface TiO2 Nanopore Anode and Hemoglobin Film Cathode
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 114; doi:10.3390/catal6080114
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 19 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a dual rotating-disk photocatalytic fuel cell using TiO2 on Ti plate with a wedged surface as the anode and hemoglobin (Hb) on graphite as the cathode was investigated and found to show excellent performance of simultaneous organic pollutant degradation
[...] Read more.
In this study, a dual rotating-disk photocatalytic fuel cell using TiO2 on Ti plate with a wedged surface as the anode and hemoglobin (Hb) on graphite as the cathode was investigated and found to show excellent performance of simultaneous organic pollutant degradation and electricity generation. This study is based on a well-developed photocatalytic fuel cell equipped with dual rotating disks for wastewater treatment that we developed previously, and the innovation of this new device is using a hemoglobin on graphite cathode for in situ hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation. The result proved with confidence that H2O2 was generated in situ on a cathode surface with the exited electron transferred from organic oxidation in a photoanodic half cell, and the organic pollutants were removed by the reaction with H2O2 and ·OH in a cathodic half cell. This design uses the invalid excited electron from the photoanode and enhances the overall performance of Rhodamine B degradation compared with the cells using the cathode without Hb. Compared with traditional photocatalytic reactors, the photocatalytic fuel cell developed above shows much better utilization efficiency of incident light and a higher degradation performance of organic pollutants and a larger photocurrent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Covalent Immobilization of Candida rugosa Lipase at Alkaline pH and Their Application in the Regioselective Deprotection of Per-O-acetylated Thymidine
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 115; doi:10.3390/catal6080115
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) was stabilized at alkaline pH to overcome the inactivation problem and was immobilized for the first time by multipoint covalent attachment on different aldehyde-activated matrices. PEG was used as a stabilizing agent on the activity of CRL. At
[...] Read more.
Lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) was stabilized at alkaline pH to overcome the inactivation problem and was immobilized for the first time by multipoint covalent attachment on different aldehyde-activated matrices. PEG was used as a stabilizing agent on the activity of CRL. At these conditions, CRL maintained 50% activity at pH 10 after 17 h incubation in the presence of 40% (w/v) of PEG, whereas the enzyme without additive was instantaneously inactive after incubation at pH 10. Thus, this enzyme was covalently immobilized at alkaline pH on three aldehyde-activated supports: aldehyde-activated Sepharose, aldehyde-activated Lewatit105 and heterofunctional aldehyde-activated EDA-Sepharose in high overall yields. Heterogeneous stable CRL catalysts at high temperature and solvent were obtained. The aldehyde-activated Sepharose-CRL preparation maintained 70% activity at 50 °C or 30% (v/v) acetonitrile after 22 h and exhibited high regioselectivity in the deprotection process of per-O-acetylated thymidine, producing the 3′-OH-5′-OAc-thymidine in 91% yield at pH 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric and Selective Biocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Crystallized C-Doped Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 117; doi:10.3390/catal6080117
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly crystallized C-doped mesoporous anatase TiO2 is prepared using a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mat as both a “rigid” pore template and a carbon doping source. SEM and TEM characterization shows that the MWCNT template imposed a pore structure in reverse of
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Highly crystallized C-doped mesoporous anatase TiO2 is prepared using a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mat as both a “rigid” pore template and a carbon doping source. SEM and TEM characterization shows that the MWCNT template imposed a pore structure in reverse of that of the MWCNT mat. The pore walls are formed by chain-like interconnected TiO2 nanocrystals with an average diameter about 10 nm, and pores are derived from spaces occupied by MWCNTs before removal. XRD characterization shows that TiO2 is crystallized with a pure anatase phase. XPS characterization reveals that the relative carbon content in the TiO2 is related to the duration of TiO2/MWCNT composite annealing before removal of MWCNT template. Three samples prepared contain 2.3%, 2.8% and 3.9% carbon; show a ~30 nm red shift and a plateau of adsorption from 450–800 nm in UV–Vis spectra in comparison to that of P25; and display visible light photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methyl orange (MO) in relationship with the carbon content and crystallinity of the anatase TiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle High Yield Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and Palladium Doped HAP via a Wet Chemical Synthetic Route
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 119; doi:10.3390/catal6080119
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel procedure for the synthesis of both hydroxyapatite (HAP) and palladium doped HAP via a wet chemical precipitation method is described herein. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR)
[...] Read more.
A novel procedure for the synthesis of both hydroxyapatite (HAP) and palladium doped HAP via a wet chemical precipitation method is described herein. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are utilised to characterise the synthesised material’s morphology, structure and crystallinity. The developed synthetic protocol produces high purity HAP with an average yield of 83.7 (±0.10)% and an average particle size of 58.2 (±0.98) nm, such synthesis has been achieved at room temperature and within a time period of less than 24 h. Additionally, in order to enhance the overall conductivity of the material, a range of Pd (2, 4 and 6 wt %) metal doped HAP has been synthesised, characterised and, for the first time, applied towards the competitive electrocatalytic detection of hydrazine, exhibiting a linear range of 50–400 µM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 30 µM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cu+/Cu2+ Ratio on the Catalytic Behavior of Anhydrous Nieuwland Catalyst during Dimerization of Acetylene
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 120; doi:10.3390/catal6080120
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
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Abstract
The relative contents of Cu+ and Cu2+ in solutions of anhydrous Nieuwland catalyst and CuCl2-added anhydrous Nieuwland catalyst were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicated that Cu+ could be transformed into Cu2+ during the process
[...] Read more.
The relative contents of Cu+ and Cu2+ in solutions of anhydrous Nieuwland catalyst and CuCl2-added anhydrous Nieuwland catalyst were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicated that Cu+ could be transformed into Cu2+ during the process of acetylene dimerization into monovinylacetylene, leading to deactivation of the catalyst. Moreover, the addition of Cu2+ inhibited the oxidation of Cu+ into Cu2+ and enhanced the performance and lifetime of the catalyst. The optimum molar ratio of Cu+ to Cu2+ was approximately 2:1; at this ratio, up to 40% acetylene conversion may be achieved. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Au/TiO2-CeO2 Catalysts for Photocatalytic Water Splitting and VOCs Oxidation Reactions
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 121; doi:10.3390/catal6080121
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photocatalytic water splitting for H2 production and photocatalytic oxidation of 2-propanol, an example of volatile organic compounds, were investigated over TiO2 catalysts loaded with gold and/or ceria. In the water splitting reaction the presence of gold only slightly affected the performance
[...] Read more.
Photocatalytic water splitting for H2 production and photocatalytic oxidation of 2-propanol, an example of volatile organic compounds, were investigated over TiO2 catalysts loaded with gold and/or ceria. In the water splitting reaction the presence of gold only slightly affected the performance of TiO2 whereas the presence of CeO2 had a more remarkable positive effect. In the 2-propanol oxidation Au/TiO2 was the most active sample in terms of alcohol conversion whereas Au/TiO2-CeO2 exhibited the highest CO2 yield. On the basis of characterization experiments (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis EDX, surface area measurements, Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) and Raman spectroscopy), it was suggested that the interaction of Au with TiO2 causes an increase in the charge separation between the photo-excited electron/hole pairs, leading to an enhanced photocatalytic activity (to acetone over Au/TiO2 and to CO2 over Au/TiO2-CeO2), whereas the presence of ceria, acting as a hole trap, positively mainly affects the formation of hydrogen by water splitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Gold Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Sulfide Catalysts Supported on Porous Aromatic Frameworks for Naphthalene Hydroprocessing
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 122; doi:10.3390/catal6080122
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the first example of using porous aromatic frameworks as supports for sulfide catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthesis of bimetallic Ni-W and Ni-Mo sulfides was performed by in situ decomposition of [(n-Bu)4N]2[Ni(MeS4
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the first example of using porous aromatic frameworks as supports for sulfide catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthesis of bimetallic Ni-W and Ni-Mo sulfides was performed by in situ decomposition of [(n-Bu)4N]2[Ni(MeS4)2] (Me = W, Mo) complexes, supported on mesoporous aromatic framework with a diamond-like structure. It is shown that the highest naphthalene conversions were achieved in the case of additional sulfidation with sulfur. After the reaction, catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The activity of synthesized catalysts has been studied using naphthalene as a model substrate. The materials used in this study were substantially active in hydrogenation and slightly in hydrocracking of naphthalene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis & Hydrogen Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Specifically Grafting Hematin on MPTS-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Catalyzing the Oxidation of Aniline
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 123; doi:10.3390/catal6080123
Received: 26 June 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
Catalysts supported on nanomaterials have been widely investigated for the treatment of hazardous materials. This work has developed a novel method for grafting hematin on nanomaterials for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline in order to remove aniline from wastewater. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes
[...] Read more.
Catalysts supported on nanomaterials have been widely investigated for the treatment of hazardous materials. This work has developed a novel method for grafting hematin on nanomaterials for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline in order to remove aniline from wastewater. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) were coated with a layer formed through the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS). Hematin was specifically grafted on the MPTS-coated M-MWCNTs through thiol-alkene reaction. Hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs were used to catalyze the oxidation of aniline, and a high efficiency has been obtained. Consecutive use of the conjugate of hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs has been investigated, and the activity has been retained to a significant extent after five reaction/cleaning cycles. The result demonstrates that hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs are efficient for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline. The methodology for the specific grafting of hematin is of general utility, it is an easy-to-operate method and can be extended to other supports. Potentially, hematin-MPTS-based conjugates have a widespread application in catalyzing the removal of aniline from wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface Copper Species on NO + CO Reaction over xCuO-Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 Catalysts: In Situ DRIFTS Studies
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 124; doi:10.3390/catal6080124
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 31 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, the activity of xCuO-Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 catalysts for the reaction of NO + CO was investigated. Especially, in situ DRIFTS was applied to investigate the surface species under the adsorption of NO and/or CO and the
[...] Read more.
In this work, the activity of xCuO-Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 catalysts for the reaction of NO + CO was investigated. Especially, in situ DRIFTS was applied to investigate the surface species under the adsorption of NO and/or CO and the reaction of NO and CO to understand the key intermediates species and reaction process of NO + CO. The results suggest that the copper oxide species are well dispersed on the surface of the catalysts, which can be easily reduced to form Cu+ species. The Cu+ species are proposed to be important activity species. The results of this work also suggest that N2O22− is likely an intermediate species that plays an important role in NO reduction by CO. Thus, more Cu+ and highly dispersed copper oxide species are expected to be beneficial for the reaction of CO + NO over the xCuO-Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Situ and Operando Characterization in Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of the Electrodeposition Time in the Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pt(Cu) and Pt-Ru(Cu) Core-Shell Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolye Fuel Cells
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 125; doi:10.3390/catal6080125
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
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Abstract
Pt(Cu)/C and Pt-Ru(Cu)/C electrocatalysts with core-shell structure supported on Vulcan Carbon XC72R have been synthesized by potentiostatic deposition of Cu nanoparticles on the support, galvanic exchange with Pt and spontaneous deposition of Ru species. The duration of the electrodeposition time of the different
[...] Read more.
Pt(Cu)/C and Pt-Ru(Cu)/C electrocatalysts with core-shell structure supported on Vulcan Carbon XC72R have been synthesized by potentiostatic deposition of Cu nanoparticles on the support, galvanic exchange with Pt and spontaneous deposition of Ru species. The duration of the electrodeposition time of the different species has been modified and the obtained electrocatalysts have been characterized using electrochemical and structural techniques. The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses allowed the determining of the effects of the electrodeposition time on the nanoparticle size and composition. The best conditions identified from Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) corresponded to onset potentials for CO and methanol oxidation on Pt-Ru(Cu)/C of 0.41 and 0.32 V vs. the Reversible Hydrogen Electrode (RHE), respectively, which were smaller by about 0.05 V than those determined for Ru-decorated commercial Pt/C. The CO oxidation peak potentials were about 0.1 V smaller when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C. The positive effect of Cu was related to its electronic effect on the Pt shells and also to the generation of new active sites for CO oxidation. The synthesis conditions to obtain the best performance for CO and methanol oxidation on the core-shell Pt-Ru(Cu)/C electrocatalysts were identified. When compared to previous results in literature for methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation on Pt(Cu)/C catalysts, the present results suggest an additional positive effect of the deposited Ru species due to the introduction of the bifunctional mechanism for CO oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis for Low Temperature Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 2,4-Disubstituted Thiazoles Using Au(I) Catalyzed Oxidation System at Room Temperature
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 126; doi:10.3390/catal6080126
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
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Abstract
In the present work, gold complex catalysts with Mor-DalPhos ligands were successfully prepared using mesylates as counter ions. Seven ammonium sulfonates were synthesized to promote the production of intermediate sulfonyloxymethyl ketone. It was found that low-acidity N,N-dimethylbenzenaminium methanesulfonate showed excellent
[...] Read more.
In the present work, gold complex catalysts with Mor-DalPhos ligands were successfully prepared using mesylates as counter ions. Seven ammonium sulfonates were synthesized to promote the production of intermediate sulfonyloxymethyl ketone. It was found that low-acidity N,N-dimethylbenzenaminium methanesulfonate showed excellent activity in the reaction. Furthermore, the catalysts effectively avoided the loss of activity due to the low acidity. Various thioamides were directly added to the resulting reaction mixture without the separation of intermediate product. Then, twenty kinds of 2,4-disubstituted thiazoles were efficiently synthesized at room temperature with the highest yield of 91%. This work provides an efficiency and mild gold-catalyzed oxidation system for the one-pot synthesis of thiazole and its derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Catalysis for Organic Synthesis)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Chemical Preparation of Supported Bimetallic Catalysts. Gold-Based Bimetallic, a Case Study
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 110; doi:10.3390/catal6080110
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on the chemical methods used to prepare supported bimetallic heterogeneous catalysts, i.e., bimetallic nanoparticles deposited on a support. The review is limited to the preparation of gold-based bimetallic catalysts and moreover to bimetallic nanoparticles supported on powder inorganic supports, i.e.,
[...] Read more.
This review focuses on the chemical methods used to prepare supported bimetallic heterogeneous catalysts, i.e., bimetallic nanoparticles deposited on a support. The review is limited to the preparation of gold-based bimetallic catalysts and moreover to bimetallic nanoparticles supported on powder inorganic supports, i.e., on the surface or in the porosity, and not on model supports such as single crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Synthesis of Supported Bimetallic Catalysts)
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Open AccessReview Nanocarbons with Different Dimensions as Noble-Metal-Free Co-Catalysts for Photocatalysts
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 111; doi:10.3390/catal6080111
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
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Abstract
In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in nanocarbons with different dimensions as noble-metal-free co-catalysts for photocatalysts. We put emphasis on the interface engineering between nanocarbon co-catalysts and various semiconductor photocatalysts and the novel properties generating of nanocarbon co-catalysts, also
[...] Read more.
In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in nanocarbons with different dimensions as noble-metal-free co-catalysts for photocatalysts. We put emphasis on the interface engineering between nanocarbon co-catalysts and various semiconductor photocatalysts and the novel properties generating of nanocarbon co-catalysts, also including the synthesis and application of nanocarbon-based photocatalyst composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Materials for Green Catalysis)
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Open AccessReview Recent Progress on MOF-Derived Nanomaterials as Advanced Electrocatalysts in Fuel Cells
Catalysts 2016, 6(8), 116; doi:10.3390/catal6080116
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (5982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developing a low cost, highly active and durable cathode material is a high-priority research direction toward the commercialization of low-temperature fuel cells. However, the high cost and low stability of useable materials remain a considerable challenge for the widespread adoption of fuel cell
[...] Read more.
Developing a low cost, highly active and durable cathode material is a high-priority research direction toward the commercialization of low-temperature fuel cells. However, the high cost and low stability of useable materials remain a considerable challenge for the widespread adoption of fuel cell energy conversion devices. The electrochemical performance of fuel cells is still largely hindered by the high loading of noble metal catalyst (Pt/Pt alloy) at the cathode, which is necessary to facilitate the inherently sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Under these circumstances, the exploration of alternatives to replace expensive Pt-alloy for constructing highly efficient non-noble metal catalysts has been studied intensively and received great interest. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) a novel type of porous crystalline materials, have revealed potential application in the field of clean energy and demonstrated a number of advantages owing to their accessible high surface area, permanent porosity, and abundant metal/organic species. Recently, newly emerging MOFs materials have been used as templates and/or precursors to fabricate porous carbon and related functional nanomaterials, which exhibit excellent catalytic activities toward ORR or oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this review, recent advances in the use of MOF-derived functional nanomaterials as efficient electrocatalysts in fuel cells are summarized. Particularly, we focus on the rational design and synthesis of highly active and stable porous carbon-based electrocatalysts with various nanostructures by using the advantages of MOFs precursors. Finally, further understanding and development, future trends, and prospects of advanced MOF-derived nanomaterials for more promising applications of clean energy are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Materials for Green Catalysis)
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