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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 1 (January 2012), Pages 1-67

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Combined Fruit and Vegetable Intake Is Correlated with Improved Inflammatory and Oxidant Status from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Community Setting
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 29-41; doi:10.3390/nu4010029
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 30 December 2011 / Accepted: 31 December 2011 / Published: 4 January 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have examined the relationship between specific nutrient and food intakes with limited markers of either inflammation or oxidant status. The objective of this study was to determine if an increase in combined self-reported fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a community setting was associated with improved multiple markers of inflammatory and oxidant status. A community group (N = 1000, age 18–85 years, 61% female) gave two fasted blood samples separated by 12 weeks. Blood inflammatory biomarkers included total leukocytes (WBC), plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Measured oxidant status markers were ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and plasma F2-isoprostanes. The relation of markers across categories of F&V intake was examined. In analyses controlling for other important dietary and lifestyle factors, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower across categories of increasing F&V intakes (p < 0.008). FRAP and ORAC were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.047 respectively) while F2-isoprostanes was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) across F&V categories. In a community study, several markers of both inflammation and oxidant status were associated in a putatively salutary direction by higher intake of combined F&V, supporting current guidelines suggesting increased F&V consumption for the prevention of chronic diseases. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/nu4010001
Received: 27 October 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 1 December 2011 / Published: 22 December 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift [...] Read more.
Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Figures

Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Allergic Disease: Sunlight at the End of the Tunnel?
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 13-28; doi:10.3390/nu4010013
Received: 11 November 2011 / Revised: 2 December 2011 / Accepted: 20 December 2011 / Published: 28 December 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A role for vitamin D in the regulation of immune function was first proposed after the identification of Vitamin D Receptors in lymphocytes. It has since been recognized that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2D3, has direct affects on naïve and [...] Read more.
A role for vitamin D in the regulation of immune function was first proposed after the identification of Vitamin D Receptors in lymphocytes. It has since been recognized that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2D3, has direct affects on naïve and activated helper T cells, regulatory T cells, activated B cells and dendritic cells. There is a growing body of literature linking vitamin D (serum 25(OH)D, oral intake and surrogate indicators such as latitude) to various immune-related conditions, including allergy, although the nature of this relationship is still unclear. This review explores the findings of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory research, and the potential role of vitamin D in promoting the inappropriate immune responses which underpin the rise in a broad range of immune diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Immunology)
Open AccessReview Theobald Palm and His Remarkable Observation: How the Sunshine Vitamin Came to Be Recognized
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 42-51; doi:10.3390/nu4010042
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 17 January 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The seminal discovery that sunlight was important in the prevention of nutritional rickets was made in 1890 by Theobald A. Palm, a medical missionary who contrasted the prevalence of rickets in northern European urban areas with similar areas in Japan and other [...] Read more.
The seminal discovery that sunlight was important in the prevention of nutritional rickets was made in 1890 by Theobald A. Palm, a medical missionary who contrasted the prevalence of rickets in northern European urban areas with similar areas in Japan and other tropical countries. He surmised that exposure to sunlight prevented rickets. Over the next 40 years his observation led to an understanding of ultraviolet irradiation and its role in vitamin D synthesis. This opened a new era of appreciation for the curative powers of the sun and “the sunshine vitamin”. While Palm’s observations were in some ways obscure, they had a potent effect on the development of photobiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview Focus on Vitamin D, Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2012, 4(1), 52-67; doi:10.3390/nu4010052
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initial observations linking vitamin D to type 2 diabetes in humans came from studies showing that both healthy and diabetic subjects had a seasonal variation of glycemic control. Currently, there is evidence supporting that vitamin D status is important to regulate [...] Read more.
The initial observations linking vitamin D to type 2 diabetes in humans came from studies showing that both healthy and diabetic subjects had a seasonal variation of glycemic control. Currently, there is evidence supporting that vitamin D status is important to regulate some pathways related to type 2 diabetes development. Since the activation of inflammatory pathways interferes with normal metabolism and disrupts proper insulin signaling, it is hypothesized that vitamin D could influence glucose homeostasis by modulating inflammatory response. Human studies investigating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers of subjects with or at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes are scarce and have generated conflicting results. Based on available clinical and epidemiological data, the positive effects of vitamin D seem to be primarily related to its action on insulin secretion and sensitivity and secondary to its action on inflammation. Future studies specifically designed to investigate the role of vitamin D on type 2 diabetes using inflammation as the main outcome are urgently needed in order to provide a more robust link between vitamin D, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)

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