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Remote Sens., Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 7857-9144

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Open AccessArticle MIMIC: An Innovative Methodology for Determining Mobile Laser Scanning System Point Density
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7857-7877; doi:10.3390/rs6097857
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS) laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that
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Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS) laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that can be recognised using automated algorithms generally require a minimum point density. Although obtaining the necessary point density impacts on hardware costs, survey time and data storage requirements, a method for accurately and rapidly assessing MMS performance is lacking for generic MMSs. We have developed a method for quantifying point clouds collected by an MMS with respect to known objects at specified distances using 3D surface normals, 2D geometric formulae and line drawing algorithms. These algorithms were combined in a system called the Mobile Mapping Point Density Calculator (MIMIC) and were validated using point clouds captured by both a single scanner and a dual scanner MMS. Results from MIMIC were promising: when considering the number of scan profiles striking the target, the average error equated to less than 1 point per scan profile. These tests highlight that MIMIC is capable of accurately calculating point density for both single and dual scanner MMSs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining ALOS PALSAR and WorldView-2 Data: A Case Study at Purple Mountain National Park, Nanjing, China
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7878-7910; doi:10.3390/rs6097878
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 9 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enhanced methods are required for mapping the forest aboveground biomass (AGB) over a large area in Chinese forests. This study attempted to develop an improved approach to retrieving biomass by combining PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and WorldView-2 data. A
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Enhanced methods are required for mapping the forest aboveground biomass (AGB) over a large area in Chinese forests. This study attempted to develop an improved approach to retrieving biomass by combining PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and WorldView-2 data. A total of 33 variables with potential correlations with forest biomass were extracted from the above data. However, these parameters had poor fits to the observed biomass. Accordingly, the synergies of several variables were explored to identify improved relationships with the AGB. Using principal component analysis and multivariate linear regression (MLR), the accuracies of the biomass estimates obtained using PALSAR and WorldView-2 data were improved to approximately 65% to 71%. In addition, using the additional dataset developed from the fusion of FBD (fine beam dual-polarization) and WorldView-2 data improved the performance to 79% with an RMSE (root mean square error) of 35.13 Mg/ha when using the MLR method. Moreover, a further improvement (R2 = 0.89, relative RMSE = 17.08%) was obtained by combining all the variables mentioned above. For the purpose of comparison with MLR, a neural network approach was also used to estimate the biomass. However, this approach did not produce significant improvements in the AGB estimates. Consequently, the final MLR model was recommended to map the AGB of the study area. Finally, analyses of estimated error in distinguishing forest types and vertical structures suggested that the RMSE decreases gradually from broad-leaved to coniferous to mixed forest. In terms of different vertical structures (VS), VS3 has a high error because the forest lacks undergrowth trees, while VS4 forest, which has approximately the same amounts of stems in each of the three DBH (diameter at breast height) classes (DBH > 20, 10 ≤ DBH ≤ 20, and DBH < 10 cm), has the lowest RMSE. This study demonstrates that the combination of PALSAR and WorldView-2 data is a promising approach to improve biomass estimation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Object-Based Hierarchical Method for Change Detection Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7911-7932; doi:10.3390/rs6097911
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (5751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There have been increasing demands for automatically monitoring urban areas in very high detail, and the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with auto-navigation (AUNA) system offers such capability. This study proposes an object-based hierarchical method to detect changes from UAV images taken at different
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There have been increasing demands for automatically monitoring urban areas in very high detail, and the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with auto-navigation (AUNA) system offers such capability. This study proposes an object-based hierarchical method to detect changes from UAV images taken at different times. It consists of several steps. In the first step, an octocopter with AUNA capability is used to acquire images at different dates. These images are registered automatically, based on SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) feature points, via the general bundle adjustment framework. Thus, the Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthophotos can be generated for raster-based change analysis. In the next step, a multi-primitive segmentation method combining the spectral and geometric information is proposed for object-based analysis. In the final step, a multi-criteria decision analysis is carried out concerning the height, spectral and geometric coherence, and shape regularity for change determination. Experiments based on UAV images with five-centimeter ground resolution demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, leading to the conclusion that this method is practically applicable for frequent monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle L- and X-Band Multi-Temporal InSAR Analysis of Tianjin Subsidence
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7933-7951; doi:10.3390/rs6097933
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 28 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (12752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology is applied in the monitoring of land subsidence, the sensor band plays an important role. An X-band SAR system as TerraSAR-X (TSX) provides high resolution and short revisit time, but it has no capability of global
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When synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technology is applied in the monitoring of land subsidence, the sensor band plays an important role. An X-band SAR system as TerraSAR-X (TSX) provides high resolution and short revisit time, but it has no capability of global coverage. On the other side, an L-band sensor as Advanced Land Observing Satellite-Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS-PALSAR) has global coverage and it produces highly coherent interferograms, but it provides much less details in time and space. The characteristics of these two satellites from different bands can be regarded as complementary. In this paper, we firstly present a possible strategy for X-band optimized acquisition planning combining with L-band. More importantly, we also present the multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) analysis results from 23 ALOS-PALSAR images and 37 TSX data, which show the complementarity of L- and X-band allows measuring deformations both in urban and non-urban areas. Furthermore, the validation between MT-INSAR and leveling/GPS has been carried out. The combination analysis of L- and X-band MT-InSAR results effectively avoids the limitation of X-band, providing a way to define the shape and the borderline of subsiding center and helps us to understand the subsidence mechanism. Finally, the geological interpretation of the detected subsidence center is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Dedicated to Geographical Conditions Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Continuity of Reflectance Data between Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI, for Both Top-of-Atmosphere and Surface Reflectance: A Study in the Australian Landscape
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7952-7970; doi:10.3390/rs6097952
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The new Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is intended to be broadly compatible with the previous Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The spectral response of the OLI is slightly different to the ETM+, and so there may be slight differences in the
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The new Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is intended to be broadly compatible with the previous Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The spectral response of the OLI is slightly different to the ETM+, and so there may be slight differences in the reflectance measurements. Since the differences are a function not just of spectral responses, but also of the target pixels, there is a need to assess these differences in practice, using imagery from the area of interest. This paper presents a large scale study of the differences between ETM+ and OLI in the Australian landscape. The analysis is carried out in terms of both top-of-atmosphere and surface reflectance, and also in terms of biophysical parameters modelled from those respective reflectance spectra. The results show small differences between the sensors, which can be magnified by modelling to a biophysical parameter. It is also shown that a part of this difference appears to be systematic, and can be reliably removed by regression equations to predict ETM+ reflectance from OLI reflectance, before applying biophysical models. This is important when models have been fitted to historical field data coincident with ETM+ imagery. However, there will remain a small per-pixel difference which could be an unwanted source of variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landsat-8 Sensor Characterization and Calibration)
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Open AccessArticle DEM-Based Analysis of Interactions between Tectonics and Landscapes in the Ore Mountains and Eger Rift (East Germany and NW Czech Republic)
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 7971-8001; doi:10.3390/rs6097971
Received: 26 April 2014 / Revised: 9 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (20458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tectonics modify the base-level of rivers and result in the progressive erosion of landscapes. We propose here a new method to classify landscapes according to their erosional stages. This method is based on the combination of two DEM-based geomorphic indices: the hypsometric integral,
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Tectonics modify the base-level of rivers and result in the progressive erosion of landscapes. We propose here a new method to classify landscapes according to their erosional stages. This method is based on the combination of two DEM-based geomorphic indices: the hypsometric integral, which highlights elevated surfaces, and surface roughness, which increases with the topographic elevation and the incision by the drainage network. The combination of these two indices allows one to produce a map of erosional discontinuities that can be easily compared with the known structural framework. In addition, this method can be easily implemented (e.g., in MATLAB) and provides a quick way to analyze regional-scale landscapes. We propose here an example of a region where this approach becomes extremely valuable: the Ore Mountains and adjacent regions. The lack of young stratigraphic markers prevents a detailed analysis of recent fault activity. However, discontinuities in mapped geomorphic indices coupled to the analysis of river longitudinal profiles suggest a tight relationship between erosional discontinuities and main tectonic lineaments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Geomorphology)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8002-8025; doi:10.3390/rs6098002
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (14703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) was applied to MODIS surface
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The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automated Spatiotemporal Landslide Mapping over Large Areas Using RapidEye Time Series Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8026-8055; doi:10.3390/rs6098026
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (17667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
In the past, different approaches for automated landslide identification based on multispectral satellite remote sensing were developed to focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of landslide occurrences related to distinct triggering events. However, many regions, including southern Kyrgyzstan, experience ongoing process
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In the past, different approaches for automated landslide identification based on multispectral satellite remote sensing were developed to focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of landslide occurrences related to distinct triggering events. However, many regions, including southern Kyrgyzstan, experience ongoing process activity requiring continual multi-temporal analysis. For this purpose, an automated object-oriented landslide mapping approach has been developed based on RapidEye time series data complemented by relief information. The approach builds on analyzing temporal NDVI-trajectories for the separation between landslide-related surface changes and other land cover changes. To accommodate the variety of landslide phenomena occurring in the 7500 km2 study area, a combination of pixel-based multiple thresholds and object-oriented analysis has been implemented including the discrimination of uncertainty-related landslide likelihood classes. Applying the approach to the whole study area for the time period between 2009 and 2013 has resulted in the multi-temporal identification of 471 landslide objects. A quantitative accuracy assessment for two independent validation sites has revealed overall high mapping accuracy (Quality Percentage: 80%), proving the suitability of the developed approach for efficient spatiotemporal landslide mapping over large areas, representing an important prerequisite for objective landslide hazard and risk assessment at the regional scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Categorizing Grassland Vegetation with Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning: A Feasibility Study for Detecting Natura 2000 Habitat Types
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8056-8087; doi:10.3390/rs6098056
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (26835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is increasing demand for reliable, high-resolution vegetation maps covering large areas. Airborne laser scanning data is available for large areas with high resolution and supports automatic processing, therefore, it is well suited for habitat mapping. Lowland hay meadows are widespread habitat types
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There is increasing demand for reliable, high-resolution vegetation maps covering large areas. Airborne laser scanning data is available for large areas with high resolution and supports automatic processing, therefore, it is well suited for habitat mapping. Lowland hay meadows are widespread habitat types in European grasslands, and also have one of the highest species richness. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of airborne laser scanning for vegetation mapping of different grasslands, including the Natura 2000 habitat type lowland hay meadows. Full waveform leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds were collected from a Natura 2000 site in Sopron, Hungary, covering several grasslands. The LIDAR data were processed to a set of rasters representing point attributes including reflectance, echo width, vegetation height, canopy openness, and surface roughness measures, and these were fused to a multi-band pseudo-image. Random forest machine learning was used for classifying this dataset. Habitat type, dominant plant species and other features of interest were noted in a set of 140 field plots. Two sets of categories were used: five classes focusing on meadow identification and the location of lowland hay meadows, and 10 classes, including eight different grassland vegetation categories. For five classes, an overall accuracy of 75% was reached, for 10 classes, this was 68%. The method delivers unprecedented fine resolution vegetation maps for management and ecological research. We conclude that high-resolution full-waveform LIDAR data can be used to detect grassland vegetation classes relevant for Natura 2000. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and GIS for Habitat Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8088-8106; doi:10.3390/rs6098088
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most
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The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites) to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal). This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001) with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow). However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Building Roof Modeling by Optimizing Primitive’s Parameters Using Constraints from LiDAR Data and Aerial Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8107-8133; doi:10.3390/rs6098107
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a primitive-based 3D building roof modeling method, by integrating LiDAR data and aerial imagery, is proposed. The novelty of the proposed modeling method is to represent building roofs by geometric primitives and to construct a cost function by using constraints
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In this paper, a primitive-based 3D building roof modeling method, by integrating LiDAR data and aerial imagery, is proposed. The novelty of the proposed modeling method is to represent building roofs by geometric primitives and to construct a cost function by using constraints from both LiDAR data and aerial imagery simultaneously, so that the accuracy potential of the different sensors can be tightly integrated for the building model generation by an integrated primitive’s parameter optimization procedure. To verify the proposed modeling method, both simulated data and real data with simple buildings provided by ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), were used in this study. The experimental results were evaluated by the ISPRS, which demonstrate the proposed modeling method can integrate LiDAR data and aerial imagery to generate 3D building models with high accuracy in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The experimental results also show that by adding a component, such as a dormer, to the primitive, a variant of the simple primitive is constructed, and the proposed method can generate a building model with some details. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Changes of Desertified and Managed Shrubland Landscapes in Response to Drought: Spectral, Spatial and Temporal Analyses
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8134-8164; doi:10.3390/rs6098134
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 28 July 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drought events cause changes in ecosystem function and structure by reducing the shrub abundance and expanding the biological soil crusts (biocrusts). This change increases the leakage of nutrient resources and water into the river streams in semi-arid areas. A common management solution for
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Drought events cause changes in ecosystem function and structure by reducing the shrub abundance and expanding the biological soil crusts (biocrusts). This change increases the leakage of nutrient resources and water into the river streams in semi-arid areas. A common management solution for decreasing this loss of resources is to create a runoff-harvesting system (RHS). The objective of the current research is to apply geo-information techniques, including remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS), on the watershed scale, to monitor and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in response to drought of two source-sink systems, the natural shrubland and the human-made RHSs in the semi-arid area of the northern Negev Desert, Israel. This was done by evaluating the changes in soil, vegetation and landscape cover. The spatial changes were evaluated by three spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Crust Index (CI) and landscape classification change between 2003 and 2010. In addition, we examined the effects of environmental factors on NDVI, CI and their clustering after successive drought years. The results show that vegetation cover indicates a negative ∆NDVI change due to a reduction in the abundance of woody vegetation. On the other hand, the soil cover change data indicate a positive ∆CI change due to the expansion of the biocrusts. These two trends are evidence for degradation processes in terms of resource conservation and bio-production. A considerable part of the changed area (39%) represents transitions between redistribution processes of resources, such as water, sediments, nutrients and seeds, on the watershed scale. In the pre-drought period, resource redistribution mainly occurred on the slope scale, while in the post-drought period, resource redistribution occurred on the whole watershed scale. However, the RHS management is effective in reducing leakage, since these systems are located on the slopes where the magnitude of runoff pulses is low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land Degradation in Drylands)
Open AccessArticle A New Database of Global and Direct Solar Radiation Using the Eastern Meteosat Satellite, Models and Validation
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8165-8189; doi:10.3390/rs6098165
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (4135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a new database of solar radiation at ground level for Eastern Europe and Africa, the Middle East and Asia, estimated using satellite images from the Meteosat East geostationary satellites. The method presented calculates global horizontal (G) and direct normal irradiance (DNI)
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We present a new database of solar radiation at ground level for Eastern Europe and Africa, the Middle East and Asia, estimated using satellite images from the Meteosat East geostationary satellites. The method presented calculates global horizontal (G) and direct normal irradiance (DNI) at hourly intervals, using the full Meteosat archive from 1998 to present. Validation of the estimated global horizontal and direct normal irradiance values has been performed by comparison with high-quality ground station measurements. Due to the low number of ground measurements in the viewing area of the Meteosat Eastern satellites, the validation of the calculation method has been extended by a comparison of the estimated values derived from the same class of satellites but positioned at 0°E, where more ground stations are available. Results show a low overall mean bias deviation (MBD) of +1.63 Wm−2 or +0.73% for global horizontal irradiance. The mean absolute bias of the individual station MBD is 2.36%, while the root mean square deviation of the individual MBD values is 3.18%. For direct normal irradiance the corresponding values are overall MBD of +0.61 Wm−2 or +0.62%, while the mean absolute bias of the individual station MBD is 5.03% and the root mean square deviation of the individual MBD values is 6.30%. The resulting database of hourly solar radiation values will be made freely available. These data will also be integrated into the PVGIS web application to allow users to estimate the energy output of photovoltaic (PV) systems not only in Europe and Africa, but now also in Asia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Global Soil Moisture Product from Finer Spatial Resolution SAR Data and Ground Measurements at Irish Sites
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8190-8219; doi:10.3390/rs6098190
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 28 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (5926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, a global, almost daily, soil moisture (SM) product is being developed from passive and active satellite microwave sensors, at a coarse spatial resolution. This study contributes to its validation by using finer spatial
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In the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, a global, almost daily, soil moisture (SM) product is being developed from passive and active satellite microwave sensors, at a coarse spatial resolution. This study contributes to its validation by using finer spatial resolution ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three sites in Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. This is the first time a comparison has been carried out between three sets of independent observations from different sensors at very different spatial resolutions for such a long time series. Furthermore, the SM spatial distribution has been investigated at the ASAR scale within each Essential Climate Variable (ECV) pixel, without adopting any particular model or using a densely distributed network of in situ stations. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values in temperate grasslands. Temporal and spatial variability analysis provided high levels of correlation (p < 0.025) and low errors between the three datasets, leading to confidence in the new ECV SM global product, despite limitations in its ability to track the driest and wettest conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Complex Masonry Structures with GPR Compared to Other Non-Destructive Testing Studies
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8220-8237; doi:10.3390/rs6098220
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Columns are one of the most usual supporting structures in a large number of cultural heritage buildings. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate information about their inner structure. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methodologies are usually applied, but results depend on the complexity of
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Columns are one of the most usual supporting structures in a large number of cultural heritage buildings. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate information about their inner structure. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methodologies are usually applied, but results depend on the complexity of the column. Non-flat external surfaces and unknown and irregular internal materials complicate the interpretation of data. This work presents the study of one column by using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) combined with seismic tomography, under laboratory conditions, in order to obtain the maximum information about the structure. This column belongs to a “Modernista” building from Barcelona (Spain). These columns are built with irregular and fragmented clay bricks and mortar. The internal irregular and complex structure causes complicated 2D images, evidencing the existence of many different targets. However, 3D images provide valuable information about the presence and the state of an internal tube and show, in addition, that the column is made of uneven and broken bricks. GPR images present high correlation with seismic data and endoscopy observation carried out in situ. In conclusion, the final result of the study provides information and 3D images of damaged areas and inner structures. Comparing the different methods to the real structure of the column, the potential and limitations of GPR were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Close-Range Remote Sensing by Ground Penetrating Radar)
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Open AccessArticle Noise Reduction and Gap Filling of fAPAR Time Series Using an Adapted Local Regression Filter
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8238-8260; doi:10.3390/rs6098238
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Time series of remotely sensed data are an important source of information for understanding land cover dynamics. In particular, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fAPAR) is a key variable in the assessment of vegetation primary production over time. However, the fAPAR
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Time series of remotely sensed data are an important source of information for understanding land cover dynamics. In particular, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fAPAR) is a key variable in the assessment of vegetation primary production over time. However, the fAPAR series derived from polar orbit satellites are not continuous and consistent in space and time. Filtering methods are thus required to fill in gaps and produce high-quality time series. This study proposes an adapted (iteratively reweighted) local regression filter (LOESS) and performs a benchmarking intercomparison with four popular and generally applicable smoothing methods: Double Logistic (DLOG), smoothing spline (SSP), Interpolation for Data Reconstruction (IDR) and adaptive Savitzky-Golay (ASG). This paper evaluates the main advantages and drawbacks of the considered techniques. The results have shown that ASG and the adapted LOESS perform better in recovering fAPAR time series over multiple controlled noisy scenarios. Both methods can robustly reconstruct the fAPAR trajectories, reducing the noise up to 80% in the worst simulation scenario, which might be attributed to the quality control (QC) MODIS information incorporated into these filtering algorithms, their flexibility and adaptation to the upper envelope. The adapted LOESS is particularly resistant to outliers. This method clearly outperforms the other considered methods to deal with the high presence of gaps and noise in satellite data records. The low RMSE and biases obtained with the LOESS method (|rMBE| < 8%; rRMSE < 20%) reveals an optimal reconstruction even in most extreme situations with long seasonal gaps. An example of application of the LOESS method to fill in invalid values in real MODIS images presenting persistent cloud and snow coverage is also shown. The LOESS approach is recommended in most remote sensing applications, such as gap-filling, cloud-replacement, and observing temporal dynamics in situ where rapid seasonal changes are produced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8261-8286; doi:10.3390/rs6098261
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
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Abstract
The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus) reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana
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The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus) reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1) detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2) produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3) evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles) from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146) was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA))
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Gully-Affected Areas by Applying Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in the Region of Taroudannt, Morocco
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8287-8309; doi:10.3390/rs6098287
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims at the detection of gully-affected areas by applying object-based image analysis in the region of Taroudannt, Morocco, which is highly affected by gully erosion while simultaneously  representing a major region of agro-industry with a high demand of arable land. As
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This study aims at the detection of gully-affected areas by applying object-based image analysis in the region of Taroudannt, Morocco, which is highly affected by gully erosion while simultaneously  representing a major region of agro-industry with a high demand of arable land. As high-resolution optical satellite data are readily available from various sensors and with a much better temporal resolution than 3D terrain data, an area-wide mapping approach to extract gully-affected areas using only optical satellite imagery was developed. The methodology additionally incorporates expert knowledge and freely-available vector data in a cyclic object-based image analysis approach. This connects the two fields of geomorphology and remote sensing. The classification results show the successful implementation of the developed approach and allow conclusions on the current distribution of gullies. The results of the classification were checked against manually delineated reference data incorporating expert knowledge based on several field campaigns in the area, resulting in an overall classification accuracy of 62%. The error of omission accounts for 38% and the error of commission for 16%, respectively. Additionally, a manual assessment was carried out to assess the quality of the applied classification algorithm. The limited error of omission contributes with 23% to the overall error of omission and the limited error of commission contributes with 98% to the overall error of commission. This assessment improves the results and confirms the high quality of the developed approach for area-wide mapping of gully-affected areas in larger regions. In the field of landform mapping, the overall quality of the classification results is often assessed with more than one method to incorporate all aspects adequately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Geomorphology)
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Open AccessArticle Building Change Detection from Historical Aerial Photographs Using Dense Image Matching and Object-Based Image Analysis
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8310-8336; doi:10.3390/rs6098310
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (27439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A successful application of dense image matching algorithms to historical aerial photographs would offer a great potential for detailed reconstructions of historical landscapes in three dimensions, allowing for the efficient monitoring of various landscape changes over the last 50+ years. In this paper
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A successful application of dense image matching algorithms to historical aerial photographs would offer a great potential for detailed reconstructions of historical landscapes in three dimensions, allowing for the efficient monitoring of various landscape changes over the last 50+ years. In this paper we propose the combination of image-based dense DSM (digital surface model) reconstruction from historical aerial imagery with object-based image analysis for the detection of individual buildings and the subsequent analysis of settlement change. Our proposed methodology is evaluated using historical greyscale and color aerial photographs and numerous reference data sets of Andermatt, a historical town and tourism destination in the Swiss Alps. In our paper, we first investigate the DSM generation performance of different sparse and dense image matching algorithms. They demonstrate the superiority of dense matching algorithms and of the resulting historical DSMs with root mean square error values of 1–1.5 GSD (ground sampling distance) and yield point densities comparable to those of recent airborne LiDAR DSMs. In the second part, we present an object-based building detection workflow mainly based on the historical DSMs and the historical imagery itself. Additional inputs are a current digital terrain model and a cadastral building database. For the case of densely matched DSMs, the evaluation yields building detection rates of 92% for grayscale and 94% for color imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA))
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Open AccessArticle NDVI-Based Long-Term Vegetation Dynamics and Its Response to Climatic Change in the Mongolian Plateau
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8337-8358; doi:10.3390/rs6098337
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 3 September 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (26418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The response of vegetation to regional climate change was quantified between 1982 and 2010 in the Mongolian plateau by integrating the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (1982–2006) and the Moderate
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The response of vegetation to regional climate change was quantified between 1982 and 2010 in the Mongolian plateau by integrating the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (1982–2006) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI (2000–2010). Average NDVI values for the growing season (April–October) were extracted from the AVHRR and MODIS NDVI datasets after cross-calibrating and consistency checking the dataset, based on the overlapping period of 2000–2006. Correlations between NDVI and climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) were analyzed to understand the impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics in the plateau. The results indicate that the growing-season NDVI generally exhibited an upward trend with both temperature and precipitation before the mid- or late 1990s. However, a downward trend in the NDVI with significantly decreased precipitation has been observed since the mid- or late 1990s. This is an apparent reversal in the NDVI trend from 1982 to 2010. Pixel-based analysis further indicated that the timing of the NDVI trend reversal varied across different regions and for different vegetation types. We found that approximately 66% of the plateau showed an increasing trend before the reversal year, whereas 60% showed a decreasing trend afterwards. The vegetation decline in the last decade is mostly attributable to the recent tendency towards a hotter and drier climate and the associated widespread drought stress. Monitoring precipitation stress and associated vegetation dynamics will be important for raising the alarm and performing risk assessments for drought disasters and other related natural disasters like sandstorms. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Dual-Source Model of Estimating Evapotranspiration over Different Ecosystems and Implications for Satellite-Based Approaches
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8359-8386; doi:10.3390/rs6098359
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its components is critical to developing a better understanding of climate, hydrology, and vegetation coverage conditions for areas of interest. A hybrid dual-source (H-D) model incorporating the strengths of the two-layer and two-patch schemes was proposed to
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Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its components is critical to developing a better understanding of climate, hydrology, and vegetation coverage conditions for areas of interest. A hybrid dual-source (H-D) model incorporating the strengths of the two-layer and two-patch schemes was proposed to estimate actual ET processes by considering varying vegetation coverage patterns and soil moisture conditions. The proposed model was tested in four different ecosystems, including deciduous broadleaf forest, woody savannas, grassland, and cropland. Performance of the H-D model was compared with that of the Penman-Monteith (P-M) model, the Shuttleworth-Wallace (S-W) model, as well as the Two-Patch (T-P) model, with ET and/or its components (i.e., transpiration and evaporation) being evaluated against eddy covariance measurements. Overall, ET estimates from the developed H-D model agreed reasonably well with the ground-based measurements at all sites, with mean absolute errors ranging from 16.3 W/m2 to 38.6 W/m2, indicating good performance of the H-D model in all ecosystems being tested. In addition, the H-D model provides a more reasonable partitioning of evaporation and transpiration than other models in the ecosystems tested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Retrievals of All-Weather Daily Air Temperature Using MODIS and AMSR-E Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8387-8404; doi:10.3390/rs6098387
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (5058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite optical-infrared remote sensing from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides effective air temperature (Ta) retrieval at a spatial resolution of 5 km. However, frequent cloud cover can result in substantial signal loss and remote sensing retrieval error in
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Satellite optical-infrared remote sensing from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides effective air temperature (Ta) retrieval at a spatial resolution of 5 km. However, frequent cloud cover can result in substantial signal loss and remote sensing retrieval error in MODIS Ta. We presented a simple pixel-wise empirical regression method combining synergistic information from MODIS Ta and 37 GHz frequency brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for estimating surface level Ta under both clear and cloudy sky conditions in the United States for 2006. The instantaneous Ta retrievals showed favorable agreement with in situ air temperature records from 40 AmeriFlux tower sites; mean R2 correspondence was 86.5 and 82.7 percent, while root mean square errors (RMSE) for the Ta retrievals were 4.58 K and 4.99 K for clear and cloudy sky conditions, respectively. Daily mean Ta was estimated using the instantaneous Ta retrievals from day/night overpasses, and showed favorable agreement with local tower measurements (R2 = 0.88; RMSE = 3.48 K). The results of this study indicate that the combination of MODIS and AMSR-E sensor data can produce Ta retrievals with reasonable accuracy and relatively fine spatial resolution (~5 km) for clear and cloudy sky conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Vehicle Extraction from Airborne LiDAR Data Using an Object-Based Point Cloud Analysis Method
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8405-8423; doi:10.3390/rs6098405
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automatic vehicle extraction from an airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud is very useful for many applications, such as digital elevation model generation and 3D building reconstruction. In this article, an object-based point cloud analysis (OBPCA) method is proposed for vehicle extraction from
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Automatic vehicle extraction from an airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud is very useful for many applications, such as digital elevation model generation and 3D building reconstruction. In this article, an object-based point cloud analysis (OBPCA) method is proposed for vehicle extraction from an ALS point cloud. First, a segmentation-based progressive TIN (triangular irregular network) densification is employed to detect the ground points, and the potential vehicle points are detected based on the normalized heights of the non-ground points. Second, 3D connected component analysis is performed to group the potential vehicle points into segments. At last, vehicle segments are detected based on three features, including area, rectangularity and elongatedness. Experiments suggest that the proposed method is capable of achieving higher accuracy than the exiting mean-shift-based method for vehicle extraction from an ALS point cloud. Moreover, the larger the point density is, the higher the achieved accuracy is. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multichannel Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix for Multi/Hyperspectral Image Texture Representation
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8424-8445; doi:10.3390/rs6098424
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (12703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a novel method for multichannel image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture representation. It is well known that the standard procedure for the automatic extraction of GLCM textures is based on a mono-spectral image. In real applications, however, the GLCM
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This study proposes a novel method for multichannel image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture representation. It is well known that the standard procedure for the automatic extraction of GLCM textures is based on a mono-spectral image. In real applications, however, the GLCM texture feature extraction always refers to multi/hyperspectral images. The widely used strategy to deal with this issue is to calculate the GLCM from the first principal component or the panchromatic band, which do not include all the useful information. Accordingly, in this study, we propose to represent the multichannel textures for multi/hyperspectral imagery by the use of: (1) clustering algorithms; and (2) sparse representation, respectively. In this way, the multi/hyperspectral images can be described using a series of quantized codes or dictionaries, which are more suitable for multichannel texture representation than the traditional methods. Specifically, K-means and fuzzy c-means methods are adopted to generate the codes of an image from the clustering point of view, while a sparse dictionary learning method based on two coding rules is proposed to produce the texture primitives. The proposed multichannel GLCM textural extraction methods were evaluated with four multi/hyperspectral datasets: GeoEye-1 and QuickBird multispectral images of the city of Wuhan, the well-known AVIRIS hyperspectral dataset from the Indian Pines test site, and the HYDICE airborne hyperspectral dataset from the Washington DC Mall. The results show that both the clustering-based and sparsity-based GLCM textures outperform the traditional method (extraction based on the first principal component) in terms of classification accuracies in all the experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition Method for Fusion of Multispectral and Panchromatic Remote Sensing Images
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8446-8467; doi:10.3390/rs6098446
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (12318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article focuses on the image fusion of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images. We propose a new image fusion method based on a Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) color space model and bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD), by integrating high-frequency component of panchromatic image into multispectral
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This article focuses on the image fusion of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images. We propose a new image fusion method based on a Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV) color space model and bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD), by integrating high-frequency component of panchromatic image into multispectral image and optimizing the BEMD in decreasing sifting time, simplifying extrema point locating and more efficient interpolation. This new method has been tested with a panchromatic image (SPOT, 10-m resolution) and a multispectral image (TM, 28-m resolution). Visual and quantitative assessment methods are applied to evaluate the quality of the fused images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided superior performance over conventional fusion algorithms in improving the quality of the fused images in terms of visual effectiveness, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, bias index and degree of distortion. Both five different land cover types WorldView-II images and three different sensor combinations (TM/SPOT, WorldView-II, 0.5 m/1 m resolution and IKONOS, 1 m/4 m resolution) validated the robustness of BEMD fusion performance. Both of these results prove the capability of the proposed BEMD method as a robust image fusion method to prevent color distortion and enhance image detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Dedicated to Geographical Conditions Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Plant Species Discrimination in a Tropical Wetland Using In Situ Hyperspectral Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8494-8523; doi:10.3390/rs6098494
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 17 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
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Abstract
We investigated the use of full-range (400–2,500 nm) hyperspectral data obtained by sampling foliar reflectances to discriminate 46 plant species in a tropical wetland in Jamaica. A total of 47 spectral variables, including derivative spectra, spectral vegetation indices, spectral position variables, normalized spectra
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We investigated the use of full-range (400–2,500 nm) hyperspectral data obtained by sampling foliar reflectances to discriminate 46 plant species in a tropical wetland in Jamaica. A total of 47 spectral variables, including derivative spectra, spectral vegetation indices, spectral position variables, normalized spectra and spectral absorption features, were used for classifying the 46 species. The Mann–Whitney U-test, paired one-way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA), random forest (RF) and a wrapper approach with a support vector machine were used as feature selection methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), an artificial neural network (ANN) and a generalized linear model fitted with elastic net penalties (GLMnet) were then used for species separation. For comparison, the RF classifier (denoted as RFa) was also used to separate the species by using all reflectance spectra and spectral indices, respectively, without applying any feature selection. The RFa classifier was able to achieve 91.8% and 84.8% accuracy with importance-ranked spectral indices and reflectance spectra, respectively. The GLMnet classifier produced the lowest overall accuracies for feature-selected reflectance spectra data (52–77%) when compared with the LDA and ANN methods. However, when feature-selected spectral indices were used, the GLMnet produced overall accuracies ranging from 79 to 88%, which were the highest among the three classifiers that used feature-selected data. A total of 12 species recorded a 100% producer accuracy, but with spectral indices, and an additional 8 species had perfect producer accuracies, regardless of the input features. The results of this study suggest that the GLMnet classifier can be used, particularly on feature-selected spectral indices, to discern vegetation in wetlands. However, it might be more efficient to use RFa without feature-selected variables, especially for spectral indices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Satellite Retrievals of Ocean Chlorophyll-a in the California Current
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8524-8540; doi:10.3390/rs6098524
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retrievals of ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) by multiple ocean color satellite sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, MERIS, VIIRS) using standard algorithms were evaluated in the California Current using a large archive of in situ measurements. Over the full range of in situ Chla,
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Retrievals of ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) by multiple ocean color satellite sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, MERIS, VIIRS) using standard algorithms were evaluated in the California Current using a large archive of in situ measurements. Over the full range of in situ Chla, all sensors produced a coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.79 and 0.88 and a median absolute percent error (MdAPE) between 21% and 27%. However, at in situ Chla > 1 mg m3, only products from MERIS (both the ESA produced algal_1 and NASA produced chlor_a) maintained reasonable accuracy (R2 from 0.74 to 0.52 and MdAPE from 23% to 31%, respectively), while the other sensors had R2 below 0.5 and MdAPE higher than 36%. We show that the low accuracy at medium and high Chla is caused by the poor retrieval of remote sensing reflectance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton)
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Open AccessArticle How Reliable is the MODIS Land Cover Product for Crop Mapping Sub-Saharan Agricultural Landscapes?
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8541-8564; doi:10.3390/rs6098541
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate cropland maps at the global and local scales are crucial for scientists, government and nongovernment agencies, farmers and other stakeholders, particularly in food-insecure regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aim to qualify the crop classes of the MODIS Land
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Accurate cropland maps at the global and local scales are crucial for scientists, government and nongovernment agencies, farmers and other stakeholders, particularly in food-insecure regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we aim to qualify the crop classes of the MODIS Land Cover Product (LCP) in Sub-Saharan Africa using FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) and AGRHYMET (AGRiculture, Hydrology and METeorology) statistical data of agriculture and a sample of 55 very-high-resolution images. In terms of cropland acreage and dynamics, we found that the correlation between the statistical data and MODIS LCP decreases when we localize the spatial scale (from R2 = 0.86 *** at the national scale to R2 = 0.26 *** at two levels below the national scale). In terms of the cropland spatial distribution, our findings indicate a strong relationship between the user accuracy and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape, as measured by the MODIS LCP; the accuracy decreases as the crop fraction increases. In addition, thanks to the Pareto boundary method, we were able to isolate and quantify the part of the MODIS classification error that could be directly linked to the performance of the adopted classification algorithm. Finally, based on these results, (i) a regional map of the MODIS LCP user accuracy estimates for cropland classes was produced for the entire Sub-Saharan region; this map presents a better accuracy in the western part of the region (43%–70%) compared to the eastern part (17%–43%); (ii) Theoretical user and producer accuracies for a given set of spatial resolutions were provided; the simulated future Sentinel-2 system would provide theoretical 99% user and producer accuracies given the landscape pattern of the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Food Production and Food Security)
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Open AccessArticle Land Cover Characterization and Classification of Arctic Tundra Environments by Means of Polarized Synthetic Aperture X- and C-Band Radar (PolSAR) and Landsat 8 Multispectral Imagery — Richards Island, Canada
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8565-8593; doi:10.3390/rs6098565
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (27180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work the potential of polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data of dual-polarized TerraSAR-X (HH/VV) and quad-polarized Radarsat-2 was examined in combination with multispectral Landsat 8 data for unsupervised and supervised classification of tundra land cover types of Richards Island, Canada. The
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In this work the potential of polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data of dual-polarized TerraSAR-X (HH/VV) and quad-polarized Radarsat-2 was examined in combination with multispectral Landsat 8 data for unsupervised and supervised classification of tundra land cover types of Richards Island, Canada. The classification accuracies as well as the backscatter and reflectance characteristics were analyzed using reference data collected during three field work campaigns and include in situ data and high resolution airborne photography. The optical data offered an acceptable initial accuracy for the land cover classification. The overall accuracy was increased by the combination of PolSAR and optical data and was up to 71% for unsupervised (Landsat 8 and TerraSAR-X) and up to 87% for supervised classification (Landsat 8 and Radarsat-2) for five tundra land cover types. The decomposition features of the dual and quad-polarized data showed a high sensitivity for the non-vegetated substrate (dominant surface scattering) and wetland vegetation (dominant double bounce and volume scattering). These classes had high potential to be automatically detected with unsupervised classification techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Inter-Calibration of Satellite Passive Microwave Land Observations from AMSR-E and AMSR2 Using Overlapping FY3B-MWRI Sensor Measurements
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8594-8616; doi:10.3390/rs6098594
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development and continuity of consistent long-term data records from similar overlapping satellite observations is critical for global monitoring and environmental change assessments. We developed an empirical approach for inter-calibration of satellite microwave brightness temperature (Tb) records over land from
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The development and continuity of consistent long-term data records from similar overlapping satellite observations is critical for global monitoring and environmental change assessments. We developed an empirical approach for inter-calibration of satellite microwave brightness temperature (Tb) records over land from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) using overlapping Tb observations from the Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI). Double Differencing (DD) calculations revealed significant AMSR2 and MWRI biases relative to AMSR-E. Pixel-wise linear relationships were established from overlapping Tb records and used for calibrating MWRI and AMSR2 records to the AMSR-E baseline. The integrated multi-sensor Tb record was largely consistent over the major global vegetation and climate zones; sensor biases were generally well calibrated, though residual Tb differences inherent to different sensor configurations were still present. Daily surface air temperature estimates from the calibrated AMSR2 Tb inputs also showed favorable accuracy against independent measurements from 142 global weather stations (R2 ≥ 0.75, RMSE ≤ 3.64 °C), but with slightly lower accuracy than the AMSR-E baseline (R2 ≥ 0.78, RMSE ≤ 3.46 °C). The proposed method is promising for generating consistent, uninterrupted global land parameter records spanning the AMSR-E and continuing AMSR2 missions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ARCTIS — A MATLAB® Toolbox for Archaeological Imaging Spectroscopy
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8617-8638; doi:10.3390/rs6098617
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (13784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Imaging spectroscopy acquires imagery in hundreds or more narrow contiguous spectral bands. This offers unprecedented information for archaeological research. To extract the maximum of useful archaeological information from it, however, a number of problems have to be solved. Major problems relate to data
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Imaging spectroscopy acquires imagery in hundreds or more narrow contiguous spectral bands. This offers unprecedented information for archaeological research. To extract the maximum of useful archaeological information from it, however, a number of problems have to be solved. Major problems relate to data redundancy and the visualization of the large amount of data. This makes data mining approaches necessary, as well as efficient data visualization tools. Additional problems relate to data quality. Indeed, the upwelling electromagnetic radiation is recorded in small spectral bands that are only about ten nanometers wide. The signal received by the sensor is, thus quite low compared to sensor noise and possible atmospheric perturbations. The often small, instantaneous field of view (IFOV)—essential for archaeologically relevant imaging spectrometer datasets—further limits the useful signal stemming from the ground. The combination of both effects makes radiometric smoothing techniques mandatory. The present study details the functionality of a MATLAB®-based toolbox, called ARCTIS (ARChaeological Toolbox for Imaging Spectroscopy), for filtering, enhancing, analyzing, and visualizing imaging spectrometer datasets. The toolbox addresses the above-mentioned problems. Its Graphical User Interface (GUI) is designed to allow non-experts in remote sensing to extract a wealth of information from imaging spectroscopy for archaeological research. ARCTIS will be released under creative commons license, free of charge, via website (http://luftbildarchiv.univie.ac.at). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Remote Sensing for Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle An Assessment of Methods and Remote-Sensing Derived Covariates for Regional Predictions of 1 km Daily Maximum Air Temperature
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8639-8670; doi:10.3390/rs6098639
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The monitoring and prediction of biodiversity and environmental changes is constrained by the availability of accurate and spatially contiguous climatic variables at fine temporal and spatial grains. In this study, we evaluate best practices for generating gridded, one-kilometer resolution, daily maximum air temperature
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The monitoring and prediction of biodiversity and environmental changes is constrained by the availability of accurate and spatially contiguous climatic variables at fine temporal and spatial grains. In this study, we evaluate best practices for generating gridded, one-kilometer resolution, daily maximum air temperature surfaces in a regional context, the state of Oregon, USA. Covariates used in the interpolation include remote sensing derived elevation, aspect, canopy height, percent forest cover and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST). Because of missing values, we aggregated daily LST values as long term (2000–2010) monthly climatologies to leverage its spatial detail in the interpolation. We predicted temperature with three methods—Universal Kriging, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and Generalized Additive Models (GAM)—and assessed predictions using meteorological stations over 365 days in 2010. We find that GAM is least sensitive to overtraining (overfitting) and results in lowest errors in term of distance to closest training stations. Mean elevation, LST, and distance to ocean are flagged most frequently as significant covariates among all daily predictions. Results indicate that GAM with latitude, longitude and elevation is the top model but that LST has potential in providing additional fine-grained spatial structure related to land cover effects. The study also highlights the need for more rigorous methods and data to evaluate the spatial structure and fine grained accuracy of predicted surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8671-8695; doi:10.3390/rs6098671
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (23886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca
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During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Remote Sensing for Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Levees Using LiDAR Data and Multispectral Orthoimages in the Nakdong River Basins, South Korea
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8696-8717; doi:10.3390/rs6098696
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (10167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mapping levees is important for analyzing levee surfaces, assessing levee stability, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing dataset. This research aims to map levees using airborne topographic LiDAR data and
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Mapping levees is important for analyzing levee surfaces, assessing levee stability, etc. Historically, mapping levees has been carried out using ground surveying methods or only one type of remote sensing dataset. This research aims to map levees using airborne topographic LiDAR data and multispectral orthoimages taken in the Nakdong River Basins. Levee surfaces consist of multiple objects with different geometric and spectral patterns. This research investigates different methods for identifying multiple levee components, such as major objects and eroded areas. Multiple geometric analysis approaches such as the slope classification method, and elevation and area analysis are used to identify the levee crown, berm, slope surfaces, and the eroded area, with different geometric patterns using the LiDAR data. Next, a spectral analysis approach, such as the clustering algorithm, is used to identify the major objects with different spectral patterns on the identified components using multispectral orthoimages. Finally, multiple levee components, including major objects and eroded areas, are identified. The accuracy of the results shows that the various components on the levee surfaces are well identified using the proposed methodology. The obtained results are applied for evaluating the physical condition of the levees in the study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Seasonal Backscatter Variations with Respect to Uncertainties in Soil Moisture Retrieval in Siberian Tundra Regions
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8718-8738; doi:10.3390/rs6098718
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of surface hydrology is essential for many applications, including studies that aim to understand permafrost response to changing climate and the associated feedback mechanisms. Advanced remote sensing techniques make it possible to retrieve a range of land-surface variables, including radar retrieved soil
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Knowledge of surface hydrology is essential for many applications, including studies that aim to understand permafrost response to changing climate and the associated feedback mechanisms. Advanced remote sensing techniques make it possible to retrieve a range of land-surface variables, including radar retrieved soil moisture (SSM). It has been pointed out before that soil moisture retrieval from satellite data can be challenging at high latitudes, which correspond to remote areas where ground data are scarce and the applicability of satellite data of this type is essential. This study investigates backscatter variability other than associated with changing soil moisture in order to examine the possible impact on soil moisture retrieval. It focuses on issues specific to SSM retrieval in the Arctic, notably variations related to tundra lakes. ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Wide Swath (WS, 120 m) data are used to understand and quantify impacts on Metop (AAdvanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, 25 km) soil moisture retrieval during the snow free period. Sites of interest are chosen according to ASAR WS availability, high or low agreement between output from the land surface model ORCHIDEE and ASCAT derived SSM. Backscatter variations are analyzed with respect to the ASCAT footprint area. It can be shown that the low model agreement is related to water fraction in most cases. No difference could be detected between periods with floating ice (in snow off situation) and ice free periods at the chosen sites. The mean footprint backscatter is however impacted by partial short term surface roughness change. The water fraction correlates with backscatter deviations (relative to a smooth water surface reference image) within the ASCAT footprint areas (R = 0.91) Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Consistency of Five Global Land Cover Data Sets in China
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8739-8759; doi:10.3390/rs6098739
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global land cover mapping with high accuracy is essential to downstream researches. Five global land cover data sets derived from moderate-resolution satellites, i.e., Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC), University of Maryland land cover product (UMd), Global Land Cover 2000 project data (GLC2000), MODIS
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Global land cover mapping with high accuracy is essential to downstream researches. Five global land cover data sets derived from moderate-resolution satellites, i.e., Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC), University of Maryland land cover product (UMd), Global Land Cover 2000 project data (GLC2000), MODIS Land Cover product (MODIS LC), and GLOBCOVER land cover product (GlobCover), have been widely used in many researches. However, these data sets were produced using different data sources and class definitions, which led to high uncertainty and inconsistency when using them. This study looked into the consistencies and discrepancies among the five data sets in China. All of the compared data sets were aggregated to consistent spatial resolution and extent, along with a 12-class thematic classification schema; intercomparisons among five datasets and each with reference data GLCD-2005 were performed. Results show reasonable agreement across the five data sets over China in terms of the dominating land cover types like Grassland and Cropland; while discrepancies of Forest classes, particularly Shrubland and Wetland among them are great. Additionally, GLC2000 has the highest agreement with GLCD-2005; MODIS LC gets the highest map-specific consistency compared with others; whereas UMd has the lowest agreement with GLCD-2005, but also has the lowest map-specific consistency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inversion of Aerosol Optical Depth Based on the CCD and IRS Sensors on the HJ-1 Satellites
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8760-8778; doi:10.3390/rs6098760
Received: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD) inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65
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To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD) inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65 μm and 2.1 μm channels of MODIS, a method for estimating albedo using the 1.65 μm channel data of the HJ-1 satellites was established, and a high-resolution AOD inversion in the Chengdu region based on the HJ-1 satellite was completed. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957, respectively, with an absolute error of 0.106. An analysis of the AOD inversion results from different aerosol models showed that the rural aerosol model was suitable as a general model for establishing an aerosol inversion look-up table for the Chengdu region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol and Cloud Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Can I Trust My One-Class Classification?
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8779-8802; doi:10.3390/rs6098779
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contrary to binary and multi-class classifiers, the purpose of a one-class classifier for remote sensing applications is to map only one specific land use/land cover class of interest. Training these classifiers exclusively requires reference data for the class of interest, while training data
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Contrary to binary and multi-class classifiers, the purpose of a one-class classifier for remote sensing applications is to map only one specific land use/land cover class of interest. Training these classifiers exclusively requires reference data for the class of interest, while training data for other classes is not required. Thus, the acquisition of reference data can be significantly reduced. However, one-class classification is fraught with uncertainty and full automatization is difficult, due to the limited reference information that is available for classifier training. Thus, a user-oriented one-class classification strategy is proposed, which is based among others on the visualization and interpretation of the one-class classifier outcomes during the data processing. Careful interpretation of the diagnostic plots fosters the understanding of the classification outcome, e.g., the class separability and suitability of a particular threshold. In the absence of complete and representative validation data, which is the fact in the context of a real one-class classification application, such information is valuable for evaluation and improving the classification. The potential of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by classifying different crop types with hyperspectral data from Hyperion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Radiometric Calibration Methodology of the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8803-8821; doi:10.3390/rs6098803
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The science-focused mission of the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) requires that it have an accurate radiometric calibration. A calibration methodology was developed to convert the raw output from the instrument into an accurate at-aperture radiance. The methodology is based on measurements
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The science-focused mission of the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) requires that it have an accurate radiometric calibration. A calibration methodology was developed to convert the raw output from the instrument into an accurate at-aperture radiance. The methodology is based on measurements obtained during component-level and instrument-level characterization testing. The radiometric accuracy from the pre-flight measurements was estimated to be approximately 0.7%. The calibration parameters determined pre-flight were updated during the post-launch checkout period by utilizing the on-board calibration sources and Earth scene data. These relative corrections were made to adjust for differences between the pre-flight and the on-orbit performance of the instrument, thereby correcting large striping artifacts observed in Earth imagery. Despite this calibration correction, banding artifacts (low frequency variation in the across-track direction) have been observed in certain uniform Earth scenes, but not in other uniform scenes. In addition, the absolute calibration performance determined from vicarious measurements have revealed a time-varying error to the absolute radiance reported by TIRS. These issues were determined to not be caused by the calibration process developed for the instrument. Instead, an investigation has revealed that stray light is affecting the recorded signal from the Earth. The varying optical stray light effect is an ongoing subject of evaluation and investigation, and a correction strategy is being devised that will be added to the calibration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landsat-8 Sensor Characterization and Calibration)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Chromatic Analysis of SAR Images for Coherent Target Detection
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8822-8843; doi:10.3390/rs6098822
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (20695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work investigates the possibility of performing target analysis through the Multi-Chromatic Analysis (MCA), a technique that basically explores the information content of sub-band images obtained by processing portions of the range spectrum of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. According to the behavior
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This work investigates the possibility of performing target analysis through the Multi-Chromatic Analysis (MCA), a technique that basically explores the information content of sub-band images obtained by processing portions of the range spectrum of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. According to the behavior of the SAR signal at the different sub-bands, MCA allows target classification. Two strategies have been experimented by processing TerraSAR-X images acquired over the Venice Lagoon, Italy: one exploiting the phase of interferometric sub-band pairs, the other using the spectral coherence derived by computing the coherence between sub-band images of a single SAR acquisition. The first approach introduces the concept of frequency-persistent scatterers (FPS), which is complementary to that of the time-persistent scatterers (PS). FPS and PS populations have been derived and analyzed to evaluate the respective characteristics and the physical nature of the targets. Spectral coherence analysis has been applied to vessel detection, according to the property that, in presence of a random distribution of surface scatterers, as for open sea surfaces, spectral coherence is expected to be proportional to sub-band intersection, while in presence of manmade structures it is preserved anyhow. First results show that spectral coherence is well preserved even for very small vessels, and can be used as a complementary information channel to constrain vessel detection in addition to classical Constant False Alarm Rate techniques based on the sole intensity channel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Latent Heat Flux Using Aerodynamic Methods and Using the Penman–Monteith Method with Satellite-Based Surface Energy Balance
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8844-8877; doi:10.3390/rs6098844
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (15397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A surface energy balance was conducted to calculate the latent heat flux (λE) using aerodynamic methods and the Penman–Monteith (PM) method. Computations were based on gridded weather and Landsat satellite reflected and thermal data. The surface energy balance facilitated a comparison of impacts
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A surface energy balance was conducted to calculate the latent heat flux (λE) using aerodynamic methods and the Penman–Monteith (PM) method. Computations were based on gridded weather and Landsat satellite reflected and thermal data. The surface energy balance facilitated a comparison of impacts of different parameterizations and assumptions, while calculating λE over large areas through the use of remote sensing. The first part of the study compares the full aerodynamic method for estimating latent heat flux against the appropriately parameterized PM method with calculation of bulk surface resistance (rs). The second part of the study compares the appropriately parameterized PM method against the PM method, with various relaxations on parameters. This study emphasizes the use of separate aerodynamic equations (latent heat flux and sensible heat flux) against the combined Penman–Monteith equation to calculate λE when surface temperature (Ts) is much warmer than air temperature (Ta), as will occur under water stressed conditions. The study was conducted in southern Idaho for a 1000-km2 area over a range of land use classes and for two Landsat satellite overpass dates. The results show discrepancies in latent heat flux (λE) values when the PM method is used with simplifications and relaxations, compared to the appropriately parameterized PM method and full aerodynamic method. Errors were particularly significant in areas of sparse vegetation where differences between Ts and Ta were high. The maximum RMSD between the correct PM method and simplified PM methods was about 56 W/m2 in sparsely vegetated sagebrush desert where the same surface resistance was applied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8878-8903; doi:10.3390/rs6098878
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (7008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1) land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within
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We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1) land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within a short time frame; and (2) spatially discrete land cover disturbances are continuous processes over time. Applying statistically rigorous algorithms, we first detect disturbance pixels as outliers of an underlying chi-square distribution. Then, we fit nonlinear, logistic curves for each identified change pixel to simultaneously characterize the magnitude and timing of the disturbance. Our method is applied using the yearly Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the resulting disturbance-year estimates are evaluated using a large sample of Landsat-based forest disturbance data. Temporal accuracy is ~65% at 250-m, annual resolution and increases to >85% when temporal resolution is relaxed to ±1 yr. The r2 of MODIS VCF-based disturbance rates against Landsat ranges from 0.7 to 0.9 at 5-km spatial resolution. The general approach developed in this study can be potentially applied at a global scale and to other land cover types characterized as continuous variables from satellite data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Model-Assisted Estimators to Infer Land Cover/Use Class Area Using Satellite Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8904-8922; doi:10.3390/rs6098904
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
PDF Full-text (2686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing provides timely, economic, and objective data over a large area and has become the main data source for land cover/use area estimation. However, the classification results cannot be directly used to calculate the area of a given land cover/use type because
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Remote sensing provides timely, economic, and objective data over a large area and has become the main data source for land cover/use area estimation. However, the classification results cannot be directly used to calculate the area of a given land cover/use type because of classification errors. The main purpose of this study is to explore the performance and stability of several model-assisted estimators in various overall accuracies of classification and sampling fractions. In this study, the confusion matrix calibration direct estimator, confusion matrix calibration inverse estimator, ratio estimator, and simple regression estimator were implemented to infer the areas of several land cover classes using simple random sampling without replacement in two experiments: a case study using simulation data based on RapidEye images and that using actual RapidEye and Huan Jing (HJ)-1A images. In addition, the simple estimator using a simple random sample without replacement was regarded as a basic estimator. The comparison results suggested that the confusion matrix calibration estimators, ratio estimator, and simple regression estimator could provide more accurate and stable estimates than the simple random sampling estimator. In addition, high-quality classification data played a positive role in the estimation, and the confusion matrix inverse estimators were more sensitive to the classification accuracy. In the simulated experiment, the average deviation of a confusion matrix calibration inverse estimator decreased by about 0.195 with the increasing overall accuracy of classification; otherwise, the variation of the other three model-assisted estimators was 0.102. Moreover, the simple regression estimator was slightly superior to the confusion matrix calibration estimators and required fewer sample units under acceptable classification accuracy levels of 70%–90%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 1982–2010 Trends of Light Use Efficiency and Inherent Water Use Efficiency in African vegetation: Sensitivity to Climate and Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8923-8944; doi:10.3390/rs6098923
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 19 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Light and water use by vegetation at the ecosystem level, are key components for understanding the carbon and water cycles particularly in regions with high climate variability and dry climates such as Africa. The objective of this study is to examine recent trends
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Light and water use by vegetation at the ecosystem level, are key components for understanding the carbon and water cycles particularly in regions with high climate variability and dry climates such as Africa. The objective of this study is to examine recent trends over the last 30 years in Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and inherent Water Use Efficiency (iWUE*) for the major biomes of Africa, including their sensitivities to climate and CO2. LUE and iWUE* trends are analyzed using a combination of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI3g and fAPAR3g, and a data-driven model of monthly evapotranspiration and Gross Primary Productivity (based on flux tower measurements and remote sensing fAPAR, yet with no flux tower data in Africa) and the ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) process-based land surface model driven by variable CO2 and two different gridded climate fields. The iWUE* data product increases by 10%–20% per decade during the 1982–2010 period over the northern savannas (due to positive trend of vegetation productivity) and the central African forest (due to positive trend of vapor pressure deficit). In contrast to the iWUE*, the LUE trends are not statistically significant. The process-based model simulations only show a positive linear trend in iWUE* and LUE over the central African forest. Additionally, factorial model simulations were conducted to attribute trends in iWUE and LUE to climate change and rising CO2 concentrations. We found that the increase of atmospheric CO2 by 52.8 ppm during the period of study explains 30%–50% of the increase in iWUE* and >90% of the LUE trend over the central African forest. The modeled iWUE* trend exhibits a high sensitivity to the climate forcing and environmental conditions, whereas the LUE trend has a smaller sensitivity to the selected climate forcing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Global Vegetation with AVHRR NDVI3g Data (1981-2011))
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Open AccessArticle Large Differences in Terrestrial Vegetation Production Derived from Satellite-Based Light Use Efficiency Models
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8945-8965; doi:10.3390/rs6098945
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (11381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux and determines other ecosystem carbon cycle variables. Light use efficiency (LUE) models may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP, but recent studies have
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Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux and determines other ecosystem carbon cycle variables. Light use efficiency (LUE) models may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP, but recent studies have shown large model differences in GPP simulations. In this study, we investigated the GPP differences in the spatial and temporal patterns derived from seven widely used LUE models at the global scale. The result shows that the global annual GPP estimates over the period 2000–2010 varied from 95.10 to 139.71 Pg C∙yr1 among models. The spatial and temporal variation of global GPP differs substantially between models, due to different model structures and dominant environmental drivers. In almost all models, water availability dominates the interannual variability of GPP over large vegetated areas. Solar radiation and air temperature are not the primary controlling factors for interannual variability of global GPP estimates for most models. The disagreement among the current LUE models highlights the need for further model improvement to quantify the global carbon cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observation for Ecosystems Monitoring in Space and Time)
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Open AccessArticle Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8966-8985; doi:10.3390/rs6098966
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product
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Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio–temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio–temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2–4 days). The proposed method works by combining the land surface reflectance data at 30 m spatial resolution obtained from the charge-coupled devices in the Huanjing-1A and -1B (HJ-1A/B) satellites with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters product (MCD43A1), which is at a spatial resolution of 500 m. First, the land surface BRDF parameters for HJ-1A/B land surface reflectance with a spatial–temporal resolutions of 30 m and 2–4 day are calculated on the basis of the prior knowledge from the MODIS BRDF product; then, the calculated high resolution BRDF parameters are integrated over the illuminating/viewing hemisphere to produce the white- and black-sky albedos at 30 m resolution. These results form the basis for the final land surface albedo derivation by accounting for the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. The albedo retrieved by this novel method is compared with MODIS land surface albedo products, as well as with ground measurements. The results show that the derived land surface albedo during the growing season of 2012 generally achieved a mean absolute accuracy of ±0.044, and a root mean square error of 0.039, confirming the effectiveness of the newly proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8986-9013; doi:10.3390/rs6098986
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to
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Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to determine whether they could capture the temporal variation and estimate the spatial variability of forest C fluxes derived from eddy covariance tower data. Nineteen indices were divided into four categories of optical indices: broadband, chlorophyll, red edge, and light use efficiency. Correlation tests were performed between the selected vegetation indices, gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re). Among the 19 indices, five narrowband indices (Chlorophyll Index RedEdge 710, scaled photochemical reflectance index (SPRI)*enhanced vegetation index (EVI), SPRI*normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), MCARI/OSAVI[705, 750] and the Vogelmann Index), and one broad band index (EVI) had R-squared values with a good fit for GPP and Re. The SPRI*NDVI has the highest significant coefficients of determination with GPP and Re (R2 = 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.0001, respectively). SPRI*NDVI was used in atmospheric inverse modeling at regional scales for the estimation of C fluxes. We compared the GPP spatial patterns inversed from our model with corresponding results from the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator model, and MODIS MOD17A2 products. The inversed GPP spatial patterns from our model of SPRI*NDVI had good agreement with the output from the VPM model. The normalized difference nitrogen index was well correlated with measured C net ecosystem exchange. Our findings indicated that narrowband bio-indicators based on EO-1 Hyperion images could be used to predict regional C flux variations for Northeastern China’s temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9014-9033; doi:10.3390/rs6099014
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (12012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and
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Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Defining the Spatial Resolution Requirements for Crop Identification Using Optical Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9034-9063; doi:10.3390/rs6099034
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (13082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The past decades have seen an increasing demand for operational monitoring of crop conditions and food production at local to global scales. To properly use satellite Earth observation for such agricultural monitoring, high temporal revisit frequency over vast geographic areas is necessary. However,
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The past decades have seen an increasing demand for operational monitoring of crop conditions and food production at local to global scales. To properly use satellite Earth observation for such agricultural monitoring, high temporal revisit frequency over vast geographic areas is necessary. However, this often limits the spatial resolution that can be used. The challenge of discriminating pixels that correspond to a particular crop type, a prerequisite for crop specific agricultural monitoring, remains daunting when the signal encoded in pixels stems from several land uses (mixed pixels), e.g., over heterogeneous landscapes where individual fields are often smaller than individual pixels. The question of determining the optimal pixel sizes for an application such as crop identification is therefore naturally inclined towards finding the coarsest acceptable pixel sizes, so as to potentially benefit from what instruments with coarser pixels can offer. To answer this question, this study builds upon and extends a conceptual framework to quantitatively define pixel size requirements for crop identification via image classification. This tool can be modulated using different parameterizations to explore trade-offs between pixel size and pixel purity when addressing the question of crop identification. Results over contrasting landscapes in Central Asia demonstrate that the task of finding the optimum pixel size does not have a “one-size-fits-all” solution. The resulting values for pixel size and purity that are suitable for crop identification proved to be specific to a given landscape, and for each crop they differed across different landscapes. Over the same time series, different crops were not identifiable simultaneously in the season and these requirements further changed over the years, reflecting the different agro-ecological conditions the crops are growing in. Results indicate that sensors like MODIS (250 m) could be suitable for identifying major crop classes in the study sites, whilst sensors like Landsat (30 m) should be considered for object-based classification. The proposed framework is generic and can be applied to any agricultural landscape, thereby potentially serving to guide recommendations for designing dedicated EO missions that can satisfy the requirements in terms of pixel size to identify and discriminate crop types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Food Production and Food Security)
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Open AccessArticle High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapán
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9064-9085; doi:10.3390/rs6099064
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (35723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapán, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes
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A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapán, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with traditional archaeological survey methods for 38 settlement clusters outside of the city wall. Ground checking employed full coverage survey of selected 500 m grid squares, as well as documentation of the chronology and detail of new public and domestic settlement features and cenotes. Results identify the full extent of continued, contemporary Postclassic settlement (A.D. 1150–1450) outside of the city wall to at least 500 meters to the east, north, and west. New data also reveal an extensive modified landscape of terraformed residential hills, rejolladas, and dense settlement dating from Preclassic through Classic Periods. The LiDAR data also allow for the identification of rooms, benches, and stone property walls and lanes within the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Remote Sensing for Archaeology)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Level Spatial Analysis for Change Detection of Urban Vegetation at Individual Tree Scale
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9086-9103; doi:10.3390/rs6099086
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spurious change is a common problem in urban vegetation change detection by using multi-temporal remote sensing images of high resolution. This usually results from the false-absent and false-present vegetation patches in an obscured and/or shaded scene. The presented approach focuses on object-based change
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Spurious change is a common problem in urban vegetation change detection by using multi-temporal remote sensing images of high resolution. This usually results from the false-absent and false-present vegetation patches in an obscured and/or shaded scene. The presented approach focuses on object-based change detection with joint use of spatial and spectral information, referring to it as multi-level spatial analyses. The analyses are conducted in three phases: (1) The pixel-level spatial analysis is performed by adding the density dimension into a multi-feature space for classification to indicate the spatial dependency between pixels; (2) The member-level spatial analysis is conducted by the self-adaptive morphology to readjust the incorrectly classified members according to the spatial dependency between members; (3) The object-level spatial analysis is reached by the self-adaptive morphology involved with the additional rule of sharing boundaries. Spatial analysis at this level will help detect spurious change objects according to the spatial dependency between objects. It is revealed that the error from the automatically extracted vegetation objects with the pixel- and member-level spatial analyses is no more than 2.56%, compared with 12.15% without spatial analysis. Moreover, the error from the automatically detected spurious changes with the object-level spatial analysis is no higher than 3.26% out of all the dynamic vegetation objects, meaning that the fully automatic detection of vegetation change at a joint maximum error of 5.82% can be guaranteed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA))
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Layers of Clay in a Vertical Geological Surface Using Hyperspectral Imagery: Variability in Parameters of SWIR Absorption Features under Different Conditions of Illumination
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9104-9129; doi:10.3390/rs6099104
Received: 1 June 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperspectral imagery of a vertical mine face acquired from a field-based platform is used to evaluate the effects of different conditions of illumination on absorption feature parameters wavelength position, depth and width. Imagery was acquired at different times of the day under direct
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Hyperspectral imagery of a vertical mine face acquired from a field-based platform is used to evaluate the effects of different conditions of illumination on absorption feature parameters wavelength position, depth and width. Imagery was acquired at different times of the day under direct solar illumination and under diffuse illumination imposed by cloud cover. Imagery acquired under direct solar illumination did not show large amounts of variability in any absorption feature parameter; however, imagery acquired under cloud caused changes in absorption feature parameters. These included the introduction of a spurious absorption feature at wavelengths > 2250 nm and a shifting of the wavelength position of specific clay absorption features to longer or shorter wavelengths. Absorption feature depth increased. The spatial patterns of clay absorption in imagery acquired under similar conditions of direct illumination were preserved but not in imagery acquired under cloud. Kaolinite, ferruginous smectite and nontronite were identified and mapped on the mine face. Results were validated by comparing them with predictions from x-ray diffraction and laboratory hyperspectral imagery of samples acquired from the mine face. These results have implications for the collection of hyperspectral data from field-based platforms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Spring Phenology in the Three-Rivers Headwater Region from 1999 to 2013
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 9130-9144; doi:10.3390/rs6099130
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vegetation phenology is considered a sensitive indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to global climate change. We used a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index to investigate the spatiotemporal changes in the green-up date over the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) from 1999 to 2013 and
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Vegetation phenology is considered a sensitive indicator of terrestrial ecosystem response to global climate change. We used a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index to investigate the spatiotemporal changes in the green-up date over the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) from 1999 to 2013 and characterized their driving forces using climatic data sets. A significant advancement trend was observed throughout the entire study area from 1999 to 2013 with a linear tendency of 6.3 days/decade (p < 0.01); the largest advancement trend was over the Yellow River source region (8.6 days/decade, p < 0.01). Spatially, the green-up date increased from the southeast to the northwest, and the green-up date of 87.4% of pixels fell between the 130th and 150th Julian day. Additionally, about 91.5% of the study area experienced advancement in the green-up date, of which 80.2%, mainly distributed in areas of vegetation coverage increase, experienced a significant advance. Moreover, it was found that the green-up date and its trend were significantly correlated with altitude. Statistical analyses showed that a 1-°C increase in spring temperature would induce an advancement in the green-up date of 4.2 days. We suggest that the advancement of the green-up date in the TRHR might be attributable principally to warmer and wetter springs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land Degradation in Drylands)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Monitoring Depth of Shallow Atmospheric Boundary Layer to Complement LiDAR Measurements Affected by Partial Overlap
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(9), 8468-8493; doi:10.3390/rs6098468
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is compelling evidence that the incomplete laser beam receiver field-of-view overlap (i.e., partial overlap) of ground-based vertically-pointing aerosol LiDAR restricts the observational range for detecting aerosol layer boundaries to a certain height above the LiDAR. This height varies from one
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There is compelling evidence that the incomplete laser beam receiver field-of-view overlap (i.e., partial overlap) of ground-based vertically-pointing aerosol LiDAR restricts the observational range for detecting aerosol layer boundaries to a certain height above the LiDAR. This height varies from one to few hundreds of meters, depending on the transceiver geometry. The range, or height of full overlap, is defined as the minimum distance at which the laser beam is completely imaged onto the detector through the field stop in the receiver optics. Thus, the LiDAR signal below the height of full overlap remains erroneous. In effect, it is not possible to derive the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) top (zi) below the height of full overlap using lidar measurements alone. This problem makes determination of the nocturnal zi almost impossible, as the nocturnal zi is often lower than the minimum possible retrieved height due to incomplete overlap of lidar. Detailed studies of the nocturnal boundary layer or of variability of low zi would require changes in the LiDAR configuration such that a complete transceiver overlap could be achieved at a much lower height. Otherwise, improvements in the system configuration or deployment (e.g., scanning LiDAR) are needed. However, these improvements are challenging due to the instrument configuration and the need for Raman channel signal, eye-safe laser transmitter for scanning deployment, etc. This paper presents a brief review of some of the challenges and opportunities in overcoming the partial overlap of the LiDAR transceiver to determine zi below the height of full-overlap using complementary approaches to derive low zi. A comprehensive discussion focusing on four different techniques is presented. These are based on the combined (1) ceilometer and LiDAR; (2) tower-based trace gas (e.g., CO2) concentration profiles and LiDAR measurements; (3) 222Rn budget approach and LiDAR-derived results; and (4) encroachment model and LiDAR observations. Full article
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