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Sustainability, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2009), Pages 97-334

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 104-119; doi:10.3390/su1020104
Received: 23 February 2009 / Accepted: 7 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus [...] Read more.
Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Swiss National Park (SNP) are known to reduce phosphorus (P) in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a) absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b) hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c) deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs. High deer turnover rates combined with accelerated biomass export warrants detailed mass balances of macro and micro nutrients, and studies of biogeochemical cycles in protected areas are essential if preserving natural processes is a mandate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Net Gains from Depleting Fossil Energy and Mineral Sources)
Open AccessArticle Considering Structural, Individual and Social Network Explanations for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture: An Example Drawn from Washington State Wheat Growers
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 120-132; doi:10.3390/su1020120
Received: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 7 April 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As acceptance of the concept of agricultural sustainability has grown, it has become increasingly recognized that notions of sustainability and how to promote it will necessarily vary depending on the commodity in question. It thus becomes important to investigate how movements towards [...] Read more.
As acceptance of the concept of agricultural sustainability has grown, it has become increasingly recognized that notions of sustainability and how to promote it will necessarily vary depending on the commodity in question. It thus becomes important to investigate how movements towards sustainability are emerging for different commodities. The objective of our paper is to present the results of an analysis of Washington wheat producers that investigates the degree to which interest in sustainability exists amongst those farmers and whether structural factors and farmer personal characteristics are more or less significant than social network factors in explaining farmers’ views of possible sustainable methods. Our findings indicate that a measure indicating use of local social networks to gain information is associated with a higher degree of interest in new production methods aimed at improving agricultural sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 133-160; doi:10.3390/su1020133
Received: 20 January 2009 / Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The search for water sustainability requires not only a combination of technical and managerial responses, but also firm action against socioeconomic injustices and political inequalities. The recognition of the politicised nature of water problems deserves particular attention in areas marred by long-term [...] Read more.
The search for water sustainability requires not only a combination of technical and managerial responses, but also firm action against socioeconomic injustices and political inequalities. The recognition of the politicised nature of water problems deserves particular attention in areas marred by long-term trends of environmental degradation and social exclusion. A case study of the Baixada Fluminense, an urbanised wetland in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates the challenge to reverse unsustainable practices in situations where water problems have been politically and electorally exploited. The research made use of an interdisciplinary approach to assess past and present initiatives that have attempted, but systematically failed, to restore river ecology and improve water services. The empirical results have important implications for water policy making and urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Methanetrisulfonic Acid: A Highly Efficient Strongly Acidic Catalyst for Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Acylation Reactions. Examples from Vitamin E Synthesis
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 161-186; doi:10.3390/su1020161
Received: 23 March 2009 / Accepted: 13 April 2009 / Published: 16 April 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methanetrisulfonic acid had been prepared for the first time over 140 years ago, but it was used only scarcely in chemical transformations. In the course of our activities dealing with key-steps of industrial syntheses of vitamins, e.g. economically important vitamin E (acetate), [...] Read more.
Methanetrisulfonic acid had been prepared for the first time over 140 years ago, but it was used only scarcely in chemical transformations. In the course of our activities dealing with key-steps of industrial syntheses of vitamins, e.g. economically important vitamin E (acetate), we found that methanetrisulfonic acid is an extremely effective catalyst in a variety of reactions. Examples of its applications are Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements, Friedel-Crafts alkylations and ring closures, as well as acylation reactions. Use of this catalyst in truly catalytic amounts (0.04-1.0 mol%) resulted in highly selective transformations and yields over 95%. (Remark by the authors: We are describing only one example each for the various types of reactions. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to write (here and in the Introduction and in the Conclusion sections): “Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and ring closure, as well as acylation reactions”) Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry for Environment and Health)
Open AccessArticle Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 187-208; doi:10.3390/su1020187
Received: 2 February 2009 / Accepted: 8 April 2009 / Published: 17 April 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is [...] Read more.
The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering) of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers). My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Forum for Sustainable Development)
Open AccessCommunication Selective Reduction of Dimedone
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 209-214; doi:10.3390/su1020209
Received: 30 March 2009 / Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 14 May 2009
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Abstract
The selective hydrogenation of dimedone (1) to the corresponding monoketone 2 over palladium and Amberlyst 15® is reported. The product is a synthetic building block for the fragrance and pharmaceutical industry. Advantages of the new catalytic procedure are the high catalyst [...] Read more.
The selective hydrogenation of dimedone (1) to the corresponding monoketone 2 over palladium and Amberlyst 15® is reported. The product is a synthetic building block for the fragrance and pharmaceutical industry. Advantages of the new catalytic procedure are the high catalyst activity and selectivity, less by-product formation, avoidance of the presence of acid, and consequently, less salt formation due to the omission of a neutralization step. Using a substrate/catalyst ratio of >100 compound 2 can be synthesized in 97% yield at full conversion. Recycling of the catalyst several times has been shown to be feasible without any detectable decrease in selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry for Environment and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Agricultural Systems Located in the Forest-Savanna Ecotone of the Venezuelan Amazonian. Are Organic Agroforestry Farms Sustainable?
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 215-233; doi:10.3390/su1020215
Received: 9 February 2009 / Accepted: 8 April 2009 / Published: 22 May 2009
PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The savannas located in the forest-savanna ecotone in the Venezuelan Amazon have unfertile sandy ultisols and entisols which show a very low crop production unless they are supplemented with large amounts of fertiliser. In spite of this restriction, local farmers have established [...] Read more.
The savannas located in the forest-savanna ecotone in the Venezuelan Amazon have unfertile sandy ultisols and entisols which show a very low crop production unless they are supplemented with large amounts of fertiliser. In spite of this restriction, local farmers have established long-term production systems by using low input doses of organic manure. The use of organic waste in unfertile ultisols and entisols typical of savannas have resulted in increases in organic matter content and biological activities in soils with respect to inorganic fertilised or non-fertilised natural savanna, which, in turn, may be related to increases in crop productivity. These results could be a successful and reliable soil management technique for rehabilitation of the South American savannas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Improving the Sustainability of Office Partition Manufacturing: Balancing Options for Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 234-253; doi:10.3390/su1020234
Received: 5 May 2009 / Accepted: 31 May 2009 / Published: 3 June 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (77 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Options are examined to improve the sustainability of office partition manufacturing by reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. Base VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. Pollution prevention and sustainability measures are assessed using realistic criteria [...] Read more.
Options are examined to improve the sustainability of office partition manufacturing by reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. Base VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. Pollution prevention and sustainability measures are assessed using realistic criteria and weightings. Sustainability has been considered from an industry perspective, considering factors like economics, environmental impact, quality, health and safety. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that several advantageous options are available for reducing VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, and thereby enhancing the sustainability of that industrial operation. The measures deemed most viable include implementing several best management practices, not painting of non-visible parts, switching gluing processes, recycling solvent and modifying attachments. The results are intended to be balanced so as to improve their acceptability and adoptability by industry. It appears that it would be advantageous for manufacturers of office panels to evaluate the feasibility of these measures and to implement the most appropriate. The results are likely extendable to other operations in the wood furniture industry, and would improve their sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Forum for Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Renegotiating the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: The Process for a Sustainable Outcome
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 254-267; doi:10.3390/su1020254
Received: 8 May 2009 / Accepted: 2 June 2009 / Published: 4 June 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St Lawrence region, with the opportunity to renovate the regime for ecosystem improvement, protection and sustainability. The binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972. The outcome of a 2007 [...] Read more.
This is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St Lawrence region, with the opportunity to renovate the regime for ecosystem improvement, protection and sustainability. The binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972. The outcome of a 2007 review of the Agreement by government and citizens, resulted in a broad call for and revisions to the Agreement, so that it can once again serve as a visionary document driving binational cooperation to address long-standing, new and emerging Great Lakes environmental issues in the 21st century. A prescription for renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, third Party Mediation presses for and coordinates a deliberate negotiation, and inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Soil Microbial Activity in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 268-276; doi:10.3390/su1020268
Received: 9 April 2009 / Accepted: 31 May 2009 / Published: 4 June 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial activity in soils under conventional and organic agricultural system management regimes. Soil samples were collected from plots under conventional management (CNV), organic management (ORG) and native vegetation (AVN). Soil microbial activity and biomass [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial activity in soils under conventional and organic agricultural system management regimes. Soil samples were collected from plots under conventional management (CNV), organic management (ORG) and native vegetation (AVN). Soil microbial activity and biomass was significantly greater in ORG compared with CNV. Soil bulk density decreased three years after adoption of organic system. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was higher in the ORG than in the CNV. The soil under organic agricultural system presents higher microbial activity and biomass and lower bulk density than the conventional agricultural system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Production of Biosorbents from Waste Olive Cake and Its Adsorption Characteristics for Zn2+ Ion
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 277-297; doi:10.3390/su1020277
Received: 7 May 2009 / Accepted: 1 June 2009 / Published: 4 June 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, waste olive cake (OC) was utilized as the raw material for the production of biosorbents by chemical treatment and its adsorption capacity for zinc ion was evaluated. Tests were conducted with the total biomass (T) and with the fraction [...] Read more.
In this study, waste olive cake (OC) was utilized as the raw material for the production of biosorbents by chemical treatment and its adsorption capacity for zinc ion was evaluated. Tests were conducted with the total biomass (T) and with the fraction > 2.00 mm (P), in order to determinate the influence of this fractionation step on subsequent treatments. Two chemical agents were used: sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. The parameters studied include physical and chemical properties of materials, contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and initial concentrations. The kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second order model. Zinc binding is strongly pH dependent, with more zinc ions bound at a higher pH (5-7 in a range of 3-7). Both Langmuir and Freundlich models are well suited to fit the data on sorption of zinc by OC. Data on sorption of zinc by waste olive cake treated with sulfuric acid (OC-H) was better described by the Freundlich model. Zinc sorption by waste olive cake treated with sodium hydroxide (OC-OH) was better described by the Langmuir model. Results show OC-OH is a biosorbent with a superior adsorption capacity for zinc than OC-H. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir isotherms increases in the order (mg/g): OC-HT (14), OCT (22) and OC-OHT (27). Results also indicate that the previous fractionation step doesn´t produce a biosorbent with a superior adsorption capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry for Environment and Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Methodological Proposal for Corporate Carbon Footprint and Its Application to a Wine-Producing Company in Galicia, Spain
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 302-318; doi:10.3390/su1020302
Received: 22 April 2009 / Accepted: 11 June 2009 / Published: 16 June 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corporate carbon footprint (CCFP) is one of the most widely used indicators to synthesise environmental impacts on a corporate scale. We present a methodological proposal for CCFP calculation on the basis of the “method composed of financial accounts” abbreviated as MC3, considering [...] Read more.
Corporate carbon footprint (CCFP) is one of the most widely used indicators to synthesise environmental impacts on a corporate scale. We present a methodological proposal for CCFP calculation on the basis of the “method composed of financial accounts” abbreviated as MC3, considering the Spanish version “metodo compuesto de las cuentas contables”. The main objective is to describe how this method and the main outputs obtained work. This latter task is fulfilled with a practical case study, where we estimate the carbon footprint of a wine-producing company for the year 2006. Results show the origin of impacts generated, providing this firm with disaggregated information on the contribution to its CCFP of each one of its activities and consumptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Forum for Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site – Part 1. Planning and Implementation
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 319-334; doi:10.3390/su1020319
Received: 27 April 2009 / Accepted: 17 June 2009 / Published: 24 June 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Magenta Shores development fronts 2.3 km of Tuggerah Beach on a formerly sand mined and landfill site in an urban growth area on the central coast of New South Wales. To increase the natural defences against storm waves and mass sand [...] Read more.
The Magenta Shores development fronts 2.3 km of Tuggerah Beach on a formerly sand mined and landfill site in an urban growth area on the central coast of New South Wales. To increase the natural defences against storm waves and mass sand movements, the incipient foredune was retained and the parallel beach ridge landform was re-established by mimicking natural processes. Analysis of waste and resources led to a coordinated large-scale onsite re-use, recycling and waste management program that reduced landfill, transportation and natural resource requirements. Bitou bush removed from the Coastal Protection Zone was incorporated into golf course soils to improve grass growth. Leachate in the groundwater from the former landfill was diverted away from Tuggerah Lake and re-used in golf course irrigation. Upgrade of the local sewer treatment plant and installation of a public dual pipeline servicing Magenta and the adjoining township satisfied irrigation demands and provided non-potable water for the existing and expanding urban community. The sustainability challenges of the project were met through clear identification of existing environmental risks, application of scientific research, integrated team management and stakeholders’ cooperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 97-103; doi:10.3390/su1020097
Received: 2 February 2009 / Accepted: 27 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
PDF Full-text (37 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. [...] Read more.
On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Forum for Sustainable Development)
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Other

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Open AccessBook Review Environmental Management, Sustainable Development and Human Health. Edited by Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves, Fred C. Schaffner, Ahmed Abdelhadi, Mattheus F.A. Goosen. CRC Press, London, 2009. XIV, 577 pp., Hardcover.179.95. ISBN: 978-0-415-46963-0
Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 298-301; doi:10.3390/su1020298
Received: 10 June 2009 / Published: 12 June 2009
PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although on the publisher’s website for this book [1], chapter numbers are given, in the copy of the book I received there are no chapter numbers in the Table of Contents, even though in the main text, cross references are made and [...] Read more.
Although on the publisher’s website for this book [1], chapter numbers are given, in the copy of the book I received there are no chapter numbers in the Table of Contents, even though in the main text, cross references are made and the chapter numbers are mentioned. This book is divided into the following sections: [...] Full article

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