Sustainability 2009, 1(2), 133-160; doi:10.3390/su1020133
Article

The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

1,* email and 2email
Received: 20 January 2009; Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 14 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The search for water sustainability requires not only a combination of technical and managerial responses, but also firm action against socioeconomic injustices and political inequalities. The recognition of the politicised nature of water problems deserves particular attention in areas marred by long-term trends of environmental degradation and social exclusion. A case study of the Baixada Fluminense, an urbanised wetland in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, illustrates the challenge to reverse unsustainable practices in situations where water problems have been politically and electorally exploited. The research made use of an interdisciplinary approach to assess past and present initiatives that have attempted, but systematically failed, to restore river ecology and improve water services. The empirical results have important implications for water policy making and urban planning.
Keywords: Water sustainability; water policy; water conflicts; river restoration; environmental justice; integrated water management; Baixada Fluminense; Rio de Janeiro
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ioris, A.A.R.; Costa, M.A.M. The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. Sustainability 2009, 1, 133-160.

AMA Style

Ioris AAR, Costa MAM. The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. Sustainability. 2009; 1(2):133-160.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ioris, Antonio A.R.; Costa, Maria A.M. 2009. "The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area." Sustainability 1, no. 2: 133-160.

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