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Materials, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel
Materials 2016, 9(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020119
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile
[...] Read more.
Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Fumed Silica/Aqueous NaCl Superdielectric Material
Materials 2016, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020118
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
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Abstract
A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >108 over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38–3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25–>100 s was
[...] Read more.
A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >108 over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38–3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25–>100 s was studied, making this material another example of a superdielectric. The dielectric constant was impacted by both frequency and thickness. For time to discharge greater than 10 s the dielectric constant for all thicknesses needed to be fairly constant, always >109, although trending higher with increasing thickness. At shorter discharge times the dielectric constant consistently decreased, with decreasing time to discharge. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that for time to discharge >10 s the dielectric constant at all thicknesses will be greater than 109. This in turn implies an energy density for a 5 micron thick dielectric layer in the order of 350 J/cm3 for discharge times greater than 10 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Tribo-Mechanical Properties of HVOF Deposited Fe3Al Coatings Reinforced with TiB2 Particles for Wear-Resistant Applications
Materials 2016, 9(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020117
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study reveals the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe3Al-TiB2 composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe3Al and TiB2 powders in a high energy
[...] Read more.
This study reveals the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe3Al-TiB2 composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe3Al and TiB2 powders in a high energy ball mill. The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique was used to deposit the feedstock powder on a steel substrate. The effect of TiB2 addition on mechanical properties and dry sliding wear rates of the coatings at sliding speeds ranging from 0.04 to 0.8 m·s−1 and loads of 3, 5 and 7 N was studied. Coatings made from unreinforced Fe3Al exhibited a relatively high wear rate. The Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and wear resistance of the coatings increased with increasing TiB2 content in the Fe3Al matrix. The wear mechanisms strongly depended on the sliding speed and the presence of TiB2 particles but were less dependent on the applied load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Bio-Inspired Extreme Wetting Surfaces for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2016, 9(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020116
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (10818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications,
[...] Read more.
Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobicity of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams
Materials 2016, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020115
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (8212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36) matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.%) of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately
[...] Read more.
The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36) matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.%) of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Foams: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tailored N-Containing Carbons as Catalyst Supports in Alcohol Oxidation
Materials 2016, 9(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020114
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
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Abstract
The introduction of N-containing functionalities in carbon-based materials is brought to stable and highly active metal-supported catalysts. However, up to now, the role of the amount and the nature of N-groups have not been completely clear. This study aims to clarify these aspects
[...] Read more.
The introduction of N-containing functionalities in carbon-based materials is brought to stable and highly active metal-supported catalysts. However, up to now, the role of the amount and the nature of N-groups have not been completely clear. This study aims to clarify these aspects by preparing tailored N-containing carbons where different N-groups are introduced during the synthesis of the carbon material. These materials were used as the support for Pd nanoparticles. Testing these catalysts in alcohol oxidations and comparing the results with those obtained using Pd nanoparticles supported on different N-containing supports allowed us to obtain insight into the role of the different N-containing groups. In the cinnamyl alcohol oxidation, pyridine-like groups seem to favor both activity and selectivity toward cinnamaldehyde. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle An in Vitro Twist Fatigue Test of Fabric Stent-Grafts Supported by Z-Stents vs. Ringed Stents
Materials 2016, 9(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020113
Received: 13 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract
Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a
[...] Read more.
Whereas buckling can cause type III endoleaks, long-term twisting of a stent-graft was investigated here as a mechanism leading to type V endoleak or endotension. Two experimental device designs supported with Z-stents having strut angles of 35° or 45° were compared to a ringed control under accelerated twisting. Damage to each device was assessed and compared after different durations of twisting, with focus on damage that may allow leakage. Stent-grafts with 35° Z-stents had the most severe distortion and damage to the graft fabric. The 45° Z-stents caused less fabric damage. However, consistent stretching was still seen around the holes for sutures, which attach the stents to the graft fabric. Larger holes may become channels for fluid percolation through the wall. The ringed stent-graft had the least damage observed. Stent apexes with sharp angles appear to be responsible for major damage to the fabrics. Device manufacturers should consider stent apex angle when designing stent-grafts, and ensure their devices are resistant to twisting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods
Materials 2016, 9(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020112
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 30 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract
Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able
[...] Read more.
Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Motorsport)
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation on the Wear Resistance and Fatigue Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Notched Members Coated with Hydroxyapatite Coatings
Materials 2016, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020111
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
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Abstract
In this study, surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with hydroxyapatite coatings were investigated. Wear resistance and fatigue behaviour of samples with coating thicknesses of 10 and 50 µm as well as uncoated samples were examined. Wear experiments demonstrated that the friction factor
[...] Read more.
In this study, surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with hydroxyapatite coatings were investigated. Wear resistance and fatigue behaviour of samples with coating thicknesses of 10 and 50 µm as well as uncoated samples were examined. Wear experiments demonstrated that the friction factor of the uncoated titanium decreased from 0.31 to 0.06, through a fluctuating trend, after 50 cycles of wear tests. However, the friction factor of both the coated samples (10 and 50 µm) gradually decreased from 0.20 to 0.12 after 50 cycles. At the end of the 50th cycle, the penetration depth of the 10 and 50 µm coated samples were 7.69 and 6.06 µm, respectively. Fatigue tests showed that hydroxyapatite coatings could improve fatigue life of a notched Ti-6Al-4V member in both low and high cycle fatigue zones. It was understood, from fractography of the fracture surfaces, that the fatigue zone of the uncoated specimens was generally smaller in comparison with that of the coated specimens. No significant difference was observed between the fatigue life of coated specimens with 10 and 50 µm thicknesses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Thermal Decomposition Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism of Pyridinol-Blocked Isophorone Diisocyanate
Materials 2016, 9(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020110
Received: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of pyridinol-blocked isophorone isocyanates, based on pyridinol including 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, and 4-hydroxypyridine, was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectra. The deblocking temperature of blocked isocyanates was established by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and
[...] Read more.
A series of pyridinol-blocked isophorone isocyanates, based on pyridinol including 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, and 4-hydroxypyridine, was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectra. The deblocking temperature of blocked isocyanates was established by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the CO2 evaluation method. The deblocking studies revealed that the deblocking temperature was increased with pyridinol nucleophilicity in this order: 3-hydroxypyridine > 4-hydroxypyridine > 2-hydroxypyridine. The thermal decomposition reaction of 4-hydroxypyridine blocked isophorone diisocyanate was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis. The Friedman–Reich–Levi (FRL) equation, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) equation, and Crane equation were utilized to analyze the thermal decomposition reaction kinetics. The activation energy calculated by FRL method and FWO method was 134.6 kJ·mol−1 and 126.2 kJ·mol−1, respectively. The most probable mechanism function calculated by the FWO method was the Jander equation. The reaction order was not an integer because of the complicated reactions of isocyanate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Imaging Techniques and Scanning Electron Microscopy as Tools for Characterizing a Si-Based Material Used in Air Monitoring Applications
Materials 2016, 9(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020109
Received: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a study of the quartz fibrous filters used as a substrate for capturing the particulate matter (PM) present in the air. Although these substrates are widely used in environmental applications, their microstructure has been barely studied. The behavior of these
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of the quartz fibrous filters used as a substrate for capturing the particulate matter (PM) present in the air. Although these substrates are widely used in environmental applications, their microstructure has been barely studied. The behavior of these devices during the filtration process was investigated in terms of their microstructure and the quartz fibers. Surface and cross sections were monitored. Scanning electronic microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), imaging and stereology techniques were used as tools for this purpose. The results show that most of the quartz filter fibers have sizes that allow them to be classified as nanofibers. It was also observed that, while the mechanisms of the mechanical capture of particles via impaction, interception and diffusion operate simultaneously in the outer zones of the filter cross section, the mechanism of capture by impaction is virtually non-existent in the innermost zones. Particles between 0.1 and 0.5 μm are known to be the most difficult to have captured by means of fibrous substrates. The fibers in inner zones were highly efficient in capturing this type of particle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In-Plane Behaviour of a Reinforcement Concrete Frame with a Dry Stack Masonry Panel
Materials 2016, 9(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020108
Received: 25 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve the energy dissipation of the masonry infilled frame structure while decreasing the stiffening and strengthening effects of the infill panels, a new dry stacked panel (DSP) semi-interlocking masonry (SIM) infill panel has been developed. In this paper, the material
[...] Read more.
In order to improve the energy dissipation of the masonry infilled frame structure while decreasing the stiffening and strengthening effects of the infill panels, a new dry stacked panel (DSP) semi-interlocking masonry (SIM) infill panel has been developed. In this paper, the material properties of DSP and a traditional unreinforced masonry (URM) panel have been evaluated experimentally. A series of cyclic tests were performed to investigate the cyclic behaviour of the reinforcement concrete (RC) frame with different infill panels. The failure modes, damage evolution, hysteretic behaviour, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation were compared and analysed. We concluded that DSP is capable of significantly improving the seismic energy dissipation due to its hysteretic behaviour when the frame is in elastic stage without increasing the stiffness of the frame. Therefore, DSP or SIM panels can be considered as frictional dampers. Based on the experimental results, the influence of DSP was examined. Using the parallel model, the hysteretic loops of DSP subjected to different load cases were achieved. The typical full hysteretic loop for DSP could be divided into three distinct stages of behaviour: packing stage, constant friction stage and equivalent strut stage. The connection between the panel and the frame had a great effect on the transferring of different mechanical stages. The constant friction stage was verified to provide substantial energy dissipation and benefits to the ductility of the structure, which, therefore, is suggested to be prolonged in reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Studies and Corrosion Inhibition Potential of 1,8-dimethyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane: Experimental and Quantum Chemical Studies
Materials 2016, 9(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020107
Received: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
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Abstract
The macrocylic ligand, 1,8-dimethyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane (MHACD) was synthesized by the demetallation of its freshly synthesized Ni(II) complex (NiMHACD). Successful synthesis of NiMHACD and the free ligand (MHACD) was confirmed by various characterization techniques, including Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1
[...] Read more.
The macrocylic ligand, 1,8-dimethyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane (MHACD) was synthesized by the demetallation of its freshly synthesized Ni(II) complex (NiMHACD). Successful synthesis of NiMHACD and the free ligand (MHACD) was confirmed by various characterization techniques, including Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopic techniques. The anti-bacteria activities of MHACD were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species and the results showed that MHACD possesses a spectrum of activity against the two bacteria. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetry study on MHACD revealed that it is a redox active compound with promising catalytic properties in electrochemical applications. The inhibition potential of MHACD for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization method. The results showed that MHACD inhibits steel corrosion as a mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of MHACD. The adsorption of MHACD obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm; it is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of MHACD is high enough to favor forward donation of charges to the metal during adsorption and corrosion inhibition. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis revealed the presence of various orbitals in the MHACD that are capable of donating or accepting electrons under favorable conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue of Ti6Al4V Structural Health Monitoring Systems Produced by Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2016, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020106
Received: 20 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM
[...] Read more.
Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM) system technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM systems can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM) system. The current system uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the system is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6Al4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM system and to confirm that the eSHM system can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6Al4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM system were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM system does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Increased Durability of Concrete Made with Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates Using Superplasticizers
Materials 2016, 9(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9020098
Received: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 8 February 2016
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Abstract
This paper evaluates the influence of two superplasticizers (SP) on the durability properties of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA). For this purpose, three families of concrete were tested: concrete without SP, concrete made with a regular superplasticizer and concrete made
[...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the influence of two superplasticizers (SP) on the durability properties of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA). For this purpose, three families of concrete were tested: concrete without SP, concrete made with a regular superplasticizer and concrete made with a high-performance superplasticizer. Five volumetric replacement ratios of natural sand by FRCA were tested: 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 100%. Two natural gravels were used as coarse aggregates. All mixes had the same particle size distribution, cement content and amount of superplasticizer. The w/c ratio was calibrated to obtain similar slump. The results showed that the incorporation of FRCA increased the water absorption by immersion, the water absorption by capillary action, the carbonation depth and the chloride migration coefficient, while the use of superplasticizers highly improved these properties. The incorporation of FRCA jeopardized the SP’s effectiveness. This research demonstrated that, from a durability point of view, the simultaneous incorporation of FRCA and high-performance SP is a viable sustainable solution for structural concrete production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Utilisation of By-Product Materials in Concrete)
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