Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2012), Pages 4241-4781

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-31
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Valuation of Mortality Risk Attributable to Climate Change: Investigating the Effect of Survey Administration Modes on a VSL
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4760-4781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124760
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health impact attributable to climate change has been identified as one of the priority areas for impact assessment. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the monetary value of one key health effect, which is premature mortality. Specifically, our goal
[...] Read more.
The health impact attributable to climate change has been identified as one of the priority areas for impact assessment. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the monetary value of one key health effect, which is premature mortality. Specifically, our goal is to derive the value of a statistical life from people’s willingness to pay for avoiding the risk of dying in one post-transition country in Europe, i.e., the Czech Republic. We carried out a series of conjoint choice experiments in order to value mortality risk reductions. We found the responses to the conjoint choice questions to be reasonable and consistent with the economic paradigm. The VSL is about EUR 2.4 million, and our estimate is comparable with the value of preventing a fatality as used in one of the integrated assessment models. To investigate whether carrying out the survey through the internet may violate the welfare estimate, we administered our questionnaire to two independent samples of respondents using two different modes of survey administration. The results show that the VSLs for the two groups of respondents are €2.25 and €2.55 million, and these figures are statistically indistinguishable. However, the key parameters of indirect utility between the two modes of survey administration are statistically different when specific subgroups of population, such as older respondents, are concerned. Based on this evidence, we conclude that properly designed and administered on-line surveys are a reliable method for administering questionnaires, even when the latter are cognitively challenging. However, attention should be paid to sampling and choice regarding the mode of survey administration if the preference of specific segments of the population is elicited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessReview Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4744-4759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124744
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be
[...] Read more.
More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Cancer Risk)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4732-4743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124732
Received: 19 October 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants
[...] Read more.
There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4715-4731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124715
Received: 20 October 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist
[...] Read more.
Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economical Determinants of Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4704-4714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124704
Received: 16 August 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The magnitude of regional malaria risk is dependent primarily on the dynamics and distribution of the vector species, which are determined mainly by climate conditions. A coupled model with ecophysiological and climatological factors was developed to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of the five
[...] Read more.
The magnitude of regional malaria risk is dependent primarily on the dynamics and distribution of the vector species, which are determined mainly by climate conditions. A coupled model with ecophysiological and climatological factors was developed to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of the five species of dominant malaria vectors in monsoon Asia. Here, we examined how the potential distribution obtained from the model could explain trends in malaria incidence observed in India, which has the highest number of confirmed cases of malaria in Asia. Most notably, there was a significant positive correlation between annual malaria incidences and the maximum generation number of vectors for each state (p < 0.001). Malaria incidence tended to increase exponentially as vector generation number increased. In addition, the interannual variation in observed regional malaria incidences was synchronized with that of the potential number of vector generations. The observed seasonal peak of malaria incidences corresponded closely to the simulated appearance period of vector species, except for intensively irrigated areas that experience anthropogenic impacts on hydrologic conditions. Simulated vector distributions effectively expressed spatial and temporal prevalence of malaria in India. This novel approach to modeling based on vector ecology is an effective method for assessing malaria risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Radiation and Dose-Fractionation on Cancer and Non-Tumor Disease Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4688-4703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124688
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Janus series of radiation experiments, conducted from 1970 to 1992, explored the effects of gamma and neutron radiation on animal lifespan and disease development. Data from these experiments presents an opportunity to conduct a large scale analysis of both tumor and non-tumor
[...] Read more.
The Janus series of radiation experiments, conducted from 1970 to 1992, explored the effects of gamma and neutron radiation on animal lifespan and disease development. Data from these experiments presents an opportunity to conduct a large scale analysis of both tumor and non-tumor disease development. This work was focused on a subset of animals from the Janus series of experiments, comparing acute or fractionated exposures of gamma or neutron radiation on the hazards associated with the development of tumor and non-tumor diseases of the liver, lung, kidney or vascular system. This study also examines how the co-occurrence of non-tumor diseases may affect tumor-associated hazards. While exposure to radiation increases the hazard of dying with tumor and non-tumor diseases, dose fractionation modulates these hazards, which varies across different organ systems. Finally, the effect that concurrent non-cancer diseases have on the hazard of dying with a tumor also differs by organ system. These results highlight the complexity in the effects of radiation on the liver, lung, kidney and vascular system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation and Cancer Risk)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4676-4687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124676
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001) and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05) for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001), Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001) and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001). The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01) and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01). Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio paraphemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4662-4675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124662
Received: 4 October 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to
[...] Read more.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Air Change Rates and Interzonal Flows in Residences, and the Need for Multi-Zone Models for Exposure and Health Analyses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4639-4661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124639
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Air change rates (ACRs) and interzonal flows are key determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and building energy use. This paper characterizes ACRs and interzonal flows in 126 houses, and evaluates effects of these parameters on IAQ. ACRs measured using weeklong tracer measurements
[...] Read more.
Air change rates (ACRs) and interzonal flows are key determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and building energy use. This paper characterizes ACRs and interzonal flows in 126 houses, and evaluates effects of these parameters on IAQ. ACRs measured using weeklong tracer measurements in several seasons averaged 0.73 ± 0.76 h−1 (median = 0.57 h−1, n = 263) in the general living area, and much higher, 1.66 ± 1.50 h−1 (median = 1.23 h−1, n = 253) in bedrooms. Living area ACRs were highest in winter and lowest in spring; bedroom ACRs were highest in summer and lowest in spring. Bedrooms received an average of 55 ± 18% of air from elsewhere in the house; the living area received only 26 ± 20% from the bedroom. Interzonal flows did not depend on season, indoor smoking or the presence of air conditioners. A two-zone IAQ model calibrated for the field study showed large differences in pollutant levels between the living area and bedroom, and the key parameters affecting IAQ were emission rates, emission source locations, air filter use, ACRs, interzonal flows, outdoor concentrations, and PM penetration factors. The single-zone models that are commonly used for residences have substantial limitations and may inadequately represent pollutant concentrations and exposures in bedrooms and potentially other environments other where people spend a substantial fraction of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Conservation Measures, Indoor Air Quality and Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Pertussis: A Review of Disease Epidemiology Worldwide and in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4626-4638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124626
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pertussis continues to be a relevant public-health issue. The high coverage rates achieved have decreased the spread of the pathogen, but the waning of immunity implies a relevant role of adolescents and adults in the infective dynamics as they may represent a significant
[...] Read more.
Pertussis continues to be a relevant public-health issue. The high coverage rates achieved have decreased the spread of the pathogen, but the waning of immunity implies a relevant role of adolescents and adults in the infective dynamics as they may represent a significant source of infection for unvaccinated or incompletely immunized newborns. The passive surveillance system is affected by many limitations. The underestimation of pertussis in adolescents, young adults and adults is mainly related to the atypical clinical characteristics of cases and the lack of lab confirmation. The real epidemiological impact of pertussis is not always perceived, anyway, the unavailability of comprehensive data should not hamper the adoption of active prophylactic interventions aimed at preventing the impact of waning immunity on pertussis. To avoid an increase of the mean age of acquisition of the infection, a booster dose of low-antigen content combined vaccine should be adopted in adolescents and adults. A decreased risk of infection in newborns can be achieved with the cocoon strategy, although the debate on this aspect is still open and enhanced surveillance and further studies are needed to fine-tune the pertussis prevention strategy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4615-4625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124615
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors
[...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Nature)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Skin Symptoms and Allergic Reactions to Asian Dust
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4606-4614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124606
Received: 18 October 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asian dust events result from displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Chinese and Mongolian deserts, causing associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. We investigated the relationship between skin symptoms in Asian dust events and contact allergy to Asian dust and associated metals. Increases
[...] Read more.
Asian dust events result from displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Chinese and Mongolian deserts, causing associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. We investigated the relationship between skin symptoms in Asian dust events and contact allergy to Asian dust and associated metals. Increases in atmospheric levels of heavy metals such as Ni, Al, and Fe occurred during the severe Asian dust event on March 21, 2010. We conducted a case–control study (n = 62) with patch testing to compare skin symptoms on an Asian dust day with metal allergic reactions. Skin symptoms were observed in 18/62 subjects. Nine subjects with skin symptoms (group A) and 11 without (group B) were patch tested for six metals and Asian dust particles. Metal and dust samples were applied to the subjects’ backs for 2 days and the reactions were scored according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group guidelines. Differences in the positive rates between the groups were analyzed. Skin reactions to ferric chloride (p = 0.015), aluminum chloride (p = 0.047), nickel sulfate (p = 0.008), and Asian dust particles (p = 0.047) were more common in group A than in group B. Skin symptoms during Asian dust events may be allergic reactions to Asian dust particle-bound metals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4537-4605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124537
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in
[...] Read more.
Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4522-4536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124522
Received: 12 October 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural
[...] Read more.
Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension). Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%). After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57), as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51). Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4504-4521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9124504
Received: 7 September 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their
[...] Read more.
In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top