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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4537-4605; doi:10.3390/ijerph9124537
Article

North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

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Received: 11 September 2012; in revised form: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
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Abstract: Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.
Keywords: arbovirus; marsh; mangrove; mosquito control; surveillance; wetland arbovirus; marsh; mangrove; mosquito control; surveillance; wetland
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rey, J.R.; Walton, W.E.; Wolfe, R.J.; Connelly, C.R.; O'Connell, S.M.; Berg, J.; Sakolsky-Hoopes, G.E.; Laderman, A.D. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4537-4605.

AMA Style

Rey JR, Walton WE, Wolfe RJ, Connelly CR, O'Connell SM, Berg J, Sakolsky-Hoopes GE, Laderman AD. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(12):4537-4605.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, C. R.; O'Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D. 2012. "North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 12: 4537-4605.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert