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North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control
Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory and Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida-IFAS, Vero Beach, FL 342962, USA
Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Franklin, CT 06254, USA
Biohabitats, Inc., 2081 Clipper Park Road, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA
Cape Cod Mosquito Control Project, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675, USA
Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2012; in revised form: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Abstract: Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.
Keywords: arbovirus; marsh; mangrove; mosquito control; surveillance; wetland
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Rey, J.R.; Walton, W.E.; Wolfe, R.J.; Connelly, C.R.; O'Connell, S.M.; Berg, J.; Sakolsky-Hoopes, G.E.; Laderman, A.D. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4537-4605.
Rey JR, Walton WE, Wolfe RJ, Connelly CR, O'Connell SM, Berg J, Sakolsky-Hoopes GE, Laderman AD. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(12):4537-4605.
Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, C. R.; O'Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D. 2012. "North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 12: 4537-4605.